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Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts Volume 13 Number 1 (January-june) 2013

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  • Volume 13 N

    umber 1 (January-June) 2013

    Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th,www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index

    Silpakorn UniversityJournal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    Volume 13 Number 1 (January-June) 2013

    A Curriculum Development Utilizing TPACK as Content Framework to Enhance Digital

    Courseware Production Competency for Teachers

    Santhawee Niyomsap, Sumlee Thongthew and Sugree Rodpothong

    ISSN 1513-4717

    Research for Development and Changing in Cultural Tourism toward Creative Economy through

    Participation Process of Sustainable Network Alliances in Ratchaburi Province

    Narin Sangragsa and Somchai Lukhananuluk

    Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Does Social Capital Work in Thai Politics?

    Wanlapat Suksawas and Peter Mayer

    The Cave of Healing: The Physical /Spiritual Detoxi cation and The Distinctive Healing

    Program for Drug Rehabilitation at Thamkrabok Monastery, Thailand

    Pataraporn Sangkapreecha and Taweesak Sangkapreecha

    Teaching Foreign Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Kesinee Chaisri

    The Use of the Hybridity Theory and the Third Space Concept to Develop a Teaching

    Identities Enhancement Program for Student Teachers

    Chuleeporn Phompun, Sumlee Thongthew and Kenneth M. Zeichner

    An Analysis of Cultural Substitution in English to Thai Translation

    Patcharee Pokasamrit

    Salt-making in Northeast Thailand An Ethnoarchaeological Study in Tambon Phan

    Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima Province, Northeast Thailand

    Andrea Yankowski and Puangthip Kerdsap

    Book Review

    William J. Jones

    A Comparative Study of the Tourism Industry Development of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat

    Province in a View of Develop the Innovative of Communications to Promote Tourism

    Archarin Pansuk

    Scenario of Exercise, Fundamental Sports and Mass Sports in Thailand

    Pot Chaisena

    Impression and Satisfaction of Color Perception of Painting Art Figures Utilizing Sound Pitches

    Through Touch-Screen Device for The Congenital Totally Blind

    Sanchai Santiwes

  • Silpakorn UniversityJournal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    Copyright All rights reserved. Apart from citations for the purposesof research, private study, or criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any other form without prior written permission by the publisher.

    Published by Silpakorn University Printing House. Silpakorn University, Sanamchandra Palace Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73000

    Sillpakorn University ISSN 1513-4717

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts is published in June by Silpakorn University. The journal features articles and research notes/ articles in the fields of Art and Design and the Social Sciences and Humanities. Its aim is to encourage and disseminate scholar ly contributions by the Universitys faculty members and researchers. Well researched, innovative works by other scholars are welcome. A review committee consisting of academic experts in the relevant fields will screen all manuscripts, and the editorial board reserves the right to recommend revision/ alteration, if necessary, before their final acceptance for publication.

    Editorial Advisory Board Emeritus Prof. Chetana Nagavajara, Ph.D. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre, Thailand Prof. Santi Leksukhum, Ph.D. Department of Art History, Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, Thailand Emeritus Prof. Kusuma Raksamani, Ph.D. Department of Oriental Languages, Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, Thailand Assoc. Prof. Rasmi Shoocongdej, Ph.D. Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, Thailand Assoc. Prof. Maneepin Phromsuthirak, Ph.D. Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand Prof. Samerchai Poolsuwan, Ph.D. Faculty of Sociology & Anthropology, Thammasat University, Thailand Assist. Prof. Wilailak Saraithong, Ph.D. English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, Thailand Assist. Prof. Alice Thienprasert, Ph.D. Director, Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute, Thailand

    Editor Assoc. Prof. Thanik Lertcharnrit, Ph.D. Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University

    Editorial Board Asst. Prof. Bamrung Torut, Ph.D. Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University Asst. Prof. Kamonpan Boonkit, Ph.D. Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University Prof. Miriam Stark, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii, USA Assoc. Prof. Peter Smith, Ph.D. International College, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Asst. Prof. Matthew Liebmann, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, USA Associate Professor D. Troy Case, Ph.D. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, USA

    Managing Editor Pranee Vichansvakul

    All correspondence should be addressed to : Managing editor, 44/114 Soi Phaholyothin 52, Phaholyothin Road, Klongthanon Saimai, Bangkok 10220 Telephone : 080-5996680 Fax : 66-2973-8366 E- mail address : pranee_aon1@hotmail.com Web site : http: //www.journal.su.ac.th and www.surdi.su.ac.thInformation about the Journal An electronic journal is accessible on the web sites (http://www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th, and www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index)

  • Silpakorn UniversityJournal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    Volume 13 Number 1 (January-June) 2013

    Editors Note 5

    Articles Impression and Satisfaction of Color Perception of 7 Painting Art Figures Utilizing Sound Pitches Through Touch-Screen Device for The Congenital Totally Blind Sanchai Santiwes

    Corporate Governance and Company Survival 33 Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Scenario of Exercise, Fundamental Sports and 63 Mass Sports in Thailand Pot Chaisena

    Does Social Capital Work in Thai Politics? 75 Wanlapat Suksawas and Peter Mayer

    A Comparative Study of the Tourism Industry 99 Development of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat Province in a View of Develop the Innovative of Communications to Promote Tourism Archarin Pansuk

    C o n t e n t s

  • The Cave of Healing: The Physical /Spiritual 123 Detoxification and The Distinctive Healing Program for Drug Rehabilitation at Thamkrabok Monastery, Thailand Pataraporn Sangkapreecha and Taweesak Sangkapreecha

    Research for Development and Changing in Cultural 139 Tourism toward Creative Economy through Participation Process of Sustainable Network Alliances in Ratchaburi Province Narin Sangragsa and Somchai Lukhananuluk

    A Curriculum Development Utilizing TPACK as 157 Content Framework to Enhance Digital Courseware Production Competency for Teachers Santhawee Niyomsap, Sumlee Thongthew and Sugree Rodpothong

    Teaching Foreign Culture in the Foreign 179 Language Classroom Kesinee Chaisri

    The Use of the Hybridity Theory and the Third 197 Space Concept to Develop a Teaching Identities Enhancement Program for Student Teachers Chuleeporn Phompun, Sumlee Thongthew and Kenneth M. Zeichner

    An Analysis of Cultural Substitution in 215 English to Thai Translation Patcharee Pokasamrit

  • Salt-making in Northeast Thailand 231 An Ethnoarchaeological Study in Tambon Phan Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima Province, Northeast Thailand Andrea Yankowski and Puangthip Kerdsap

    Book Review Thai Capitalism and Political Economy Post 253 1997 Crisis William J. Jones

  • Editors Note

    Greetings!

    I have both good news and sad news to report in this issue of the Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts. For the good news, I am delighted to inform our readers that the journal has received increasing interest and attention from scholars in Thailand and other countries; papers have been submitted by scholars and graduate students from many fields of study and research.

    This first issue of 2013 is remarkably full with 12 papers plus a book

    review. The papers in this issue vary in discipline and academic focus under the umbrella of social sciences, humanities and arts. Included are papers in education, economics, sociology, political science, social work, language, and archaeology. In addition, Associate Professor D. Troy Case from the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, USA, has agreed to serve as an additional member of the editorial board. Dr. Case is a physical anthropologist, with a strong interest in bioarchaeology, and has worked in the field for two decades. While

    we welcome a new member to the editorial board, we also learned that Assistant Professor Supaporn Nakbunlung from Chiangmai University, a very active member of our editorial board, passed away on March 10, 2013. We were very sad to hear this news and I would like express my deepest condolences to her daughter and relatives. She will be greatly missed.

    Thanik Lertcharnrit, Editorthanik@su.ac.th

    Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts is indexed in the Thai Journal Citation Index

    Centre (TCI Centre) Database.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 7-31, 2013

    Impression and Satisfaction of Color Perception of Painting Art Figures Utilizing Sound Pitches Through

    Touch-Screen Device for The Congenital Totally Blind

    Sanchai Santiwes

    Department of Design Arts, Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University, Thaphra Palace, Bangkok, Thailand

    Corresponding author. E-mail address: superarhua@gmail.com

    Abstract The congenital totally blind had no experiences or memories about pictures and colors. They have never had an opportunity to touch and perceive 2D paintings. Even if they were able to touch the paintings, they would only perceive the textures while the materials and colors will be damaged. This research proposes a new technique by utilizing touch-screen technology and developing computer software. It encodes color values, which are RGB, to HLS model colors and pair many colors in degree to MIDI sound pitches of musical notes. It can help the blind perceive colors and shapes of a painting. The software is divided 2 parts, i.e. touching program for color and shape perception of painting, and painting software. When the blind touches a painting master piece, they will be able to explain, describe and criticize the painting. This technique makes possible for an art to communicate to everyone. The research is a qualitative study and serves as a case study and an applied research. It was carried out with congenital blind participants who were studying in high schools. Since the study was in an initial phase, we started out with 12 colors and 12 sound pitches for basic testing. The participants were assigned to touch the paintings using touch-screen and perceive the sound pitches corresponding to the positions on the picture. It was found that the device was able to help the blind perceive the colors

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    and shapes on the picture, which were represented by sound pitches of the musical notes. As a result, the participants were able to use their hearing to perceive vision. They could describe and criticize the composition, color and shape of the picture. Thus, these participants obtained the new experience, knowledge and imagination. In addition, they were also satisfied with this

    research activity since their color and shape perceptions of paintings were from good to excellent. Furthermore, they were able to draw and paint in color using this device. The author has offered a useful computer-based technique for spatial and color information access for the blind. The 2D screen can give information about a 2D picture just by showing it in a simplified form. The

    colors are represented by pitches and triggered by touching the screen in, say, a green area of the picture. School-age blind participants in the study enjoyed learning and trying out the system.

