language typology basic word order. the two types of syntactic typology syntactic typology typology...

Download Language typology Basic word order. The two types of syntactic typology syntactic typology typology on word order types contentive typology alignment

Post on 18-Jan-2018

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

What is basic word order? basic word order at the clausal level consists of three major parts: Subject (S), Object (O) and Verb (V) basic word order can be found in indicative transitive clauses basic word order = the ordering of the 3 major constituents (S, O and V)

TRANSCRIPT

Language typology Basic word order The two types of syntactic typology syntactic typology typology on word order types contentive typology alignment patterns What is basic word order? basic word order at the clausal level consists of three major parts: Subject (S), Object (O) and Verb (V) basic word order can be found in indicative transitive clauses basic word order = the ordering of the 3 major constituents (S, O and V) A definition of basic word order [It is generally thought that] basic word order at the clausal level is found in stylistically neutral, independent, indicative clauses with full noun phrase (NP) participants, where the subject is definite, agentive and human, the object is a definite semantic patient, and the verb represents an action, not a state or an event. (Siewierska 1988: 8. in Song 2001: 49.) Basic word order types How can these 3 elements (S,O,V) appear in a clause? How many ordering types are possible? There are 6 logically possible ways of ordering: (1) Turkish (Comrie 1981:81-82.) (SOV) Hasan kz- aldi. Hasan ox-ACC bought Hasan bought an ox. (2) English (SVO) The farmer killed the duckling. (3) Welsh (VSO) Lladdodd y ddraig y dyn. killed the dragon the man The dragon killed the man. (4) Malagasy (VOS) Nahita ny mpianatra ny vehivavy. saw the student the woman The woman saw the student. (5) Hyxkariana (OVS) Toto yahosiye kamara. man grabbed jaguar The jaguar grabbed the man. (6) Nadb (Song 2001: 2.)(OSV) sam y yi qa-w howler-monkey people eat People eat howler-monkeys. As it can be seen there are cross-linguistic examples of all 6 types SOV, SVO, VSO, VOS, OVS and OSV Some criteria about defining basic word order pragmatic neutralitypragmatic neutrality perhaps the most important textual frequency the more frequent is the basic, but: the most frequent word order may vary from text to text depending on different text types it isnt a very reliable parameter formal markedness the unmarked is the basic exceptions from different languages this is the most unreliable parameter these parameters are irrelevant to flexible word order languages Non-clausal patterns basic word order is also found in non-clausal patterns (i.e. in phrases) e.g. ordering of: adposition (Adp) and noun (N) genitive (G) and noun (N) relative clause (Rel) and noun (N) What else could be a pattern like these? adjective (A) and noun (N) article (Art) and noun (N) auxiliary verb (Aux) and main verb (V) Inception of word order typology Joseph H. Greenberg 1963, the first work on basic word order from a typological viewpoint he established a new type of universal statement, the implicational universal e.g. x y (read: if the x exists, than this implies the existence of y) Greenbergs (45) implications are unilateral!- x y y x Some greenbergian universal statements UNIVERSAL 1 In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object the dominant order is almost always one in which the subject precedes the object. UNIVERSAL 2 In languages with prepositions, the genitive almost always follows the governing noun, while in languages with postpositions it almost always precedes. UNIVERSAL 3 Languages with dominant VSO order are always prepositional. UNIVERSAL 27 If a language is exclusively suffixing, it is postpositional; if it is exclusively prefixing, it is prepositional. (Greenberg in Song 2001: ) Examples for UNIVERSAL 1 A fi kenyeret eszik. Poika sy leip. The boy is eating bread. (SO) UNIVERSAL 2 a fa alatt/puun alla under the tree; az anya lnya/idin tytr the girl of the mother (NPp&GN) UNIVERSAL 25 Hungarian and Finnish are both suffixing languages and the most frequently used adposition types are postpositions. Do you think that these universal statements exist in your native language? Examples? Reflections on universal 1 Universal 1 says that in languages with nominal subject and object the ordering is SO. Referring to universal 1 one has to say that OS order is almost impossible. This means that the existance of VOS, OVS and OSV languages is almost impossible. BUT: there are data opposed to this universal AND: in universal 1 it is said that the S almost always precedes the O this is not an exceptionless universal It has been pointed out that the number of VOS, OVS and OSV languages is quite reduced (there are about 4-8 OVS languages. cf. WALS) Tripartite system Analyse of the three languages in which the S precedes the O SOV, SVO, VSO Verb based typology: serializing ordering types based on the position of verb VSO verb in the first position relative to the position of S and O SVO verb is in the second position SOV verb is in the final position This