lecture # 11 water quality - irrigation practices

Download Lecture # 11 Water Quality - Irrigation Practices

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  • Slide 1
  • Lecture # 11 Water Quality - Irrigation Practices
  • Slide 2
  • Watering: No Simple Matter Water source. Water within the growing medium. Water uptake and use by the plant. Water stress. Watering methods. Water: amount and frequency.
  • Slide 3
  • TRANSPIRATION IRRIGATION EVAPORATION DRAINAGE
  • Slide 4
  • What Happens to Water Applied to Soil in Container with Foliage Plant Growing: * Excess over soil holding capacity drains away. * Of the water retained by the soil: - a portion is used for plant growth; - a portion is used to keep the plant turgid; - a portion is transpired; - a portion evaporates from the soil, container wall; - a portion remains in the soil. - a portion is used for plant growth; - a portion is used to keep the plant turgid; - a portion is transpired; - a portion evaporates from the soil, container wall; - a portion remains in the soil.
  • Slide 5
  • The Water Source The three most important factors of water quality are: total salt content, alkalinity and pH.
  • Slide 6
  • Hard water - water that has relatively high concentrations of calcium, magnesium or other minerals. Treatment - water softener which substitutes sodium for the minerals contributing to the original hardness. Problem - soil sodium levels and soluble salts. The Water Source
  • Slide 7
  • Improving Water Quality Filtration. Osmotic exchange. Distillation.
  • Slide 8
  • The Elemental Content and Chemical Properties of Water Suited for Use on Indoor Plants Electrical Conductivity - < 1.0 millimhos/cm millimhos/cm Total Soluble Salts - < 525 ppm % of Salts as Sodium - < 40 % Sodium Absorption Ratio - < 10
  • Slide 9
  • p H - 5.5 to 7.0 Alkalinity - < 100 ppm Sulfates - < 240 ppm Nitrates - < 50 ppm The Elemental Content and Chemical Properties of Water Suited for Use on Indoor Plants
  • Slide 10
  • Maximum Elemental Concentrations in ppm Concentrations in ppm Phosphorus - 5 Potassium - 10 Calcium - 75 Manganese - 2 Iron - 5 Boron - < 0.8 Copper - 0.2 Zinc - 5 Sodium - 50 Aluminum - 5 Molybdenum - 0.02 Chloride - 140 Fluoride < 1.0
  • Slide 11
  • Watering: No Simple Matter Water source. Water within the growing medium. Water uptake and use by the plant. Water stress. Watering methods. Water: amount and frequency.
  • Slide 12
  • Water Availability Matrix Suction Matrix Suction Osmotic Suction Osmotic Suction Soil particle Air Water Air Plant root Root hair
  • Slide 13
  • Average container soil mix - wet soil following irrigation applied at one spot initial wetting pattern final wetting pattern dry soil wet soil
  • Slide 14
  • Water Within the Growing Medium stale air bubbles to surface as water drains, suction draws in fresh, oxygenated air old air (and) salts forced out of drainage holes soil at field capacity saturated zone dry zone
  • Slide 15
  • Coping with soil shrinkage caused by extreme soil dryness multiple waterings multiple waterings wetting agents wetting agents mist - devices mist - devices
  • Slide 16
  • Cohesion - Adhesion - Tension Mechanism transpiration water column moves up through the plant as transpirational water is lost water absorption into root
  • Slide 17
  • root hairs root cap apical meristem maturation zone elongation zone meristematic zone mucigel sheath cortex epidermis endodermis pericycle phloem xylem
  • Slide 18
  • root hair endodermis intercellular space Casparian strip epidermis pericycle cortex phloem xylem PATHWAY A PATHWAY B
  • Slide 19
  • PATHWAY A PATHWAY B Water moves by osmosis through cellular membranes and living cells; solutes move mainly by active transport. Water flows through cell walls and intercellular spaces; solutes move with the flow or by diffusion.
  • Slide 20
  • epidermis endodermis root hair root external mycellium arbuscle vesicle cortex Vesicular - Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi
  • Slide 21
  • Watering: No Simple Matter Water source. Water within the growing medium. Water uptake and use by the plant. Water stress. Watering methods. Water: amount and frequency.