    Key Words: Color; Sound; Perception; Draw; Paint; Art; Blind; Computer

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    Introduction Traditional art is not able to communicate and convey impression to everyone. Particularly, the congenital blind who are without vision cannot perceive pictures or paintings. They can only perceive things by hearing or touching. If they were to touch a painting, it would be damaged. Since the congenital blind never had any experience of vision before, how do they perceive colors on a painting if it was not to be touched? This research introduces the development of the technique to solve this problem for the congenital blind, which utilizes both device and software. It has been de-signed to aid them to be able to perceive the colors of a painting. In the same way, they also will be able to use this device to make their artworks by drawing and painting in colors. Art as expression, which is to be deeply moved or affected emotion be evident with media, such as sound, line, color, texture, form and others. (Royal Institute of Thailand, 2003: 1,101). The blind have the same right to perceive and express as sighted people, including the knowledge, information and experiences for themselves in the society. Art is an indicator of growth, civilization, taste, cognition and intelligence. Color is one of the important art elements. Thus, color perception is important for the blind. This research is intended to allow the blind to have new experiences in touching and perceiving the colors of the original paintings which are the master pieces in the world of art. They would be able to express their feelings about the drawings and paintings and acquire impression and satisfaction through making their 2D artworks via the device and software in this research. This purpose of the research was not to make the blind see the colors but to make them perceive the colorfulness and emotion of the pictures. The acquisition procedure was through hearing instead of seeing as they have a limited access. The technique was achieved by pairing colors with sound pitches. The devices employed in the research include software especially developed for this work, computer, touch-screen monitor and keyboard. The technique to perceive colors and shapes from pictures makes use of paintings. It codes color values to match with sound pitches of musical

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    notes. The RGB that is used for color display on computers is converted to HLS which is double cone color model. Next, the HLS color model is compared with the helix of musical notes (Shepard, 1965, quoted in Deutsch, 1982: 353) by using degrees of color, and, finally, using MIDI, which is the musical instrument digital interface to play the sound pitches of musical notes corresponding to the colors. This research focuses on the color perception of the paintings which are the world master piece artwork and the expression of drawing and painting in colors of the participants. They will perceive the colors and shapes of the paintings. They will be able to draw and paint in colors from the sound pitches of musical notes. In this way, it would enable art to communicate and convey messages to everybody.This paper is an offshoot of the authors dissertation submitted as part of international Ph.D. program in Design Arts at Silpakorn University. A short version of the authors doctoral research was published under the title Color Perception of Visual Art Painting Utilizing Sound for the Totally Blind in Burapha Arts Journal Special Issue: November 2011. The published article describes color perception for the congenital blindness volunteers, which was based on the experiment and testing demo during the software development phase including raw data collection and improvement. This article is different from the earlier work in that it presents the final software

    development and data collection. Furthermore, this article contains more explanations and details of the research undertaken. It is also presented in a clear, concise and detailed manner. The participants who are congenital blind were able to express impression and satisfaction from touching the painting master pieces.

    Goals of the Research 1) Making new technique using the software development for the congenital blind including touch and paint program. It converts colors to sound pitches through the devices that are touch-screen monitor and computer. 2) The congenital blind can perceive colors and shapes in paintings, and they can express them in the form of drawing and painting

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    utilizing the device and software based on their experiences, knowledge and imaginations. 3) The device of the research will help the congenital blind to perceive color of paintings by using their fingertip to touch, moving or dragging

    on the touch-screen and perceive the color positions on the picture from sound pitches. They will be able to explain, criticize and comment about the paintings that they have touched. 4) The congenital blind can perceive and remember the colors represented by sound pitches, and they can acquire the impression and satisfaction from the paintings.

    Scope of the Research 1) The participants are congenital blind or they had lost their sights before 5 years old (Lowenfeld, 1981: 67), and they must have studied at secondary school in grade 10 or higher. 2) Sighting colors is not the aim of this research but it is the perception of various colors and the corresponding positions from the picture. The participants will perceive by hearing sound pitches of musical notes that represent colors by pairing and coding. The participants also can express themselves by drawing and painting on the device and using the software in the research.3) This research is the development as a prototype and to be tested with the participants. They will be trained to remember the color codes represented by sound pitches. But, since the activity periods are limited, the testing was defined into 12 colors which are proper and necessary to do basic painting.

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    Framework of the Research

    Figure 1 Framework of the research diagram

    Literature Review This study is related to 3 important fields, i.e. art, psychology and

    science. It is the integration of knowledge for the research. The participants or intended users are the congenital blind.

    Figure 2 A conceptual study in the integration of the research objectives

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    Methodology of the Research This is a qualitative research. The research types are a case studied and applied research based on case studies. The method and tools for data collections include memos, interviews, observations, voice records of conversations, photographs, videos, and test methods of painting. It is a study and development of a device to help the blind perceive colors of painting and express them with drawing and painting. It also involves making a training course for the participants on how to utilize the device. In addition, it will help them understand and obtain knowledge and skills in art and design. They will be able to adjust their skills, creativities, imaginations and integrate the other fields. The results of the research are analysis of perception, satisfaction and artwork of the participants who are congenital blind. 1) Area selection of the research: this research is aimed at designing and developing a device to help the congenital blind. The author selected the research area in Thailand because it is convenient to travel and perform fieldwork. The author obtained assistance and kindness from Khon Kaen

    School for The Blind of The Christian Foundation for the blind in Thailand under The Royal Patronage of His Majesty the King. 2) Fieldworks are divided into 2 sections. The first part or experimental fieldwork involves studying with the participants for data collection by

    testing software demo, interviews and observations for the device, and software improvement (Pre-Test). The final fieldwork uses the device and

    final software version to evaluate the participants for the analysis of the

    results (Post-Test). 3) Design and develop the software and device including computer (desktop or laptop), keyboard and touch-screen monitor. 4) Prepare the interview questionnaires, for instance, before, during and after touching pictures to evaluate their feelings. Since the participants had not studied art before or they had limited knowledge of art, interview guidelines should also be prepared. It will help them answer and respond to this activity more effectively.

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    5) For the experiment and improvement of the final software for data

    collection, the author will be testing and using the device and art lesson with the participants. During the experiment, the author will observe, inquire, interview, note the advantages or disadvantages and perform preliminary analysis and summary of the results. The author personally collects the data because the author would contact data and seeing along the activities all the time. When the data was collected and classified, it would be analyzed

    by comparison, relationship and coherence of data from the participants, such as their attention, motivation and learning, and surrounding factors of sensation including thought, attitude, knowledge, experience, belief, perception, satisfaction and emotion of the participants. The results will be analyzed for each participant as part of the case studies. The analysis uses the art theories and will refer to the related theories, such as imitationalism, formalism, emotionalism (Mittler, 1994: 91-92), imaginationalism, and others. Conclusion, discussion and suggestion of the research are presented after the analysis of results.

    Technique of Software and Device Development This article is a part of research and thesis on color perception and expression with drawing and painting of the congenital blind. The technique involves software to code colors into sound pitches. However, this article presents the participants impression and satisfaction from the activity in touching the pictures and utilizing touch-screen and software. From the literature review and related studies about the color theory and the sound theory, the author analyzed and synthesized the principles and criterions of design and software development in order to represent color codes into sound pitches of musical notes. This is referred to as the principle of universal music for making the software in this research. It can be explained as follows: 1) Software and device are selected for this research: The author selected the touch-screen monitor. It could input data by touching or pointing

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    on screen and output data on a display. Keyboard is used to input data and commands. The device would interact with the users by using a fingertip

    to touch on a screen and the sound pitches would be played corresponding to the colors that they represent in real-time. The software is developed with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0, which can be installed and run on Mi-crosoft Windows 7 operating system. The system supports touch-screen technology. (These applications are permitted to use for study and research from Silpakorn University, the formal memo at no. 0520.207/1499 on 26 September, 2012., that It can use to develop computer applications that is Microsoft Visual Basic Version 6.0 for reference of the research but not the commercial.. These applications are used only for the study and research.)2) Method of comparison and pairing colors and sound pitches of musical notes: There were several authors that have mentioned about comparison between colors and sound. There was referred to 7 colors in spectrum and 7 sound pitches of musical notes on diatonic scale by Newton (Newton, 1721: 134-136). The spectrum could be divided into 12 color ranges and compared with 12 sound pitches of musical notes on chromatic scale by Castel (Peacock, 1988: 400), Rimington (Rimington, 1912: 177) and Bishop (Bishop, 1983: 5). Scriabin used the circle of fifth of musical notes to pair

    with colors and also the several others that the author did not refer to. They used the pairing between colors and sound pitches to create the music in-strument called Clavesin oculaire or Color organ. In the past, it was the ancient piano which flicks lines and sticks it on pin that was called

    The ocular harpsichord. Kandinsky mentioned to compare about color to sound with narration. As mentioned above, it showed that these authors referred and paired colors and sounds differently depending on the focus or objective of each person. Consequently, the comparison of colors and sound pitches in this research is defined specifically for the device and software used in this

    research only. The aims are to help the congenital blind to perceive colors and shapes of painting, and help them express the painting by drawing and painting using their fingertips by touching, pointing, moving or dragging

    on a touch-screen. It refers to the 3D of HLS color model that starts from

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    Figure 3 Comparison and pairing colors and sound pitches with the HLS model

