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  • New Sounds and Extended Composition Techniques

    A folio of musical compositions and a written commentary submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    by Yuko Ohara

    (student number:0727989)

    School of Arts, Brunel University September 2012

  • Abstract

    This commentary supports my PhD composition portfolio. The composition processes of each piece are related to my central research questions, which concern the creation of new sounds using overtone-based scales and extended instrumental techniques. I have developed four main conceptual composition themes and these are represented in the thirteen compositions in the portfolio. In this commentary I consider how each composition was developed around these conceptual themes.


  • Contents

    Acknowledgements --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

    Commentary on the individual compositions

    1. ElectroCardioGraphy for chamber ensemble ----------------------------------------------- 7

    2. Sa-Ku-Ra for alto flute duo --------------------------------------------------------------- 9

    3. Shade Light for clarinet quintet ---------------------------------------------------------12

    CD (track 1) 7.38min.

    4. Sakura variation for solo cello ------------------------------------------------------------ 16

    5. Rising eels for oboe and trombone ----------------------------------------------------------- 19

    6. Crystallization for string quartet ------------------------------------------------------------- 20

    CD (track 2) 7.42 min.

    7. Rococo Decoration for baroque flute, baroque cello and harpsichord --------------------- 23

    8. Semi-Shigure for vocal ensemble ------------------------------------------------------------ 26

    CD (track 3) 6.06 min.

    9. The Enthalpy of Vaporization for chamber ensemble ------------------------------------- 28

    CD (track 4) 7.03 min.

    10. Kaleidoscope for orchestra -------------------------------------------------------------- 31

    CD (track 5) 11.17min.

    11. Romeo & Juliet for piano duo -------------------------------------------------------- 35

    12. The Butterfly Effect for chamber ensemble --------------------------------------------- 38

    13. Double Helix for solo flute ------------------------------------------------------------- 43

    CD (track 6) 8.00min

    Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47

    Additional Musical Examples ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 49

    Bibliography ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51


  • Acknowledgements

    I wish to especially thank my first supervisor, Christopher Fox, for helping medevelop my composition a little more. I have very much appreciated his advice. I thank my second supervisors, Richard Barrett and John Croft, and the mentor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra/Sound and Music project, Peter Wiegold, for all their advice. For this commentary, I have had one-to-one consultations at Brunel International and thank my English teachers, David Jones and Jishan Uddin.

    I am also grateful to the Nomura Foundation, Japan for a research grant, Brunel Graduate School for the Vice Chancellors Travel Prizes (2010 and 2012), and for the PRSF and Bliss Trust Composer Bursaries which enabled me to undertake some further courses and complete my study at Brunel University. Many thanks also to all of my friends and the staff at Brunel University for helping me.


  • Introduction

    I started my MPhil studies at Brunel University in September 2008, after a break of a few years

    from composing. After six months, I eventually completed a new piece for a workshop with the

    London Contemporary Orchestra. The piece has a symmetrical structure and a pitch-structure

    based on elements of the overtone scales. Many of the research topics which I subsequently

    explored in this portfolio developed out of listening to the performance of this piece.

    My first main area of research was into the creation of new sounds and especially the use of the

    overtone scale. In the work of spectral composers such as Grard Grisey and Tristan Murail the

    emphasis is on the use of overtones to create natural, bright sounds. But I wanted to consider

    how to make dense and dark sounds by opposing different overtone scales. Each piece presented

    here began with sketches in which different parts of the overtone scale were juxtaposed and

    sometimes transposed to different pitches to create the different kinds of sound characters I was


    Secondly, I investigated the music that I find particularly exciting. I am attracted to the so-called

    complex music of Brian Ferneyhough, Michel Finnissy and James Dillon, most readily

    characterised by its complex musical notations. But I wanted to compose pieces which

    combined simplicity with complexity and the contrast this creates. I also wanted to explore

    different instrumentations, from solo to orchestral, and create pieces with extended instrumental

    techniques, particularly for strings, so that there would be a wide range of different sound

    colours in my composition portfolio. The work fall into three categories:

    Small instrumentation: solo cello, solo flute, alto flutes duo, piano duo, trio (baroque recorder, harpsichord and baroque cello) and string quartet (2vl, vla and cello)

    Medium instrumentation: clarinet quintet (cl, 2vl, vla and cello), vocal ensemble (SSAATTBB) and mixed ensemble (fl, cl, hr, tp, per, pf, vl, vla and cello)

    Large instrumentation: two chamber orchestra (fl, ob, cl, bsn, hr, tp,tb, per, pf, 2vl, vla, cello and db) and symphony orchestra (3fl, 3ob, 3cl, 3bsn, 3hr, 3tp, 3tb, 3per, hp, 16 vl I, 14 vl II, 12 vla, 10 cello and 8db)


  • The compositions as a whole also use extended instrumental techniques, such as microtone

    fingerings, for woodwind and brass, and natural harmonics for strings. Most of the acoustic

    instruments of Western European art music are represented in the portfolio. I also had what, for

    a Japanese composer, was the unusual and valuable experience of writing for older European

    instruments: baroque recorder, harpsichord and baroque cello.

    After initial research, in which I analysed work by contemporary composers, such as those

    mentioned above, making a particular examination of instrumental techniques they used, I then

    developed a number of different underlying conceptual ideas. In retrospect, I can now see that

    four main conceptual themes represented in the thirteen compositions in the portfolio are:

    Natural Phenomena: ElectroCardiogGraphy and Shade LightNatural Science: The Enthalpy of Vaporization, Crystallization, The Butterfly Effect and Double HelixVisual Art: Rococo Decorations, Romeo and Juliet (Morse code signals) and KaleidoscopeJapanese traditions: Sa-Ku-Ra, Sakura Variation, Rising Eels and Semi-Shigure

    Before embarking on this PhD, I had been conscious of a problem in my work of not

    maintaining structural focus, but by developing the compositions in this portfolio around

    conceptual themes I gave myself clear structures for the compositional processes, which I used

    to create pitch-structures, rhythmic materials and instrumental functions. The conclusion of this

    commentary will examine the extent to which the composition concepts have been successful

    and the experience I have gained in hearing the performances of these pieces. I expect that new

    research topics will develop out of these considerations.


  • Commentary on the individual compositions 1. ElectroCardioGraphy for chamber ensemble

    This was the first piece which I completed at Brunel University; it was written for a composition workshop with the London Contemporary Orchestra, conducted by Peter Wiegold, at the Antonin Artaud Building, Brunel University on 18th March 2009.

    ElectroCardioGraphy is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body. I decided to use twelve instruments because there are usually twelve of these electrodes in the standard twelve-lead used in electrocardiography (see below).

    [Fig. 1-1. standard twelve-lead for ElectroCardioGraphy]

    I tried to transfer the twelve-lead idea to musical notation, using a free graphic notation in my sketches (see below) based on the notation of H