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  • MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES Networking Technologies and Internet of the Future http://web.uettaxila.edu.pk/CMS/AUT2014/teMCITms/ Courtesy of: Dr. H. E. (Buster) Dunsmore Purdue University and Google Inc.
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  • 2 MODULE AIMS The main aims of this module are to: Explore different networking technologies Discuss future of Internet Inter-Planetary Internet
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  • NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY Power-Line Networking Way to connect computers in home or office using electrical wiring
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  • More convenient than phone lines Connect computer to network through the outlet that provides power Data travels through electrical wiring Requires no new wiring and adds no cost to electric bill Power-line networking is inexpensive method for connecting computers in different places in home or office Power-Line Networking
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  • 5 NETWORKS HOME AREA NETWORKS (HAN) Network within a home Connects digital devices HomePLC electrical lines; cables connect card/USB/parallel port to wall outlet Phoneline telephone lines; cables connect NIC/PC card to telephone jack Network card that plugs into PCI slot and wall outlet for home power-line network Howstuffworks.com HomeRF, 802.11b radio waves; NIC connects to transceiver with antenna or to wireless access point Ethernet twisted pair cables; Ethernet NIC cards and cables to connect devices
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  • WIRELESS NETWORKING Creates network by sending infrared or radio signals between computers Better than Power-line networking; some computers are not plugged in to electrical outlet Laptop with wireless network card is completely portable throughout home or office IrDA (Infrared Direct Access) is standard for devices to communicate using infrared light pulses
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  • Infrared devices must be in direct line of sight with each other (like TV remote which uses same infrared technology) Infrared is almost always one to one technology Radio signals better because no line of sight requirement and ability to broadcast to multiple recipients WIRELESS NETWORKING
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  • 8 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES 802.11, BLUETOOTH, IRDA IEEE 802.11 (802.11b, g WiFi) Family of standards used with wireless LANs Used for public Internet access points Bluetooth Devices contain special chip Short-range radio waves transmit between Bluetooth devices Short distance IrDA IrDA devices contain IrDA ports Infrared light waves Line-of-sight transmission
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  • BLUETOOTH Bluetooth is new standard being developed by a group of electronics manufacturers Will allow any sort of electronic equipment to communicate with each other Can be used among computers, keyboard, mouse, printer, headphone, cell phone Bluetooth-like radio communications should take place of wires or infrared signals for connecting devices
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  • BLUETOOTH Very small radio module to be built into each device Wireless: No need for cables or cords to any device
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  • Inexpensive: Should add only about $5-10 to price of product Simple: Devices find one another and strike up conversation without any work on your part Why is it called Bluetooth? Harald Bluetooth was king of Denmark around the turn of the last millenium He united Denmark and part of Norway into a single kingdom BLUETOOTH
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  • Satellite Internet access already commonplace Satellites orbit at several hundreds of miles above Earth Imagine airplane-like device at approximately 60,000 feet Aircraft will be undisturbed by inclement weather and will be flying well above commercial air traffic AIRBORNE INTERNET
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  • All satellite benefits without some of the problems Consumers would get connections comparable to Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) High-speed wireless Internet connection by placing aircraft in fixed pattern over city Could be lightweight planes (possibly unmanned) or blimps AIRBORNE INTERNET
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  • Airborne Internet will function much like satellite-based Internet access, but without time delay Cost advantage over satellites aircraft can be deployed easily do not have to be launched into space Airborne Internet could even complement satellite and ground-based networks, not replace them AIRBORNE INTERNET
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  • Impact: Possibility of constant connection to network anywhere, any time Benefit: Ease of connecting all computers and related devices Challenges: How to make most efficient use of the computing power, software, and tools always available How to build the most useful software and tools IMPACT AND OPPORTUNITY?
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  • INTERNET TECHNOLOGY Access over the Internet to applications and services that would otherwise have to be located on ones own personal computer Email, text editor, financial modeling software, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, simulation software,.. Application Service Provider (ASP)
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  • Centralized data storage, which will increase efficiency and ease of access to information, as well as synchronization of information among users and machines Wherever you are, that is your computer! STORAGE SERVICE PROVIDER (SSP)
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  • About 120 universities and 25 corporate sponsors are working on better Internet infrastructure Internet 2 THE NEXT GENERATION INTERNET
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  • Larger bandwidth Faster speeds Better reliability Better security Better compression techniques (smaller files to be transmitted) Caching leaving copies around closer to the point of need All developments will eventually become part of standard internet
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  • INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6) Todays Internet uses Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) approximately 20 years old Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) (also called IPng) will eventually replace IPv4
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  • IPv6 fixes a number of problems in IPv4, such as limited number of available IPv4 addresses IPv6 goes from 32 to 128 bits per address If whole Earth was a beach, more than enough IP addresses for every grain of sand... hope that will be enough IPv6 also routes messages better, auto-configures for missing computers, and includes security components for encryption and authentication INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6)
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  • DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, EXPERT SYSTEMS If Internet becomes repository of all knowledge, how best to use it? If Internet becomes repository of all knowledge, how best to use it? Decision Support Systems (DSS) access data, sophisticated analytical models, user-friendly interfaces
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  • DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, EXPERT SYSTEMS Can make repetitive, routine decisions with known algorithms Can provide alternatives and possible outcomes for more elaborate decisions Expert Systems (ES) capture decision-making rules used by experts Interaction with human user and available data evolved toward decision Neural networks can imitate DSS and ES and learn to make decisions
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  • IMPACT AND OPPORTUNITY? Impact: Internet will provide fast access to enormous amount of information and tools for using that information Benefit: Immediate access for all kinds of information in a variety of formats (text, sound, image, video) Ability to make decisions based on all available information not just subset Decision tools that represent best wisdom of all experts Challenge: How to sift through enormous quantity of information and tools available to decide what to use in any given situation
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  • Researchers have recently made breakthroughs in developing displays out of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Thin, flexible, rugged plastic that you can bend, roll up, fold, or form into practically any shape CONSUMER COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY Plastic Displays
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  • PLASTIC DISPLAYS Mass production of plastic displays is approximately five years away Applications could include notebook and desktop displays, hand-held appliances Also, wearable displays sewn into clothing, and paper thin electronic books and newspapers
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  • ELECTRONIC DIGITAL PAPER Developed at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), electronic paper is new kind of display Somewhere between paper and conventional computer screen
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  • ELECTRONIC DIGITAL PAPER Like paper, it is thin, lightweight, and flexible Like computer display, it is dynamic and rewritable Wide range of potential applications, including: Electronic paper newspapers offering breaking news, incoming sports scores, and up to the minute stock quotes, even as paper is being read Electronic paper magazines that continually update with breaking information and make use of animated images or movie pictures Electronic paper textbooks, which could be updated as technology changes
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  • ELECTRONIC DIGITAL PAPER Electronic paper utilizes new display technology called gyricon A gyricon sheet is thin layer of transparent plastic in which millions of small beads, like toner particles, are randomly dispersed Beads are bichromal, with hemispheres of contrasting color Under influence of voltage applied to surface of sheet, beads rotate to present one colored side or the other to the viewer Image w