    X-axis and Y-axis which are on the circular plane of hue and compared with the helix of sound model (Shepard, 1965, quoted in Deutsch, 1982: 353). The color spectrums was arranged from purple to red by color wheel and divided by degree into 12 color ranges. The participants could use them to learn about color theory and color mixing. Colors, hue and saturation were on X-axis and Y-axis, and lightness was upward and darkness was downward on Z-axis. In the theory of universal music, the principle of sound and music can separate the sound system into 4 scales, i.e. diatonic, pentatonic, chromatic and mode scale (Samrej Kommong, 2009: 22-25). The chromatic scale has 12 musical notes, which are C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A# and B. The 12 sound pitches are increased in each half of tone and complete to an octave. They can be made in the circular plane and divided into 12 ranges of musical notes. These can match to 12 ranges of color as layer. When it was paired between colors and sound pitches, the 4th octave will be hue of 12 colors on color wheel, the 5th octave is 12 colors of brightness and the 3rd octave is colors of darkness, the 6th octave is white that is the highest, and the 2nd octave is black that is the lowest. The sound pitches are lower than the 2nd octave that cannot be heard or is hard to hear because they are undertone and sotto voce. From the above, there were 3 steps from hue circle or the 4th octave (4th, 5th, 6th were upward and 4th, 3rd, 2nd were downward that each 3 steps). When they were paired, they had 77 sound pitches and colors.

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    Figure 4 Diagram of software input and output processing

    Figure 5 The palette of 77 colors and reduce to select 12 need colors

    The software is developed specifically for this task. There method of

    programming involves converting colors from RGB to HLS double cone model and pairing of the colors from HLS to MIDI which is the sound pitches of musical notes.

    The developed software prototype is used primarily for testing the participants. Therefore, the colors are reduced for ease of implementation and small memory usage. The author selected 6 colors from hue, such as purple, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. These 6 colors can be used and explained about the color wheel and secondary color mixing. Next, selected 6 colors need for using and painting in preliminary, such as light blue, pink (light red), brown (dark orange), white, grey and black. There are total of 12 colors.

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    3) Design of user interface: The software was separated 2 programs including, touching program and painting program. There is the device including, touch-screen monitor, keyboard and computer.

    Figure 6 The fingertip is pointing and touching on touch-screen monitor with the artistic painting of Vincent van Goghs The Starry Night, and Franz Marcs Horse in a Landscape, which were simplified in details and colors

    Figure 7 Using the touching program

    Touching program, when users pointed their fingertip to the picture that opened on a touch-screen, the color that was touched would play the sound pitch of musical notes. For example, blue is D# note, black is C2 note (C in the second octave). The picture used was simplified in some

    details and colors by having no more than 12 colors.

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    Figure 8 Using the drawing and painting program

    Painting program, users had to select a color by dragging or pointing their fingertip from the palette by pressing Spacebar key to switch the

    palette screen. They would hear a sound at the same time from the position that fingertip was pointing. For example, blue is C# note, orange is A

    note and so on. After that, when the users pressed Spacebar key again to change or close the palette and appear the painting screen. The color was selected, and it can be painted on the screen. If they press Enter key, it will be in the touching mode for checking the color and shape that they painted, and press Enter key again to go back to painting continuously. Since the participants are congenital blind, the author designed the user interface as straightforward as possible without any complexity in the usage and the workspace is displayed in full-screen.

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    Results of the Research The fieldwork for data collection was tested with the participants by

    the prepared tools. The interview could be flexible in order to follow the

    situations. The pictures of test method for touching were with the master pieces including, Kasimir Malevichs Supreme, Vincent van Goghs The Starry Night, Franz Marcs Horse in a Landscape, Serge Poliakoffs Composition verte, bleue, rouge et jaune, and Piet Mondrians Composition which were simplified some details and colors. The participants touched the pictures with the touching program. When they perceived and remembered colors and positions on the pictures, they would be able to explain and criticize these artistic paintings and they would obtain the satisfaction, enjoyment and impression. The results of analysis were showed as follows:

    Figure 9 Touching the painting of Supreme

    Table 1 The interview and conversation from touching of Supreme

    Person Interview and Transcription AnalysisResearcher OK, open the picture. (Open picture)

    Participant This is white, it is empty surely There is black, this is white, this is red and black, this is white that is so long from here to there.

    She could remember sound pitches and could identify some colors.

    Researcher Try to evaluate an idea about this picture, How it is?

    Participant White is above more than at the side, and the next is red, and there is white below. There are some black and the next is white again and black again. Its almost white that is scatter.

    She could describe about this picture.

    Researcher Now you found that the picture is an abstract, right? OK, anything else? Do you like it?

    Participant I think this picture is complex. Ha ha, I feel impassive. She perceived this picture but did not like it.

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    Figure 10 Touching the painting of The Starry Night

    Table 2 The interview and conversation from touching of The Starry Night

    Person Interview and Transcription AnalysisResearcher OK, its begin.

    Participant (Use a fingertip to touch all screen and describe) This is a black, its the highest point, I remembered it. This is a light blue, Yep! The black are more, here is a light blue, Oh! The black are more and upper, This is the sky. What is it? The night? It must be the moon. Yep! This is black, and this is light blue, this is the strange. There is the black from here to there, and upper is the sky and it is the center of screen and it is light blue, this is a blue.

    She could perceive the colors and remember the sound pitches. She knew some color positions and described this picture from her experience to known already to touch before.

    Researcher Can you evaluate it that is beautiful or not, or indifferent and anything else?

    Participant Its almost black and emphasize the opaque color, I think. It should feel to depress and so sad, something like this. Is it beautiful? Umm..it may be beautiful in depress style, isnt it? I think it is base on that I cannot see it, I maybe use my feeling and imagination which I recognized, you know? I cannot see with my eyes, if its depressing, I feel so sad. Umm..it maybe not beautiful, isnt it? Something like that. Im not sure.

    She could interpret and evaluate the artistic painting that touched, although she was not confident.

    Researcher If I say that this figure is accepted all around the world that it is so beautiful. Do you believe, dont you? Do you think it

    Participant Oh wow! Is it be accepted all? Heh heh. Its maybe beautiful. I think its up to you, as people aspect, but theyre almost thought it so beautiful, I maybe think also. But, is it aspect? Yes, heh heh, I maybe believe that is beautiful to follow them, but when I touched it, I think it maybe so beau-tiful into depress, something like that, I use criterion from my feeling to see it.

    There was an idea by herself. She could split a belief and attitude from perception of this painting.

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    Table 3 The interview and conversation from touching of Horse in a Landscape

    Person Interview and Transcription AnalysisResearcher This picture is Horse in a Landscape. OK, lets go.

    See what you can do.

    Participant (Use a fingertip to explore the picture. Move with rules, straight and move to the top of frame) Here is yellow. Oh! This is the sound pitch of blue. This is red and yellow. This picture has some green, blue, red, yellow, anything else?

    She could perceive the colors from remember the sound pitches and the color positions of picture.

    Researcher No more. How do you think about this picture? Do you like it?

    Participant Are there only red and blue, right? Background is yellow. Yellow and green are above. If I compare with color and my feeling, it maybe lively, right? Ha ha. If I think in color, its OK, it has lively more than Van Goghs painting. Yes, its complex, it has various color. Ha ha.

    She could perceive and remember the colors of picture and bring toward her painting by copying this picture. She could criticize and compare other artists pictures.

    Researcher OK, this figure is maybe seem that lively more than Van Goghs painting?

    Participant Yes, I think so. I use my feeling with color, like a, Im a center, ha ha. I think he use yellow, its something like this, its OK, you know? It look lively but Van Goghs painting is affected my feeling, its the night, something like that.

    She could interpret and evaluate the picture that touched to make her new experience.

    Researcher Are you OK in this activity of this research with this device and software.

    Participant Oh! Yes, its excellent, it make me to understand the pictures or artistic paintings, when the picture was took about it by my friends, I ever hear name only that Van Gogh artist, right? And who told me that what image do not know and do not understand? But now I touched it, Oh! This picture is black and it is this, even though I could not access full to 100 percents but it made me to know that is Van Goghs painting. Now I can be talking about it with my friends who ever have seen.

    She appreciated the advantages to using device and software. She made her new experiences, knowledge and attitudes and she could perceive and communicate to the others.

    Figure 11 Touching the painting of Horse in a Landscape

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    Figure 12 Touching the painting of Composition verte, bleue, rouge et jaune

    Table 4 The interview and conversation from touching of Composition verte, bleue, rouge et jaune

    Person Interview and Transcription AnalysisResearcher (Open figure) OK, to begin. I hint a litter, this picture

    may be have no some contents, for example, its not a tree, something like that. You must try to explore it, what color do you find or what shape and where? (The participant

    begin to touch) What is color?

    Participant This is grey, this is light blue and curve shape, so here it is, this is red, red is circle.

    She could perceive and remember sound pitches.

    Researcher How do you like it? How large is light blue? Some time, might be find that the large color is a background,

    you know?

    Participant Yes, its so large. Its like the sky and cloud. (Continue to touch) Grey, red and light blue, right?

    She could explain and imagine to the picture.

    Researcher There is yellow, you know? Here it is. (The researcher touch a participants hand to point on the picture) Here it is, this is yellow.

    Participant Yep, the yellow of moon. There was an imagination.

    Researcher Where are some grey on this picture?

    Participant Here it is and it is here. (Point to left and right corner at the down of picture) and this is red.

