mobile handsets: a panoramic overview dong xuan associate professor cse dept., the ohio state...

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Mobile Handsets: A Panoramic Overview Dong Xuan Associate Professor CSE Dept., The Ohio State University Slide 2 Outline Introduction Handset Architecture Handset Operating Systems Networking Applications Security Risks and Mitigation Strategies Slide 3 What Is A Mobile Handset? A mobile handset (handset) is an electronic device that provides services to users, e.g.: Managing address book Scheduling calendar Cellular telephony Accessing Internet, email Handsets include smartphones and PDAs Example handsets: Apple iPhone, BlackBerry Storm, Palm TreoPro Slide 4 Handsets: Your Next Computer? Handsets small form factor, mobility have yielded meteoric sales [1] 3.3 billion mobile phone subscriptions as of Jan. 2008 2.7 billion subscriptions correspond to one person; some people have multiple phones! Rapid replacement rate: young adults replace phones every 6 months in South Korea [1] These statistics are just for phones Your handset: your next computer? [2] Slide 5 Whats Inside a Mobile Handset? Source: [3] Slide 6 Handset Architecture (1) Handsets use several hardware components: Microprocessor ROM RAM Digital signal processor Radio module Microphone and speaker Hardware interfaces LCD display Slide 7 Handset Architecture (2) Handsets store system data in electronically-erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) Service providers can reprogram phones without requiring physical access to memory chips OS is stored in ROM (nonvolatile memory) Most handsets also include subscriber identity module (SIM) cards Slide 8 Handset Microprocessors Handsets use embedded processors Intel, ARM architectures dominate market. Examples include: BlackBerry 8700, uses Intel PXA901 chip [4] iPhone, uses Samsung ARM 1100 chip [5] Low power use and code size are crucial [3] Microprocessor vendors often package all the chips functionality in a single chip (package- on-package) for maximum flexibility Slide 9 Example: The iPhones CPU The iPhone: a real-world mobile handset [67] Runs on Samsung S3C6400 chip, supports ARMv6 architecture Very few details are known about the ARM Core, esp. given Apples secrecy Highly modular architecture Similar to Apples iPod Touch, which lacks telephony capability [8] Source: [6] Slide 10 SIM Cards They include their own microprocessor and 16 KB 4 MB EEPROM They come in two sizes Their versatility arises from portability of information SIM card identifies subscriber to network Stores personal information, address books, messages, service-related information Slide 11 Other Memory Cards Some handsets include other peripheral memory cards: Compact Flash Multimedia Card Secure Digital Handsets synchronize with a computer Nowadays, computers include slots of various sizes to hold these memory cards Slide 12 Handset Operating Systems Currently, handsets run several OSes: Symbian OS iPhone OS (an embedded version of OS X) Windows Mobile BlackBerry OS Google Android Platform (based on Linux) With the exceptions of Symbian and Android, these OSes are proprietary [910] Telecom carriers frequently lock down handset firmware, OSes to prevent user modifications Slide 13 Handset OS Usage According to British analysis firm Canalys, handset OS usage in 3Q 2008 had the following ranking (most to least): [11] 1.Symbian OS 2.iPhone OS 3.BlackBerry OS 4.Windows Mobile 5.Linux (Android, etc.) 6.Others iPhone OS surged ahead of BlackBerry OS, but with new BlackBerries and Android phones, this ranking may easily change in the future [11] Well now examine each OS individually Slide 14 Symbian OS Dominant OS in the mobile handset market Runs exclusively on ARM processors Owned by British firm Symbian Ltd. Descendant of Psion EPOC OS (dev. in 1990s) Sony Ericsson, Nokia, et al. bought shares in the firm until Nokia bought Symbian in 2008, formed Symbian Foundation to further future open handset development [12] Nokia plans to open-source the OS by 2009 [9] Slide 15 Design of Symbian OS Based on Psion EPOC; desktop OS features include: [13] Bare-bones microkernel (nanokernel) Pre-emptive multitasking Memory protection Handset-centric design, can operate several months without reboot Supports multiple UIs based on smartphone form factor (e.g., 320 240) Slide 16 Symbian OS Devices Numerous handsets use Symbian OS; UIs largely based on manufacturer & device Nokia S60: includes J2ME, std. UI (mostly Nokia phones) Nokia S80: QWERTY keyboard, Web browser, enterprise office-doc. support (older Nokia Communicators) Nokia S90: used only on Nokia 7710 UIQ: Sony Ericsson/Motorola GUI platform used primarily on those companies handsets FOMA platform: closed-dev. software platform used by handsets on NTT DoCoMos network (Japan) Slide 17 Symbian OS v9 Architecture Source: [15] (heavily modified) Slide 18 Symbian OS Development Native language is C++ Nokia provides free Eclipse-based Carbide.c++ development tools, Carbide.vs