knowing what we know

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  • Knowing What We KnowCombining Ethnography, Archival Data, and

    Social Network Analysis to Better Understand an Industry

    John McCreeryAJJ, April 2012

  • Preface

    This presentation was given at Sunbelt XXXII to a tech-savvy audience to persuade its members that historical and ethnographic research (HER) has something to contribute to social network analysis (SNA).

    At AJJ, I hope to persuade anthropologists that social network analysis (SNA) has something to contribute to the historical and ethnographic research (HER) with which they are more familiar.

  • Proposition

    Imagine if cultural anthropologists behaved more like archeologists, using scientific tools to contextualize their observations.

    Business anthropologists, in particular, may have a wealth of on-site, archival data to work with.

  • A Work in ProgressArchival

    Data

    SNA

    Desk Research

    Interviews

    Credits from the Tokyo Copywriters Club Advertising Copy Annual (1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006), manually entered into a Filemaker Pro Database

    Six 2-mode multiple edge affiliation networks that contain a total of 7018 creators connected by 27, 314 roles to 3,634 award-winning ads, analyzed using Pajek.

    Many high-centrality creators are authors or frequently interviewed in a large and active trade pressmonthly magazines, numerous new books each year, and now Websites and blogs as well.

    Interviews with high-centrality creators using results of SNA and Desk Research as stimulus material.

  • Super Network 81-06 p-Core Distribution

    Arithmetic mean: 2.3027Median: 1.0000Standard deviation: 3.1723 2.5% Quantile: 1.0000 5.0% Quantile: 1.000095.0% Quantile: 7.000097.5% Quantile: 10.0000

    Vector Values Frequency Freq% CumFreq CumFreq%---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ( ... 0.000] 28 0.3990 28 0.3990 ( 0.000 ... 8.778] 6752 96.2097 6780 96.6087 ( 8.778 ... 17.556] 193 2.7501 6973 99.3588 ( 17.556 ... 26.333] 33 0.4702 7006 99.8290 ( 26.333 ... 35.111] 6 0.0855 7012 99.9145 ( 35.111 ... 43.889] 1 0.0142 7013 99.9288 ( 43.889 ... 52.667] 1 0.0142 7014 99.9430 ( 52.667 ... 61.444] 2 0.0285 7016 99.9715 ( 61.444 ... 70.222] 0 0.0000 7016 99.9715 ( 70.222 ... 79.000] 2 0.0285 7018 100.0000---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 7018 100.0000

    Produced by combining six 2-mode networks, simplifying the result, projecting the 1-mode creators network in which line values are the numbers of projects on whichpairs of creators have both worked, and then performing p-Core analysis. (See Appendix 1 for details).

  • The Super Stars (0.064%)

    Subnetwork of top 45 vertices. Extracted from partition based on p-Core Vector

  • The Super Super Stars(Vertex size reflect betweenness scores)

  • The Ethnographers Eye(The circles indicate where my eye turns)

    Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity

    Nakahata Takahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)

    Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • Founders Generation

    Akiyama Sho (1936)Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku Tada (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)

    Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • Akiyama Sho(Autobiographical Statement Found Online)

    Born in Tokyo in 1936, he graduated from the Rikkyo University Faculty of Economics in 1958, and joined the Kodansha advertising department the same year. He joined Light Publicity Ltd. in 1964, and he is currently president of that firm. His work involves advertising production, including both graphic and film direction, and copywriting. He cherishes the words of Takashi Nakahata, "The bullet has a beautiful form because it speeds to its target."

  • The Copywriter Boom(Hitmen as celebrities)

    Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku Tada (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)

    Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • The Miyazaki Group(Once they were the brightest stars)

    Akiyama Sho (1936)Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • The Sasaki Team(Dominant in the Late 1990s)

    Akiyama Sho (1936)Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)

    Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • Tugboat(The Rebel Angels)

    Akiyama Sho (1936)Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • Lessons Learned

  • Time Matters(It Really Does)

    Age MattersMost super stars have had long successful careers. Except for the occasional supernovaTada Taku, who burst on the scene with an unprecedented triple Grand Prix is one example, Itoi Shigesato was another it takes time to become a super star.

    Sampling MattersTo appear in our network, our stars glory days had to have been within the years our sample spans (1981-2006). Many historically famous names do not appear because their glory days were in the 1960s and 70s.

  • Two Surprises

  • Who is this?(The SNA Surprise)

    Akiyama Sho (1936)Light Publicity

    NakahataTakahashi (1947)

    SasakiTeam

    Tugboat

    Maki Jun (1948)

    Itoi Shigesato (1948)

    Miyazaki Group

    Iwasaki Shunichi (1947)

    Sasaki Hiroshi (1954)

    Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963)

    Miyazaki Susumu (1944)Okada Naoya (1955)Ohnuki Takuya (1958)Taniyama Masakazu (1961)

  • What are we not seeing here?(The HER Surprise)

  • A Special Relationship

    Sasaki Hiroshi Anzai Toshio

  • Thats It, Kyoto. Lets go.

    One of the most successful and longest-running campaigns in Japans advertising history.

    Sasaki and Anzai worked together on this campaign. Sasaki was younger and a copywriter, Anzai older and a CM planner.

    Anzai tells me a story about this collaboration...

  • In Sum

    SNA makes it possible to focus quickly and precisely on key players in a network too large to grasp with the naked eye alone.

    SNA can surprise us, identifying key players who were off our radar, Iwasaki Shunichi (1947), for example.

    Historical and ethnographic research (HER) adds depth to our understanding of important relationships and reminds us that time matters when examining archival data.

    HER can also surprise us, by identifying relationships that may not seem so important in purely SNA terms but may be very important, indeed, in how the actors we study perceive their networks.*

  • Possible Applications

    Identify highly productive teams and combinations of individuals that generate strong creative chemistry.

    Include organizational network analysis (ONA) in studies of corporate culture. For examples, see Rob Cross and Robert J. Thomas (2009) Driving Results Through Social Networks.

  • Thank You

  • Appendices

  • Appendix 1How the Subnetwork was Selected Combine six primary networks into one super network

    Simplify super network Net>Transform>Remove>Multiple Lines>Single Line

    Project 1-mode creator network Net>Transform>2-Mode to 1-Mode>Rows

    p-Core analysis Net>Vector>PCore>Max>All

    Extract top p-cores Vector>Make Partition>By Intervals>Selected Thresholds>#10

    Operations>Extract from Network>Partition>4-10

  • Appendix 2p-Core 81-06

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