    She could remember the positions and shapes.

    Researcher How do you think about it? Are they some shapes, or not?

    Participant It look like, ha ha, like a sun, sky and cloud, I think There was an imagination.

    Researcher OK, this picture is abstract, its free form shapes and make by using composition, there are grey shapes on the right and left to balance, and also red shapes on left and right, there is yellow on the center above. (The researcher explain about this picture) When you listened me to explain already, Do you like it?

    Participant Yes, I like it as before. There was a satisfaction.

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    Sanchai Santiwes

    Table 5 The interview and conversation from touching of Composition

    Person Interview and Transcription AnalysisResearcher This is Mondrians painting. OK, try it.

    Participant This is black, this is red, this is white, and also there is grey. This is red and black, this is blue. Its a short, I dont know. Black is like a rectangular shape.

    She could remember the sound pitches and found the colors.

    Researcher Ah! Its correct. Do you know that is also some black lines? Do you know that is a rectangular shape?

    Participant Yes, I know that is a rectangular shape. Red is a rectangle, and white is a straight line, Oops! Just a moment, the white is a downward straight line, and become to black below. Why grey is

    She could perceive the shapes and knew that there were some rectangular shapes in this picture.

    Researcher Whats wrong? Grey is what? Its a little?

    Participant Yes, it is. Black is some lines which are downward straight line. And where is yellow?

    She knew and understood about shape and line.

    Researcher OK, here. How about is this picture? It seems that is in order, right?

    Participant Black is at the edge, it is a border of yellow. It seem be in order, black is some borders.

    She could perceive the colors and shapes.

    Researcher (The researcher described about art history in brief) Are you OK? How do you think about this picture is so beautiful which is made some black tables and borders.

    Participant Its so beautiful. There was a satisfaction.

    This is the painting activity of the research. It is not the main topic of this article but the author would like to show these additional figures.

    The participants can use the device and painting program that showing their artworks in 2D artistic paintings. They draw and paint in colors and shapes by themselves without any help. The test methods for painting are, such as

    Figure 13 Touching the painting of Composition

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    Figure 14 Painting by copying with the original picture of The Starry Night

    Figure 15 Painting by copying with the original picture of Horse in a Landscape

    Figure 16 Painting from the participants imagination

    Figure 17 Painting from the participants emotion and feeling

    Figure 18 Painting with the topic title of Tree and flower

    painting by copy with the original pictures, painting with the imagination, emotion, and painting with the topic assigned. The results are shown below.

  • Impression and Satisfaction of Color Perception

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    Sanchai Santiwes

    Figure 20 Painting with the topic title of Sea, Beach and Sky

    Figure 21 Painting with the topic title of My Dream

    Figure 22 Painting with the topic title of My Body

    The researcher inquired 7 congenitally blind participants for their satisfaction. It is presented by total and average score from 5 interval scales (Narong Phopruegsanun, 2008: 212-213) as follows:

    Table 6 Table of the total and average scores from satisfaction questionnaireQuestionnaire and Participants A B C D E F G Average 100%

    Obtained the knowledge and experiences. 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4.14 82.85

    Color perception and touched the artistic paintings. 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 4.57 91.42

    Expressed with drawing and painting. 5 4 5 5 4 3 3 4.14 82.85

    Learning in the art lesson. 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4.28 85.71

    Difficulty-easy to using the device. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 60

    Will you train to high level in next time? 5 4 4 4 5 3 4 4.14 82.85

    Time period to participate the activity. 4 2 2 4 4 3 2 3.3 60

    The next opportunity to participate the activity. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 80

    The advantage of the device and software. 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4.85 97.14

    Do you agree with developed this device the next? 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4.71 94.28

    Remark: 1 = very less, 2 = less, 3 = moderately, 4 = good, 5 = very good

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    The results from the satisfaction questionnaire indicates that the participants were satisfied and agreed with the advantages of the device and

    software by giving good to excellent scores. They were satisfied with the

    activity and endorsed to develop the device and software to the next level.

    Conclusion The congenitally blind participants touched the artistic paintings which were simplified in detail and reduced in colors in order for the beginners to easily perceive when using the device and touching program. They were able to perceive the colors on the paintings, which were represented by sound pitches of musical notes.In addition, they could perceive the approximate shapes. The participants were able to explain the contents and compositions of the picture even though they did not perceive as well. However, if they had more time and they were familiar with the device and software, they would be able to perceive it much better. This device and software could help the congenital blind to perceive and access the picture. They expressed impression and satisfaction while perceiving the world master piece paintings as good to excellent. Overall, they were satisfied with the activity and agreed for the development of this device and

    software to the next level. Furthermore, the participants could use the painting program to express drawing and painting in colors. These activities made good impression and satisfaction to the participants. They could select and paint some colors and shapes by themselves without any help.

    Discussion This research introduced a technique for the congenital blind to perceive colors by pairing colors to sound pitches and utilizing the touch-screen technology. The congenital blind used the software and device that included touch-screen monitor in this research. They were trained in a training course, for example, to understand the device, understand the relationship between the monitor-screen border and fingertip movement, and they were trained

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    Sanchai Santiwes

    to remember the corresponding sound pitches of musical notes. Once they learned and understood how to use the device and software conceptually, they were able to use it well. They were satisfied, pleased, and impressed

    from all research activities. The participants touched the artistic paintings, such as Kasimir Malevichs Supreme, Vincent van Goghs The Starry Night, Franz Marcs Horse in a Landscape, Serge Poliakoffs Composition verte, bleue, rouge et jaune, and Piet Mondrians Composition which were simplified

    in some details and colors. The participant could explain and criticize them. This research activity gave them new knowledge and experiences. The participants could not remember some sound pitches because there was limited time during the activity. Nevertheless, if they were able to use the device more often, they would be able to remember and did it better. From this experiment, it shows that the device and software can be used as a tool for learning art. The technique which is the comparison and pairing between colors and sound pitches is not the music and is not replaceable together actually but they are represented by coding. However, the technique can help the blind to touch and perceive colors and shapes of paintings by using touch-screen device and software that is developed specifically for this

    research. The blind, who are living in another countries, can use the touch-screen device and install this software quite easily for colors and shapes perception of pictures. The pictures are simplified colors and details

    which are the digital images. They can share pictures worldwide via the internet.

    Suggestion This research study can be further improved. One can develop software for use with other devices such as tablet and touch-screen on different operating systems. If the blind can use the device and software with more choices of sound pitches and colors, i.e. full version of the research (77 colors), they will be able to perceive the artistic pictures in much more detail and express their feelings of the paintings much better.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    The device and software can be used for learning and teaching in art education, such as art history, art criticism, art practice and art aesthetic for these students, and it can also be integrated to other fields. The software can also be developed to add more features and complexity, such as bushy and thin lines, selected line types, simulation of color mixing, etc. The author hopes that the development of these tools and devices can actually help fulfill the

    blind and their life with art.

    Acknowledgements This research was consulted with Dr. Veerawat Sirivesmas, Associate Professor Dr. Pairoj Jamuni, and the staff of instructors of Doctor of Philosophy Program in Design Arts (International Program), Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University. The author was also very grateful to his father and mother for their spiritual support. The author obtained assistance and kindness from Khon Kaen School for the Blind. Thanks also go to Professor John M. Kennedy, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, for reviewing the paper, and special thanks to Dr. Asanee Suntives. This research was supported by Research and Creative Fund of Graduate School, Silpakorn University and Research Fund of the Office of

    National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT).

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    Sanchai Santiwes

    ReferencesAuttapuk, C. (2011) Composition of Art (7st ed.). Bangkok : Pimdee Press.

    (in Thai) Bishop, B. (1893) A Souvenir of The Color Organ, with Some Suggestions

    in Regard to the Soul of The Rainbow and The Harmony of Light. n.p.: The de vine press.

    Collopy, F. (2009) Playing (with) Color. Glimpse: The Art + Science of Seeing, 2(3). [Online URL: http://rhythmiclight.com/articles/Playing(With)Color.pdf] accessed on January 14, 2012.

    Crosby, N. (2002) FreeVBCode code snippet: MIDI Keyboard Player [computer program]. [Online URL: http://www.freevbcode.com/ShowCode.asp?ID=4213] accessed on April 25, 2010.

    Deutsch, D. (1982) The Psychology of Music. London : Academic Press.Franssen, M. (1991) The Ocular Harpsichord of Louis-bertrand Castel.

    In Tractrix 3, 1991: 15-77. [Online URL: http://www.gewina.nl/journals/tractrix/franssen91.pdf] accessed on January 14, 2012.

    Gebhardt, V. (1997) Painting a Concise History. London : Laurence King Press.

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    Gleitman, H. (1992) Basic Psychology (3rd ed.). New York : W.W. Norton.Jaff, H. L. C. (1967) 20,000 Years of World Painting. New York :

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    Form. n.p.Kennedy, J. M. (1993) Drawing & the Blind: Picture to Touch. New Haven,

    CT : Yale University Press.Kommong, S. (2009) All About Music. Bangkok : O.S. Printing House.

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    Lowenfeld, B. (1981) Effects of Blindness on the Cognitive Functioning of Children, in Berthold Lowenfeld on Blindness and Blind People: Selected Papers. New York : American Federation for the Blind.

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    Microsoft. (2009) Windows 7 [computer program]. Washington : Microsoft Corporation.