Visual Studio plugin Mac & Linux development is possible Can program in many other languages: C, Java, Ruby, Python, Perl, OPL, Visual Basic, Simkin Applications needing any capabilities beyond bare minimum must be cryptographically signed (see http://www.symbiansigned.com) Can also program in Adobe Flash Lite (mobile version of Flash) Slide 19 iPhone OS Runs on both the iPhone and iPod Touch Variation of Mach microkernel-based OS X that fits in 512 MB flash memory, runs on ARM architecture [21] Four abstraction layers: Core OS, Core Services, Media, Cocoa Touch [22] Core Animation and PowerVR MBX 3D hardware provide interface animations 320 480 LCD display that supports multi- touch gestures Slide 20 iPhone Developer Program iPhone Developer Program provides dev. tools, iPhone emulator, means to upload to App Store (SDK) To download SDK, you must apply to be a member, pay fees Standard Developer: $99 Enterprise Developer: $299 Exception: Apples free iPhone Developer University Program for higher-ed. institutions [23] SDK only runs on Mac OS X Leopard on Intel- based Macs (go figure) Slide 21 iPhone Web App Development You can develop Web apps for iPhone so long as they run on Safari [24] Safari features: [2526] Auto-resizes Web pages to fit browser size Multi-touch functionality XHTML 1.1, CSS 2.1, JavaScript, W3C DOM Level 2, AJAX technology, cookies, Does not support Flash or Java iPhone Web apps should: Minimize user awareness of browser experience Reproduce control style, layout, behavior of iPhone apps Integrate with built-in iPhone features & services Slide 22 BlackBerry OS BlackBerry OS is Research in Motions (RIMs) proprietary OS for its BlackBerry handsets Provides multitasking, heavily uses BlackBerry input devices, e.g., thumbwheel Current OS 4 provides a subset of Javas Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) 2.0 Developers can use these APIs, proprietary APIs to write software All applications must be digitally signed so to link an app with the developer Slide 23 BlackBerry Software Email from BlackBerry service, MS Exchange, Domino, Yahoo, etc. can be pushed to the handset Can view PDF, MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint attachments BlackBerry Browser (only supports JavaScript) Other online apps include: BlackBerry Maps Facebook services Yahoo Messenger, Google Talk Calendar, Address Book, and PIM Sync via USB GPS See http://www.blackberry.com for much more information about handset and desktop softwarehttp://www.blackberry.com Slide 24 BlackBerry Wireless Platform RIM provides standards-based platform and developer tools to develop and deploy custom wireless applications HTML Web browser Java Mobile Edition development tools .NET applications BlackBerry handsets support standard networking protocols and connect to any type of server application Slide 25 BlackBerry Mobile Data System BlackBerry Mobile Data System (MDS) supports MS Exchange, Lotus Domino, Novell GroupWire, and RIMs own MDS systems for messaging applications Slide 26 BlackBerry Mobile Voice System With this service, theres only one business number BlackBerry users must remember Calls are routed to a BlackBerry handset, regardless of whether the call is directed to an office or mobile phone [27] Provides security and authentication through BlackBerry Enterprise Servers [28] IT administrators can lock down handsets, route calls through their telecom infrastructure, etc. [2728] Slide 27 BlackBerry Internet Services BlackBerry Internet Service leverages centrally-hosted wireless gateways, allowing users to access up to 10 supported email accounts, browse Internet Slide 28 BlackBerry Developer Tools RIM provides several development tools: BlackBerry MDS Studio Developers can quickly create rich client apps using component-based drag-and-drop approach Tool requires MDS runtime BlackBerry plugin for MS Visual Studio (development on MDS platform) BlackBerry Java Development Environment (JDE) Provides IDE, simulation tools for Java ME app for Java- based BlackBerry so developers can create standalone or client-server apps Slide 29 Windows Mobile Windows Mobile is powered by Microsofts Windows CE embedded OS; Windows CE runs on x86, MIPS, ARM, Hitachi SuperH processors Latest version, 6.1, includes Windows Live services, Exchange 2007 mail access Designed to closely mimic desktop Windows: Windows Mobile 6.1 includes mobile versions of Office applications, Outlook (w/HTML email), Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player SQL Server 2005 included in ROM .NET Compact Framework 2.0 included Slide 30 Windows Mobile Development (1) Native code is developed with MS Visual C++ Microsoft strongly recommends development with managed code [19] Managed code is written in one of the.NET framework object-oriented languages Compiled to MS Intermediate Language (MSIL) that all the languages share At execution time, MSIL is compiled just in time to native object code Contrast with Java: Java code is compiled to Java bytecode Java interpret