verb based typology had a main role in further research The verb based typology W.P. Lehmann (1973) Fundamental Principle of Placement (FPP) the primary syntactic construction: is the verb and the object they are primary concomitants of each other in the sentence subject is left out consideration in Lehmanns work, because subject is not so important part of the sentence as an argue for this theory: subjectless sentences like Lat. pluit it rains thus Greenbergs tripartite system is reduced to OV and VO word order types The FPP The FPP says that: the modifiers are placed on the opposite side of a basic constituent, V or O, from its primary concomitant. (cf. Song 2001: 56.) depending on whether the analyzed language is OV or VO type, we can predict:in OV languages the verbal elements (e.g. negation, causative,etc.) appear on the right side of the verb, while nominal elements (e.g. genitive, adjective, numeral) appear on the left side of the noun What can one predict about the position of verbal and nominal elements in VO languages? in VO: verbal elements are placed on the left side of the verb, whereas nominal elements are placed on the right side of the noun The FPP Lehmann has analyzed Greenbergs data (a 30 language sample) using the predictions of the FPP he has pointed out that on the basis of the FPP one could make predictions about word order properties at the morphologic level as well FPP does not use the distinction of heads (main parts) and modifiers (dependent parts), FPP makes predictions about word order, depending on the status of the modifiers (verbal or nominal) there are a lot of languages which do not behave as the FPP predicts, but Lehmann says that the so called ambivalent languages are in a typological change from OV to VO or from VO to OV (further research has pointed out that only the former type of historical change is known) An excercise you have the following parameters: OV, VO, NA, AN, V-vm, vm-V (where vm is a verbal modifier) What is the ordering of N and A, V and vm in OV and in VO languages? AN & V-vm in OV NA & vm-V in VO Conclusion One has to consider the FPP as a generalization about the greenbergian universal statements Venemanns theory Th. Vennemann states that the subject has no importance in the notion of basic bord order, thus he uses the categories: OV and VO his aim is to make a general explanation about Greenbergs universal statements Vennemanns theory is the Principle of Natural Serialization (PNS) which can be seen as a generalization on greenbergian universals the basis of the explanation is categorial analogy Some features of the PNS The PNS states that: the order of operators (i.e. modifiers or dependent parts) and operands (i.e. modified or head parts) tends to be serialized in one direction in practice: operators before operands OR operands before operators operator {operand} operator [operand] in OV operand [operator] in VO PNS the following cathegories are used in the PNS (Vennemann 1974) OPERATOROPERAND objectverb adverbialverb main verbauxiliary adjectivenoun relative clausenoun genitivenoun numeralnoun determinernoun adjectivecomparison marker standard of comparisoncomparative adjective noun phraseadposition Some critical notes about the PNS the status of some categories are questionable for instance: the auxiliary (Aux) is regarded as a verbal modifier in traditional grammar, but in the PNS Aux is the head of the content (main) verb this system is reduced correlated to Greenbergs work Vennemanns implications are bilateral: p q = q p Greenberg (UNIVERSAL 3): Languages with dominant VSO order are always prepositional. How can we read this universal according to the PNS? VO&Pr = OV&Pp In Greenbergs work one could make distinctions about universals: there are weak and strong ones BUT: the PNS cannot make distinctions like these BUT: Vennemanns universals are statistical if more than the half part of the languages behave as the PNS predict then that feature is applicable for generalization Hawkins theory on word order his aim was to making language universals exceptionless exceptionless universals help for characterizing possible human language Hawkins states that statictical (restriceted) universals can be converted into exceptionless (unrestricted) universals An example of converting Statistical universals: a.Pr (NA NG) b.Pr (NDem NA) c.Pr (NNum NA) (a)if a language has preposition word order, then if the adjective follows the noun, the genitive follows the noun (b)if a language has preposition word order, then if the demonstrative determiner follows the noun, the adjective follows the noun (c)if a language has preposition word order, then if the numeral followsthe noun, the adjective follows the noun Exceptionless universals: a.Pr & -SVO (NDem NG) b.Pr & -SVO (NNunm NG) Hawkins creates exceptionless universals by increasing the conditioning property from one to two The HSP Hawkins found that only 7 of the 32 mathematically possible co-occurances of the five nominal modifiers ar attested in Greenbergs data and in his own as well a. Pr & NDem & NNum & NA & NG & NRel b. Pr & DemN & NNum & NA & NG & NRel c. Pr & NDem & NumN & NA & NG & NRel d. Pr & DemN & NumN & NA & NG & NRel e. Pr &

Recommended

View more >