    Mittler, G. A. (1994) Art in Focus (3rd ed.). New York : Glencoe.Newton, I. (1721) Opticks: or, a Treatise of The Reflections, Refractions,

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    Nopppaket, R. (1997) Psychology of Perception. Bangkok : Prakayprueg. (in Thai)

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    Rimington, A. W. (1912) Colour-Music : The Art of Mobile Colour. London : Hutchinson.

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    Santiwes, S. (2011) Color Perception of Visual Art Painting Utilizing Sound for Totally Blind. Burapha Arts Journal, Special Issue November: 117-136.

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    Wichawut, S. and others. (2007) General Psychology (5st ed.). Bangkok : Thammasat University Press. (in Thai)

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 33-62, 2013

    Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    Surachai Chancharat* and Nongnit Chancharat

    Faculty of Management Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

    *Corresponding author: csurac@kku.ac.th

    Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the empirical methodologies utilized in bankruptcy prediction and the potential predictors of firm surviving. The paper has reviewed and briefly discussed

    previous literature examining firm survival or failure in various countries

    e.g. Australia, China, Germany, Taiwan, U.S.A. and Thailand using various research methodologies such as logistic regression, multivariate discriminant analysis, neural network, survival analysis and etc. These studies have been conducted both within the qualitative and quantitative framework. It can be seen that previous studies have been using various empirical methodologies in exploring the issue regarding company survival. Future research could improve upon this current research in various aspects. Some doubts may cast on the appropriateness of model specification and the omission of important

    variables in previous studies. Thus, more future research incorporated other feasible variables is needed for model validation. The examples of those possible variables are the qualitative variables e.g. ownership structure data, specifically, gender, education and attitudes.

    Key Words: Company Survival; Corporate Governance

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    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Introduction The prediction of firms financial distress or corporate survival analysis has been of considerable interest to accountants and financial

    economists over the last three decades. Since financial distress affects a

    firms entire existence and results in a huge cost to the firms, the society and

    the countrys economy, prediction of firms financial distress is crucial for

    all those involve; owners or shareholders, managers, employees, lenders, suppliers, clients, the community and the government. Interest in corporate financial distress prediction or corporate survival analysis has grown rapidly

    in recent years with the global increase in the number of corporate collapses such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997, HIH Insurance Australia in 2001,

    the Enron and WorldCom collapse in the US in 2001 and 2002, respectively. These collapses often result significant direct and indirect costs to

    many stakeholders including shareholders, managers, employees, creditors, investors, stockholders, auditors, suppliers, customers and community. For example, the collapse of HIH entailed huge individual and social costs, as the HIH group comprises several insurance companies and was a major provider of all types of insurance in Australia (Leung and Cooper, 2003). The deficiency of the group was estimated to be between $3.6 billion and

    $5.3 billion, 200 permanently disabled people were left with no regular

    income payments, retirees with superannuation in HIH shares saw their investment disappear and several non-profit organizations were liquidated

    by the collapse (Commonwealth of Australia, 2003). When company entered into financial distress, the significant costs

    including direct and indirect cost have occurred (Altman and Hotchkiss, 2006). The impact of such events on owners, shareholders, managers, employees, lenders, suppliers, clients, the community and the government is horrendous. According to Altman (1983), financial distress can cause

    direct and indirect costs to the firm. Direct costs are the tangible, out of

    pocket expense of either liquidity or attempting a reorganization of the ailing enterprise. These include bankruptcy filing fees and legal, accountants fee

    and other professional service costs such as lawyers fee. The primary indirect cost is the lost sales and profits of the firm due to

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    the perceived potential bankruptcy. These losses are primarily from customer reluctance. Customers often need assurance that firms are sufficiently stable

    to deliver on promises and will be reluctance to buy from a firm that may

    fail. Similarly, the potential of financial distress of firms will affect the

    relationship between the firm and the suppliers. Suppliers providing goods

    and services on credit are likely to reduce the generosity of credit terms or even stop supplying. In financial distress situation, employees may become

    demotivated as job insecurity perception. Furthermore, the high potential staff will start to move to another safer enterprise. The additional indirect cost is the lost of managerial time and opportunity cost. The management has to spend daily time in dealing with liquidity problems and focusing on short term cash flow rather than long term shareholder wealth.

    In addition to the economic costs result from corporate failure, there exist the social costs relating corporate collapse. Argenti (1976) pointed that corporate collapse has always brought fearful mental pain to proprietors, entrepreneurs, managers and their families. Failure ruins lives, destroys the health of its victims, pushes the victims into the edge of suicide and beyond. It can be seen that the failure companies entail significant direct and indirect

    costs to many stakeholders. Many of the costs may be avoided if ones can identify the factors and the survival probability of the company. The reason why firms succeed or fail is perhaps the central question

    of strategy (Porter, 1991). Since corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and controlled and board of directors are responsible for the governance of the companies and develop firms strategy

    (Pass, 2004), then it is expected that corporate performance and survival is affected by corporate governance attributes. The Asian financial crisis

    in 1997 highlighted the importance of good corporate governance for the long-term survival of companies. The recent economic crisis of Thailand has been claimed to be connected to the poor quality of corporate governance and the crony economy (Alba et al., 1998; Dhnadirek and Tang, 2003; Limpaphayom and Connelly, 2004). The 1997 financial crisis result in the government shuttered fifty-six

    finance firms. Several banks closed, either taken over by the government or

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    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    merged into larger rivals. Several of remaining banks were forced to seek strategic foreign investors to speed their recovery. The weak of corporate governance practices played a major role in these difficulties (Limpaphayom

    and Connelly, 2004). Consistently, Johnson et al. (2000) pointed that in the countries with weak corporate governance, worse economic prospects result in more expropriation by managers and thus a larger fall in asset prices. The Bangkok Bank of Commerce is a well-documented example of expropriation by managers that worsened as the banks financial troubles deepened.

    There exist a number of studies explored the influence of corporate

    governance attributes on corporate performance and suggested that the corporate governance variables significantly influence the performance of

    a company in Thailand. The significant corporate governance attributes

    suggested by previous studies affect corporate performance such as ownership concentration (Alba et al., 1998; Dhnadirek and Tang, 2003), family-controlled characteristics (Suehiro, 2001; Wiwattanakantang, 2001), board composition (Connelly and Limpaphayom, 2004) and managerial ownership (Kim et al., 2004). If corporate governance influences corporate performance, then it

    is expected that corporate governance attributes affect the likelihood of corporate survival (Goktan et al., 2006). In Thailand, however, there is a lack of corporate governance studies focusing on long-term survival of the company. Accordingly, this study will explore the influences of corporate

    governance structures on company survival in Thai context. Corporate governance has become a prominent topic over at least the last two decades. One of the reasons for this prominence is the events of a series of recent USA scandals and corporate failures of the late 1990s (Becht et al., 2002). Prior literature suggests that many corporate governance structures are associated with corporate survival. For example, Parker, Peters and Turetsky (2002) reported that the auditor is less likely to issue a going concern modification to the company in the presence of employee audit

    committee members, greater insider ownership and blockholder ownership. By investigating 176 financially distressed firms, Parker, Peters and Turetsky

    (2002) suggested firms that replaced their Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

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    with an outsider were more than twice as likely to experience bankruptcy. Furthermore, the results suggested positive relationship between likelihood of firm survival and larger levels of blockholder and insider ownership.

    The failure of business unit causes significant direct and indirect costs

    which are the business unit that plays significant roles in the economy. The

    model that could be used as an early warning signal of failure is essential. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the empirical methodologies utilized in bankruptcy prediction and the potential predictors of firm surviving. The paper is divided into four sections start

    with the introduction. The following section presents literature on corporate governance. Then, we discuss the relationship between corporate governance structure and corporate survival. Finally, we provide the conclusions.

    Empirical Research on Corporate Governance Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and managed. It influences how the objectives of the company are set and

    achieved, how risk is monitored and assessed and how performance is optimized. Good corporate governance structures encourage companies to create value through entrepreneurism, innovation, development and exploration and provide accountability and control systems commensurate with the risks involved (ASX, March 2003). Corporate governance has become a prominent topic over at least the last two decades. The reason for this prominence are a number of events such as the worldwide wave of privatization of the past two decades, pension fund reform and the growth of private savings, the takeover wave of the 1980s, deregulation and the integration of capital markets, the 1998 East Asia crisis, which has put the spotlight on corporate governance in emerging markets, a series of recent USA scandals and corporate failures of the late 1990s (Becht et al., 2002). The corporate collapses of the late 1990s highlighted the need for good corporate governance and financial reporting quality. There exist

    various studies explore corporate governance aspects in relation to corporate performance in various countries. For example, Balatbat, Taylor and Walter

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    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    (2004) found that board composition measured by outsider ownership is not related with Australian IPOs operating performance while independent board leadership structure is associated with better companys performance. The consistent finding about the influence of CEO duality on corporate

    performance also is found in Bai et al. (2004) and Li and Naughton (2007) which focus the studies in Chinese context. In Chinese companies context, Hovey, Li and Naughton (2003) confirmed that ownership concentration has little explanatory power but

    ownership structure has significant relationship with firm performance.

    However, Xu and Wang (1999) argued that the mix and concentration of stock ownership significantly affect a companys performance. Lehmann and

    Weigand (2000) also found that ownership concentration negatively affect the corporate profitability in German corporations. Furthermore, investigating

    ownership structure and corporate performance in the Czech Republic, Claessens and Djankov (1999) also found that the more concentrated the ownership, the higher the firm profitability and labor productivity.