  • Slide 22
  • Water - Related Plant Stress Poor aeration of roots. Salt stress. Underwatering. Temperature - related water stress.
  • Slide 23
  • Wetting Agents Chemicals that increase the movement of water. FUNCTIONS : facilitate percolation. enhance drainage. rewetting.
  • Slide 24
  • Watering: No Simple Matter Water source. Water within the growing medium. Water uptake and use by the plant. Water stress. Watering methods. Water: amount and frequency.
  • Slide 25
  • Watering: When and How Much? Determining the need to water by turgor by touch by weight a visual check technology time
  • Slide 26
  • Proper Methods of Watering Best watering imitates a good rain. Drench the soil without erosion, bringing soil to field capacity. soil to field capacity.
  • Slide 27
  • Hose and breaker. Self-watering containers. Drip irrigation system. Mona Link. Proper Methods of Watering
  • Slide 28
  • Watering from Above vs. Below Above Below Water applied from above should: Avoid foliage. Why? Always? Remove dust. Capillary action draws water into soil. Prevents soil compaction. Soil saturation.
  • Slide 29
  • Wick System water intake and ventilation slot planting medium air circulation capillary action water reservoir mulch pot wick plant roots
  • Slide 30
  • Fabric Wick System watertight decorative container Water Disc Unit grow pot capillary action capillary wick planting medium fill tube foam collar void reservoir mulch
  • Slide 31
  • Subirrigation in a Non-Watertight Container capillary action capillary wick fill tube wicker basket planter with liner reservoir mulch
  • Slide 32
  • Subirrigation in a Non-Watertight Container capillary action subirrigation container water intake tube aeration and grainage holes water- fertilizer reservoir mulch non-watertight decorative container capillary column contains Perlite impermeable saucer
  • Slide 33
  • Water Intake Tube
  • Slide 34
  • Camouflage?
  • Slide 35
  • Capillary Leg System watertight decorative container insert platform with aeration vents Capillary leg planting medium planting medium wick fill tube water level indicator mulch capillary action reservoir
  • Slide 36
  • Capillary Tape water intake tube and ventilation slot planting medium water indicator clear indicator case air circulation capillary tape water reservoir inner pot outer pot float castors capillary action
  • Slide 37
  • Vacuum Sensor System water intake tube and ventilation slot sensor controls watering; watering action starts when sensor is dry, stops when it is moist water enters slowly through inlet when activated by sensor water is pulled up through soil by capillary action water reservoir
  • Slide 38
  • Hydroponic Plant System inner support medium water level gauge decorative container special inner container moisture diffusion area nutrient solution
  • Slide 39
  • The Mona - Link Fill tube End cap Link reservoir Link connecting tube The Mona-Link is used to subirrigate garden-style plants beds by interconnecting units in whatever configurations are necessary to provide even moisture applications.
  • Slide 40
  • Application of Mona - Link to Planter Beds with Changing Topography
  • Slide 41
  • Complete Automation of Garden - Style Subirrigation System shallow-rooted plants deep-rooted plant water supply controlled by sensor or time clock
  • Slide 42
  • Components of Drip Irrigation System PVC supply line controller strainer preset pressure regulator multiple outlet distribution feeder tubing
  • Slide 43
  • Capillary Leg System for Jardiniers watertight decorative container capillary column contains Perlite planting medium foam collar subirrigation container water intake tube aeration and grainage holes water- fertilizer reservoir mulch void capillary action
  • Slide 44
  • Where Does the Water Come From?
  • Slide 45
  • Hose Bib
  • Slide 46
  • Box Hydrant Box Hydrant
  • Slide 47
  • Water Management: When and How to Apply Water CONSIDERATIONS: * Plant type. * Plant size. * Container volume. * Soil moisture. * Indoor environment.

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