lazarsfeld theory1

Download lazarsfeld theory1

Post on 11-Apr-2015

552 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

Applying the scientific methodsLandmark of empirical communication study I Lazarsfeld and Katz: The peoples Choice (1948)1. Question Propaganda 2. Method: Big sample, representative Interview - re-interview - any changes? Control groups - avoid contamination by interviews 3. Findings: a. b. c. Activate 14%, convert 8% selective attention - high socio-economic status, the already decided source of influence - face-to-face-ties Propaganda - minimal effect voting decision?

Magic bullet theory

Two step flow theory

wrong

confirmed

Landmark of empirical communication study II Lazarsfeld and Katz Personal Influence (1955)1. Question: media and personal decision - 4 areas fashion, buying, movie choice, public affairs Media powerful? Single source of influence? 2. Method: Smaller sample. Personal interview Findings: two step flow model of influence local level Opinion leaders influence choice non-overlapping opinion leaders 4. Political evaluation: Main source of influence not from central power - media or government Instead from local sources of diffuse influence NO concentration of power - plural centres of influence -

Pluralism alive and well in America

Two Step Flow Model Paul Lazarsfeld & Elihu Katz Mass media information is channeled to the "masses" through opinion leadership. The people with most access to media, and having a more literate understanding of media content, explain and diffuse the content to others. They pass on their opinions and interpretations.

TWO-STEP-FLOW -Lazarsfeld1 Step Media Pay attention to Consumptio n Voting 2 Step Seek out Opinion Leaders Acting Buyin g

Persons

Decisions

The two step flow theory The two step flow theory was first introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet in the Peoples Choice, a 1948 study focused on the process of decisionmaking during Presidential election campaign

08/10/08

6

The two step flow theory This theory argued that Ideas often flow from the mass media to the opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population

08/10/08

7

From the Two-Step Flow Model to Limited Effects Theory

Paul Lazarsfeld and the Two-Step Flow Model of Communication

The Two-Step Flow of CommunicationLecture Outline background; Erie County voting study; the two-step flow model; the decision-making process; key factors; limited effects model; contingency theory.

The Two-Step Flow Model

Sender

Message

Receiver

Effect

S

M

R

(S/N)

R

1

Decision-Making Process Exists on a continuum; depends on two factors: personal psyche or disposition; the information itself.

Early Adopters

Converts

Waverers

Crystallizers

Key Factors in Decision-Making Process socio-economic status (class); religion; gender; intra-familial status.

Limited Effects Model Limited set of assumptions; interested in specific processes; needs to be integrated into larger theoretical framework; is sufficiently empirical to allow for testing.

social contacts The one who regularly interacts with many people will have more opportunities to serve as an opinion leader. Index of gregariousness