    In Thai context, there exist a numbers of studies examine the influence of corporate governance variables on corporate performance, for

    example, Alba, Claessens and Djankov (1998) investigated the relationships between ownership concentration, leverage and corporate performance of non-financial firms listed on SET. The empirical findings highlight the

    weaknesses in corporate governance and the risky corporate financing

    structures. Consistently, Dhnadirek and Tang (2003) investigated the status of Thai corporate governance system prior to the 1997 financial crisis focus on

    firms in the finance industry and suggested solving ownership concentration

    problems should be the first priority in strengthen Thai corporate governance

    systems. In contrast, Suehiro (2001) explored the relationship between ownership patterns, corporate structure and economic performance in listed Thai companies between 1996 and 2000. The major finding is that family

    businesses were not a major cause of the financial distress. The similar

    results also found in Wiwattanakantang (2001) which investigated the effects of controlling shareholders on corporate performance and suggested that

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    family-controlled firms display significantly higher performance. Furthermore, Yammeesri, Lodh and Herath (2006) examined the effect of ownership structure on corporate performance of Thai non-financial

    firms between 1993 and 1996 and reported the positive association between

    concentrated ownership and firm performance. The results show that

    different types of concentrated ownership have positive relationships to performance measures. Sukcharoensin (2003) provided three assays of corporate governance and corporate performance in Thailand. First, the effect of the board independence on firm performance in contingent on the ownership structure

    of the firm was investigated. Secondly, the relationship between audit

    committee independence and firm performance was examined. Finally, the

    effect of the announcement of corporate director changes on the companys stock price is explored. Overall results suggest that an independent board member of Thai listed firms is important factor in explaining corporate

    performance. Limpaphayom and Connelly (2004) reviewed corporate governance issue in Thailand and analyzed the relationship between corporate governance practices and firm performance. The results found a positive relationship

    between corporate governance rating and firm value measured by Tobins

    Q ratio. The study confirmed that corporate governance practices can lead

    to high firm value.

    Rather than focus on established companies in Thailand, Kim, Kitsabunnarat and Nofsinger (2004) examined corporate operating performance by focusing on the IPOs company. The study explored the association of managerial ownership and the post-IPO change in performance. The results found a curvilinear relationship between managerial ownership and corporate performance after going public. By focusing the study on specific sector, Limpaphayom and Connelly

    (2004) examined the relationship between board characteristics and firm

    performance in life insurance companies in Thailand. The empirical evidences suggest that board composition is positively related to profitability

    and negatively related to the risk-taking behavior of life insurance firms.

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    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    However, board size is not significantly associated with firm performance.

    It can be seen that various studies found the evidences support the importance of corporate governance in relation to corporate performance. In contrast, Weir and Laing (2001) investigated the relationship of corporate governance structure with corporate performance in the UK and suggested that there is no clear relationship between corporate governance and corporate performance. If corporate governance factors influence the performance of

    the company, then the governance attributes are expected to impact on the likelihood of company survival Goktan, Kieschnick and Moussawi (2006). Prior literature suggests that many corporate governance structures are associated with financial distress or the likelihood of firm survival.

    For example, Lee, Yeh and Liu (2003) employed accounting, corporate governance and macroeconomic variables to construct a binary logistic regression model for the prediction of financially distressed firms. The

    percentage of directors controlled by the largest shareholder, management participation, and the percentage of shares pledged for loans by large shareholders are found to have positive relationship with the probability of financial distress.

    Lee and Yeh (2004) utilized three corporate governance variables namely, the percentage of directors occupied by the controlling shareholder, the percentage the controlling shareholders shareholding pledged for bank loans and the deviation in control away from the cash flow rights to fit the

    dichotomous prediction models. The results suggested that three variables mentioned above are positively related to the risk of financial distress of

    Taiwan companies. Goktan, Kieschnick and Moussawi (2006) examined the relation between corporate governance structures and the likelihood of a company going private, being acquired or going bankrupt. They found the evidence that corporate governance primarily influences whether a corporation is

    acquired or goes private but not whether it goes bankrupt. In order to reduce the agency cost, Yang and Sheu (2006) suggested that the equity stake owned by management, especially by top officers, of an IPO firm should be

    encouraged. Furthermore, they observed the U-shaped relationship between

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    insider ownership and the survival time of Taiwan IPOs. Rather than focusing on the established company survival, various studies have focused on IPOs company. IPOs refers to the first sale of stock

    by a private company to the public. The process of going from a private to a public company often begins when a young company needs additional capital to grow its business. In order to gain access to required capital, the firm will

    sometimes choose to sell an ownership stake or shares of stock to outside investors. This process results in several internal changes for IPOs company especially in ownership and governance structure and this is an opportunity of the firm to considering the optimal board structure that maximizing the

    market value of the company (Shekhar and Stapledon, 2007). The survival of IPOs companies has been investigated by existing literature e.g. Cockburn and Wagner (2007) examined the effect of patenting on the survival of internet-related firms which going public during the

    dot-com boom after the late 1990s. The independent variables include industrial classification, financial data. firms age, venture capital backed,

    firms total assets, market environment and patent information. Using Coxs

    Proportional Hazard model, the results found that patenting is positively associated with survival controlling for age, venture-capital backing, financial characteristics, and stock market conditions.

    Additionally, Kauffman and Wang (2007) investigated the drivers of internet firm survival and exit using Cox proportional hazards model and a

    semiparametric Bayesian survival analysis. The empirical results suggested that market, firm and e-commerce related variables can reduce an internet

    firms likelihood of exit. Those variables include the entry of additional

    internet firms via IPOs, a smaller firm size, good IPO timing, being a late

    entrant and the selling of digital products or services. In addition, internet firms which operate in breakthrough markets are more likely to survive than

    those that operate in re-formed markets. The recent literature on the survival of IPOs which focus on the impact of corporate governance e.g. Audretsch and Lehmann (2004) explored the relationship between ownership and induced incentives and the survival of young and high-tech firm survival listed on the Neuer Markt in Germany

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    42

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    from 1997 to 2002. They found that CEOs ownership negatively related to company failure likelihood but it become insignificance when introducing

    measurements of human capital and intellectual rights. The results confirmed

    that the governance structure needed for firms in the new economy industries

    are different from traditional firms.

    Van der Goot, Van Giersbergen and Botman (2008) analyse the determinants of survival of internet firms listed on the NASDAQ between

    1996 and 2001. Their results show that surviving firms are associated with

    lower risk indications in the IPO prospectus, higher underwriter reputation, higher investor demand for the shares issued at the IPO, lower valuation un-certainty, higher insider ownership retention, a lower NASDAQ market level, and a higher operating cash flow to liabilities ratio compared to non-

    survivors. In Thailand, to our best knowledge, there is no prior study has explored the survival of IPOs companies. Kim, Kitsabunnarat and Nofsinger (2004) is the first study examining IPOs companies in Thailand but the study main

    focus is on exploring managerial ownership on the post-IPO change in performance. Furthermore, there exist limited number of studies explored corporate governance variables and financial distress in Thai context. These

    studies include Mainkamnurd (1999) and Jaikengkit (2004). Mainkamnurd (1999) focused on exploring managerial determinants in relation to firms financial distress rather than focused mainly on corporate

    governance variables. Specifically, the study explored whether management

    is related to financial distress or not. However, it should be noted that

    some variables used in the study e.g. ownership structure, management turnover and quality and creditworthiness of financial information could

    be categorized as corporate governance variables. Furthermore, Jaikengkit (2004) examined the relationship between corporate governance variables and financial distress in Thai context. However, the sample incorporate

    in Jaikengkit (2004) consist of established companies rather than IPOs companies. Using logistic model, Jaikengkit (2004) examined the impacts of concentrated ownership, board of director characteristics and managerial

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    43

    ownership on the probability of financial distress. The findings indicated that

    corporate governance and corporate failure are associated and confirmed that

    an early warning system in financial distress prediction cannot be complete

    without incorporating the corporate governance characteristics.

    The Relationship between Corporate Governance Structure and Corporate Survival The development of agency theory suggests that there is the link between corporate governance and firm performance (Audretsch and

    Lehmann, 2004). If corporate governance influences corporate performance,

    then it should have some effect on corporate survival (Goktan et al., 2006). There exist the literature explore the relationship between corporate governance structure and corporate survival. For example, Lee and Yeh (2004) presented the connection between corporate governance and financial

    distress and emphasised that firms with weak corporate governance are

    vulnerable to economic downturns and the probability of falling into financial

    distress increases. This finding is consistent with Johnson et al. (2000). In

    this section, we explore three areas of corporate governance include the board size, board independence and ownership concentration. Company characteristic e.g. company age and company size are additionally included in the model as the control variables. 1. Board Size There exist mixed results relating the effect of board size on firm survival. Lamberto and Rath (2008) claimed that guidelines of good

    governance endorse larger board sizes based on the notion that greater accountability will result. In addition, Pfeffer and Salancik (1978) argued that firms with large boards will bring a wider range of views and external

    connections, will exploit more opportunities and strengthen the power of the board relative to the CEO. Furthermore, Li and Naughton (2007) found that the board size of Chinese IPOs has a significant positive relationship to initial

    returns, suggesting that board size is an important issue for IPO investors in China. This is consistent with the findings of (Adams and Mehran, 2003).

    However, board size is found to have inverse relationship with firm

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    44

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    value (Yermack, 1996). The author also pointed out that companies with small boards exhibit more favorable values for financial ratios and provide

    stronger CEO performance incentives form compensation and the threat of dismissal. Furthermore, Elsayed (2007) found board size is never significant

    impact on corporate performance. This finding is consistent with Parker,

    Peters and Turetsky (2002) and Lamberto and Rath (2008) which also found that board size has insignificant effect on survival. By investigating life

    insurance company in Thailand, Connelly and Limpaphayom (2004) also confirmed that board size is not significantly related to firm performance.

