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Safavid-Mughal Relations the numismatic evidenceDr Sanjay Garg Assistant Director National Archives of India, Ministry of Culture, New Delhi 110 001 (INDIA) sgarg30@hotmail.com

The Mughal & Safavid Empires

The Mughal Dynasty Descendents of Tamerlane and Chingiz Khan Ruled India from AD 1526 to 1858

Shah Ismail I and Babur1511: Provided military assistance to Babur to recover his Transoxanian dominions. In return, Babur promised to have coins stuck and Khutba read in the name of Shah Ismail. Babur captured Samarqand in October, sends back the Iranian troops. 1512, May: Uzbegs drive Babur out of Samarqand and Bokhara. Shah Ismail I sends a force under the command of the vaqil Amir Yar Ahmad Isfahani to rescue Babur from Hisar-i Shadman.

Shah Ismail I and Babur

Tahmasp I and the MughalsTahmasp I (1524-76) 1. Babur (1526-30) 2. Humayun (1530-40 1st reign) Suri Dynasty (1540-55) Humayun (1555-56 2nd reign) 3. Akbar (1556-1605)

Tahmasp I and Humayun15 May 1540: Humayun is defeated by Sher Shah Suri at the battle of Bilgram near Kannauj. Unable to find asylum in India, he fled to Persia. September 1545: Humayun occupied Kabul and Qandahar. 1555 Humayun captured Lahore (February), Agra and Delhi (July) and once again became the ruler of northern India.

Tahmasp I and HumayunVassal Coinage: Shah Tahmasp of Persia

Qandahar, nd Shahrukhi std.

Tahmasp I and Humayun

Kabul, 952 AH Shahrukhi std.

Akbar and the SafavidsAkbar (1556-1605) 1. Ismail II (1576-77) 2. Mohd. Shah Khudabanda (1578-87) 3. Shah Abbas I (1587-1629)

Shah Ismail I

Nad-e Alian mazhar-ul Ajayeb Tajid hu unan laka fin nawayab Kullouhammin wa ghammin Sayenjali Be walayete ka ya Ali ya Ali ya Ali Call upon Ali, the manifestor of miracles; Thou shalt find him a help unto thee in adversities. All care and grief shall vanish By thy holiness, O Ali, O Ali, O Ali

Persian Bait us-SikkaShah Ismail II : Coin dated 984 [AD 1576]

Ze mashriq ta ba magrib gar Imam ast Ali wa Aal-i-U mara tamam astIf an Imam there be between the East and the West Ali along with Alis house for us is best.

AkbarAllahabad

Couplet Type

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badauni. Akbar came to Allahabad in AH 991 (28 Ilahi/ AD 1583); Coins were struck there with the following Persian couplet composed by Sharif Sarmadi: Hamesha hamchu zar Mihr-o-Mah raij bad Ba Gharb-o-Sharq-i Jahan, Sikka-i Ilahabad May always be the gold current like Sun and Moon In the East and West of the World, the coin of AIlahabad.

Jahangir

Jahangir

Obv.

Qaza bar Sikka-i-zar kard tasveer Shabih-i-Hazrat Shah Jahangir Haruf-i-Jahangir-o-Allah-o-Akbar Ze roz-i-Azal dar adad barabar Destiny has drawn a picture on Coin of gold (Of) the portrait of Honble Shah Jahangir. The letters of Jahangir and Allah-o-Akbar are equal in value from the beginning of the time

Rev.

Obv. Rev.

Jahangir

Jahangir and Shah Abbas I

Jahangir and Shah Abbas I

1000 Muhr, Agra

I gave one gold muhr of 1,000 tolas, which is called Kaukab-i Tali to Yadgar Ali, the ambassador of the Shah of Iran Tuzuk-i Jahangiri (19 Farwardin RY 8 = 10 Apr. 1612).

JahangirObv. (in the Centre) Abu al-Muzaffar Nur ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi (around) Hazar guna sharf yaft ru-i Sikka-o-zar Ze naqsh-i nam-i Jahangir Shah Akbar Ajab na bashad agar zar zu-i Sikka-i u Ba Sikka-khanah ash ayad ze asman Akhtar The face of the Coin and gold received a thousand kinds of honour From the impression of the name of the Jahangir, son of Shah Akbar It would not be surprising if in the yearning of his coin Stars come from the sky to his Coin-house.