    2. Board Independence While the importance of board independence has been generally acknowledged, there is no common consensus relating the definition of

    independence (Brennan and McDermott, 2004; Kang et al., 2007). Previous studies have using the word outside directors instead of independence to describe directors who are presumed to be independent from management (Ajinkya et al., 2005). Some existing studies simply consider the differences between executive and non-executive directors in three aspects (Kang et al., 2007; Lamberto and Rath, 2008). Firstly, based on agency perspective, Fama and Jensen (1983) argued that if the majority of the directors on the board are independent director, then the less likely the CEO and inside directors will exercise behaviors that are self-serving on the costs of shareholders. Consistently, Pass (2004) pointed that since non-executive directors can provide independent judgment, thus, the interests of shareholders will be protected by the presence of independent directors. Furthermore, the company could benefit from non-executive

    directors since they can contribute valuable external business expertise to the company, can often see risks and opportunities for the company which might have been overlooked by the companys executive directors who are typically immersed in the day-to-day running of the business. The results from existing literature relating the effects of proportion of non-executive directors on corporate performance and survival are mixed. Some literature found evidence support expectation that higher proportion of non-executive directors in the board lead to better corporate performance

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    45

    and consequently, higher probability of corporate survival. e.g. Rosenstein and Wyatt (1990), Daily and Dalton (1994) and Beasley (1996). In contrast, Hermalin and Weisbach (1991), Yermack (1996) and Klein (1998) found a negative relationship between the proportion of outside directors and corporate performance. Furthermore, some literature found there is no relationship between the proportion of non-executive directors and corporate performance e.g. Vafeas and Theodorou (1998), Laing and Weir (1999), Bhagat and Black (2001) and Balatbat, Taylor and Walter (2004). In Thai context, Sukcharoensin (2003) suggested that an independent board member of Thai listed firms is important factor in explaining corporate

    performance. In addition, Connelly and Limpaphayom (2004) also found the positive relationship between insurance firm performance and the board

    composition measured by the number of outside directors divided by the total number of board members. Based on Connelly and Limpaphayom (2004), this study also adopted the same measurement of independent directors for examining the effect of independent directors on IPOs survival. Secondly, chairman is responsible for leadership of the board, for the efficient organization and conduct of the boards function and for the

    briefing of all directors in relation to issues arising at board meetings (ASX,

    March 2003). It is expected that a company with the presence of independent chairman is more likely to pursue the interests of the shareholders and effectively monitor the management (Weir and Laing, 2001). This implies that non-executive chairman enhance the corporate performance and survival likelihood. In contrary, executive chairman is expected to have a greater knowledge of a firm and its industry and have greater commitment to the

    organization than an external or non-executive chairman (Boyd, 1995). Therefore, this argument expects the negative relationship between the presence of non-executive chairman and firm performance and survival.

    It can be seen that there are conflicting argument about the effect of non-executive chairman on corporate performance and survival. Therefore, it remains open question whether IPOs company with the presence of non-executive chairman is more likely to survive.

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    46

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Finally, measurement of board independence is the usage of independent leadership structure. CEO duality leadership structure exists when the same person serves as a firms CEO and the chairman of the board

    of directors while independent leadership structure could be described as the case which different individuals serve in these positions is referred. There exist conflicting opinions about the benefits and costs of using

    these leadership structures. Proponents of the independent structure argue that CEO duality structure may constitute a clear conflict of interest and

    systematically reduces the boards ability to fulfill its governance function

    (Rechner and Dalton, 1991; Brickley et al., 1997). Given that one of the boards central functions is to monitor the performance of top management, allowing the CEO serve both roles may lead to compromise in the desired system of check and balance (Levy, 1981; Dayton, 1984; Rechner and Dalton, 1991). The inappropriate governance structures may contribute to firm crisis and eventual bankrupt (Daily and

    Dalton, 1994). Advocates of the CEO duality structure argue that CEO duality structure provides a single focal point for company leadership and provides clear focus for objectives and operations (Rechner and Dalton, 1991). Additionally, the independent leadership structure may lead to a potential for rivalry between the CEO and the chairperson and making it difficult to pinpoint blame for poor performance (Brickley et al., 1997).

    The empirical results regarding the association between CEO duality structure and corporate performance survival are mixed. For example, Fama and Jensen (1983), Rechner and Dalton (1991), Jensen (1993) and Daily and Dalton (1994) suggested that CEO duality leadership is ineffective. However, some studies found CEO duality has no impact on corporate failure (Chaganti et al., 1985) and corporate performance (Elsayed, 2007). A dummy variable is used for measure of independent leadership structure. Specifically, if the chairman and CEO are different people then a

    value of 1 is recorded, 0 otherwise. The third area of corporate governance mechanisms examined in this study is the ownership concentration. Particular attention on the corporate governance literature has been put on ownership concentration as a key to more effective corporate governance

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    47

    and shareholders value maximization. 3. Ownership Concentration Agency theory concerns what set of governance rules will enhance efficiency and thus maximize wealth (Arthur et al., 1993). The main concern

    is whether managers pursue their own interests rather than maximize shareholders values. Based on the monitoring and convergence of interested hypothesis of agency theory, when shareholders are too diffuse to monitor managers, corporate assets can be used for the benefit of managers rather than for

    maximizing shareholder wealth (Himmelberg et al., 1999). In addition, it is argued that firm is more likely to survive if ownership concentration is

    high. This is because shareholders are more likely to have an influence on

    managements decisions and shareholders will want to expend monitoring costs as their stake in the firm is relatively high (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).

    Based on information asymmetry theory, when stockholdings are concentrated, information asymmetries are low, the ability of stockholders to remove a management team is high and managers are more likely to pursue strategies that are in stockholders interests. In contrast, when stockholding are diffused, the significant information asymmetries are likely to exist

    and management is then more likely to pursue strategies inconsistent with stockholders interested (Hill and Snell, 1989). The effect of ownership concentration on corporate performance has been the subject of many theoretical and empirical researches. However, the empirical results about effects of ownership concentration on firm

    performance are mixed. For example, Claessens and Djankov (1999) suggested that the more concentrated the ownership, the higher profitability

    and labor productivity. Consistently, Bai et al. (2004) confirmed the positive

    relationship between ownership concentration and corporate values. In contrast, some studies suggested that ownership concentration negatively related to corporate survival e.g. Woo, Jeffrey and Lange (1995) and Kang, Cheng and Gray (2007). Furthermore, Demsetz and Lehn (1985) found that corporate ownership concentration is not related to accounting profit rates of a company. Consistent with Demsetz and Lehn (1985), Hovey,

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    48

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Li and Naughton (2003) also indicated that ownership concentration does not explain firm performance.

    In Thai context, Alba, Claessens and Djankov (1998) discussed that concentration of ownership is common in developing countries and there are both pros and cons to such concentration. However, high concentrated ownership in Thailand may lead to following disadvantages. First, ownership concentration may impede the development of professional managers that are required as economies and firms mature and become more complex.

    Second, it may have led to increased risk taking behavior by firms given the

    inter-relationships between financial institutions and banks. The empirical

    results found that firms with concentrated ownership show a deteriorating

    performance relative to firms with less concentrated ownership.

    Consistently, focusing the analysis on firms in finance industry,

    Dhnadirek and Tang (2003) also reported that Thai system lacks diversity in governance mechanisms while ownership concentration is ineffective. However, Suehiro (2001) found that ownership via family affiliated

    firms is positively related to corporate performance measured by ROA and

    ROE. Additionally, Wiwattanakantang (2001) also confirmed the consistent

    results that family-controlled firms are associated with higher performance.

    The consistent evidence also found in Yammeesri, Lodh and Herath (2006) which reported the positive association between concentrated ownership and Thai non-financial firms performance.

    This study examines the relation of ownership concentration and IPOs survival, this study hypothesizes that ownership concentration attribute is significantly related IPOs companies survival.

    Furthermore, this study additionally explores the relationship between control variables and the likelihood of survival of IPOs companies in addition to corporate governance as the core variables in the analysis. The details are specified as follows.

    4. Company Characteristic Two variables measuring company-specific characteristics are employed in the analysis as following details. First, prior literature presented that firm survival are negatively correlated with its size. The rational for this

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    49

    relationship is the larger firms have more ability to avoid financial distress

    by using public equity markets (Goktan et al., 2006). Schultz (1993) found the inverse relationship between the probability of delisting and firm size.

    Smaller firms have a higher probability of delisting and larger firms have a

    higher probability of survival. Second, previous studies, for example, Jovanovic (1982), Chen and Lee (1993), Lensberg, Eilifsen and McKee (2004), Rommer (2004), Li, Zhang and Zhou (2005), Rommer (2005), Hensher, Jones and Greene (2007) suggest the importance of company age in explaining financial

    failure. Jovanovic (1982) developed a learning model where age captures the experience of firm and thus is the major determinant of firm survival.

    Younger firm may have less experience, incomplete knowledge of the

    business, limited managerial quality (Jovanovic, 1982; Hopenhayn, 1992). Therefore, younger companies are associated with higher risks of failure.