JahangirRev. (in the Centre) Sanh-i Julus 8 Mutabiq 1022 Hijri , Zarb Dar al-Khilafah Agra (around) Ze Faiz-i-didan-i-Muhr-i-hazar tolach ash Hazar bar bi balad ze zauq-i-nur-i-nazar Ba nam-i-nami-i-u bad Sikka-o-Khutbah Ba dahr ta buwad az Sikka-o-ze Khutbah athar Through the bounty of seeing his 1000 tola Muhr The light of vision increases thousand-folds in ecstasy May the Coin and Khutbah be (current in) his illustrious name As long as there is vestige of Coin and Khutbah in the world.

Shah Jahan

Sikka-i Shahjahanabad raij dar jahan Jawidan bada banam-i Sani Sahib QiranMay the Coin of Shahjahanabad, be current in the world Forever in the name of the Second Lord of the Conjunction

Legacy of TimurShah Abbas II

Shib-i Qirn (lit. Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions)

Shah Jahan

Legacy of TimurNine Mughal emperors have adopted the almt Shib-i Qirn (lit. Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions) in its five distinct variants. The same title was adopted in two variants by four Safavid rulers. Shib-i Qirn Shib-i Qirn Shah I Shib-i Qirn Sn Murad Bakhsh and Jahandar Shah Shah Alam Bahadur and Shah Alam II Shah Jahan I, Shah Shuja, Muhammad Shah and Akbar Shah II Shah Jahan I Farrukhsiyar

Abbas II Shah Safi II (Sulaiman I) Tahmasp II

Sn Shib-i Qirn Slis Shib-i Qirn

Abbas III

Aurangzeb

Sikka zad dar jahan chu Mihr [or Badr]-i munir Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir[Struck coin in the world like the shining Sun [or Moon] King Aurangzeb, the World Seizer]

Parody of the Coin Couplet of Auragngzeb

Coin Couplet:

Parody:

Sikka zad dar jahan chu Mihr-i munir Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir[Struck coin in the world like the shining Sun King Aurangzeb, the World Seizer]

Sikka zad ba qurs-i panir Aurangzeb Beradar-kush Pidar-gir[Struck coin on frozen cheese Aurangzeb, brother-slayer, father seizer]

Successors of Aurangzeb Azam Shah, Qutb ud-Din Muhammad (1707) Kam Bakhsh, Muhammad (1707-1709) Shah Alam Bahadur Shah I, Qutb ud-Din Muhammad (1707-1712) Azim ush-Shan, Azim ud-Din Muhammad (1712) Jahandar Shah, Muiz ud-Din Muhammad (1712-1713) Farrukhsiyar, Muin ud-Din Muhammad (1712-1719) Rafi ud-Darjat, Shams ud-Din Muhammad (1719) Shah Jahan II (1719) Nekusiyar (1719) [No coin found] Ibrahim, Zahir ud-Din Muhammad (1720) Muhammad Shah, Nasir ud-Din (AD 1719-1748) Ahmad Shah, Mujahid ud-Din Muhammad (1748-1754) Alamgir II, Aziz ud-Din Muhammad (1754-1759) Shah Jahan III, Muhi ud-Din Muhammad (1759-1760) Shah Alam II, Jalal ud-Din Muhammad (1759-1806) Bedar Bakht, Nasir ud-Din Muhammad (1788) Akbar II, Muin ud-Din Muhammad (1788, 1806-1837) Bahadur Shah II, Siraj ud-Din Muhammad (1837-1857)

10: Regular Kings 8: Claimants/Puppets

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747)As Viceroy of the East (Khorasan)

TAHMASP II, Ag, Abbasi Zarb Mashhad Muqaddas, 1140 AH

Az Khorasan sikka bar zar shud ba Tawfiq-i Khuda Nusrat-o-Imdad-i Shah-i Din Ali-ye Musa Raza From Khorasan coins minted in gold with Gods grace With victorious help from the King of Faith, Ali Musa Reza

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747)As Waqil ud-Daulah and Naib us-Sultanat

ABBAS III, Ag, Abbasi Zarb Qazvin, 1147 AH

Sikka bar zar zad ba Tawfiq-i Ilahi dar Jahan Zill-i Haq, Abbas Salis, Sani Sahib-i Qiran In this world struck coin on gold by the grace of God The Shadow of God, Abbas III, Second Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747)As King of Iran

Ag, Rupee Zarb Qazvin, 1149 AH

Sikka bar zar kard nam Saltanat ra dar Jahan Nadir-i Iran Zamin wa Khusru-i Gaiti Sitan The stamp on the Gold has famed the kingdom in the world The Phoenix of land of Iran, The world-conquering King

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747)Nadir Shah in India

Ag, Rupee Zarb Shahjahanabad, 1151 AH

Hast Sultan bar Salatin-i Jahan Shah-i Shahan Nadir Sahib Qiran Over the Kings of the World, is the King King of Kings, Nadir, the Lord of Conjunctions

Thank You