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    50

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Tabl

    e 1

    Sum

    mar

    y of

    Sel

    ecte

    d E

    mpi

    rica

    l Stu

    dies

    on

    Cor

    pora

    te G

    over

    nanc

    e an

    d C

    ompa

    ny S

    urvi

    val

    No

    Stud

    ies

    Dat

    aM

    etho

    dolo

    gyC

    ount

    ries

    Peri

    odIn

    depe

    nden

    t Var

    iabl

    es1

    Alb

    a, C

    laes

    sens

    and

    D

    jank

    ov (1

    998)

    Thai

    land

    1992

    - 19

    96O

    wne

    rshi

    p co

    ncen

    trat

    ion,

    leve

    rage

    , cor

    pora

    te fi

    nanc

    ing

    patte

    rns,

    Sect

    or D

    umm

    y an

    d Si

    ze D

    umm

    yC

    orre

    latio

    n an

    alys

    is

    2C

    laes

    sens

    and

    Dja

    nkov

    (1

    999)

    Cze

    ch

    Rep

    ublic

    1992

    - 19

    97A

    ccou

    ntin

    g da

    ta a

    nd th

    e sh

    are

    of e

    quity

    hel

    d by

    the

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    five

    inve

    stor

    sR

    egre

    ssio

    n an

    alys

    is

    3X

    u an

    d W

    ang

    (199

    9)C

    hina

    1993

    - 19

    95O

    wne

    rshi

    p m

    ix a

    nd c

    once

    ntra

    tion,

    lega

    l per

    son

    shar

    ehol

    ders

    and

    the

    inef

    fici

    ency

    of

    stat

    e ow

    ners

    hip

    Reg

    ress

    ion

    anal

    ysis

    4Le

    hman

    n an

    d W

    eiga

    nd

    (200

    0)G

    erm

    any

    1991

    - 19

    96O

    wne

    rshi

    p co

    ncen

    tratio

    n, th

    e m

    anag

    ed v

    s. th

    e go

    vern

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    n th

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    ions

    Reg

    ress

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    ysis

    5Su

    ehiro

    (200

    1)Th

    aila

    nd19

    96 -

    2000

    Type

    s of b

    usin

    ess,

    owne

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    ttern

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    emen

    t st

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    , pro

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    s

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    ang

    (200

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    nd19

    96Th

    e pr

    esen

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    f con

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    man

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    ent b

    y co

    ntro

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    g sh

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    acte

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    stry

    effe

    cts

    Reg

    ress

    ion

    anal

    ysis

    7D

    hnad

    irek

    and

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    (2

    003)

    Thai

    land

    1994

    - 19

    96M

    anag

    eria

    l ow

    ners

    hip,

    deb

    t pre

    ssur

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    ank

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    d fi

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    ize

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    inar

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    res r

    egre

    ssio

    n an

    d hi

    erar

    chic

    al

    regr

    essi

    on

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    51

    No

    Stud

    ies

    Dat

    aM

    etho

    dolo

    gyC

    ount

    ries

    Peri

    odIn

    depe

    nden

    t Var

    iabl

    es8

    Hov

    ey, L

    i and

    N

    augh

    ton

    (200

    3)C

    hina

    1997

    - 19

    99O

    wne

    rshi

    p of

    larg

    e sh

    areh

    olde

    rs, t

    he to

    p fi

    ve

    shar

    ehol

    ders

    , and

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    stat

    e an

    d le

    gal p

    erso

    ns, r

    elat

    ive

    to

    the

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    ortio

    n of

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    able

    A-s

    hare

    s

    Reg

    ress

    ion

    anal

    ysis

    9B

    ai e

    t al.

    (200

    4)C

    hina

    1999

    - 20

    01O

    wne

    rshi

    p va

    riabl

    es, b

    oard

    of d

    irect

    ors,

    exec

    utiv

    e co

    mpe

    nsat

    ion,

    the

    perc

    enta

    ge o

    f sha

    res h

    eld

    by th

    ese

    top

    exec

    utiv

    es, fi

    nanc

    ial t

    rans

    pare

    ncy,

    gov

    ernm

    ent

    cont

    rolli

    ng, s

    ize,

    leve

    rage

    ratio

    , the

    cap

    ital-s

    ales

    ratio

    , th

    e op

    erat

    ion

    inco

    me-

    sale

    s rat

    io a

    nd in

    dust

    ry se

    ctor

    The

    fixe

    d ef

    fect

    s m

    odel

    s and

    the

    rand

    om e

    ffect

    s m

    odel

    s

    10B

    alat

    bat,

    Tayl

    or a

    nd

    Wal

    ter (

    2004

    )A

    ustra

    lia19

    76

    199

    3O

    wne

    rshi

    p an

    d co

    rpor

    ate

    gove

    rnan

    ce a

    ttrib

    utes

    Ord

    inar

    y-le

    ast-

    squa

    res r

    egre

    ssio

    n

    11Li

    mpa

    phay

    om a

    nd

    Con

    nelly

    (200

    4)Th

    aila

    nd19

    97-2

    002

    Sale

    s, si

    ngle

    dom

    estic

    ow

    ner d

    umm

    y va

    riabl

    es, n

    on-

    fam

    ily

    grou

    p du

    mm

    y va

    riab

    les,

    new

    firm

    s du

    mm

    y an

    d in

    dust

    ry d

    umm

    y va

    riabl

    es.

    Reg

    ress

    ion

    anal

    ysis

    12Li

    and

    Nau

    ghto

    n (2

    007)

    Chi

    na19

    99 -

    2001

    Boa

    rd in

    depe

    nden

    cy, l

    eade

    rshi

    p st

    ruct

    ure,

    boa

    rd si

    ze,

    year

    of i

    ssua

    nce,

    IPO

    offe

    r siz

    e, lo

    ttery

    rate

    ratio

    , in

    dust

    ry d

    umm

    y, le

    gal p

    erso

    n ow

    ners

    hip,

    trad

    able

    A

    -sha

    res o

    wne

    rshi

    p an

    d ea

    rnin

    gs p

    er sh

    are

    Ord

    inar

    y-le

    ast-

    squa

    res r

    egre

    ssio

    n

    13M

    aink

    amnu

    rd (1

    999)

    Thai

    land

    1996

    - 19

    98O

    wne

    rshi

    p st

    ruct

    ure,

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    ager

    ial t

    urno

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    man

    agem

    ents

    agg

    ress

    ion

    in te

    rms o

    f inv

    estin

    g an

    d fi

    nanc

    ing

    styl

    es, s

    kill

    s an

    d pe

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    f m

    anag

    ing

    unde

    r fl

    oati

    ng e

    xcha

    nge

    rate

    reg

    ime,

    qua

    lity

    of

    cond

    ucti

    ng fi

    nanc

    ial i

    nfor

    mat

    ion

    and

    indu

    stry

    con

    diti

    on

    Logi

    stic

    regr

    essi

    on

    anal

    ysis

    Tabl

    e 1

    Sum

    mar

    y of

    Sel

    ecte

    d E

    mpi

    rica

    l Stu

    dies

    on

    Cor

    pora

    te G

    over

    nanc

    e an

    d C

    ompa

    ny S

    urvi

    val (

    cont

    inue

    d)

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    52

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    No

    Stud

    ies

    Dat

    aM

    etho

    dolo

    gyC

    ount

    ries

    Peri

    odIn

    depe

    nden

    t Var

    iabl

    es14

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    and

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    (2

    003)

    Taiw

    an19

    98 -

    2001

    Acc

    ount

    ing,

    cor

    pora

    te g

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    nanc

    e an

    d m

    acro

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    va

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    esLo

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    sion

    an

    alys

    is

    15A

    udre

    tsch

    and

    Le

    hman

    n (2

    004)

    Ger

    man

    y19

    97 -

    2002

    Fir

    m a

    ge, fi

    rm s

    ize,

    firm

    gro

    wth

    , ow

    ners

    hip

    acad

    emic

    titl

    e ex

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    and

    boa

    rd a

    nd fi

    rm p

    aten

    tsPr

    opor

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    l haz

    ard

    dura

    tion

    mod

    el

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    (200

    4)Th

    aila

    ndC

    once

    ntra

    ted

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    rshi

    p, b

    oard

    of d

    irect

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    acte

    ristic

    s and

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    ager

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    ic re

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    sion

    an

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    is

    17K

    im, K

    itsab

    unna

    rat

    and

    Nof

    sing

    er (2

    004)

    Thai

    land

    1987

    - 19

    93,

    Man

    ager

    ial o

    wne

    rshi

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  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    53

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  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    54

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Conclusions This paper has presented many issues relating the failure rate from previous literature. Furthermore, the paper also has reviewed and briefly

    discussed previous literature examining company survival or failure in various countries e.g. Australia, China, Germany, Taiwan, U.S.A. and Thailand using various research methodologies such as logistic regression, multivariate discriminant analysis, neural network, survival analysis and etc. These studies have been conducted both within the qualitative and quantitative framework. In Thailand, however, there is a lack of corporate governance studies focusing on long-term survival of the company. Rather than examining the survival likelihood of a company, most of previous corporate governance studies in Thai context have focused on examining the corporate performance issue. These studies such as Alba, Claessens and Djankov (1998), Suehiro (2001), Wiwattanakantang (2001), Dhnadirek and Tang (2003), Sukcharoensin (2003), Connelly and Limpaphayom (2004), Kim, Kitsabunnarat and Nofsinger (2004) and Yammeesri, Lodh and Herath (2006). It can be seen that previous studies have been using various empirical methodologies in exploring the issue regarding company survival or failure. Future research could improve upon this current research in various aspects. Some doubts may cast on the appropriateness of model specification and

    the omission of important variables in previous studies. Thus, more future research incorporated other feasible variables is needed for model validation. The examples of those possible variables are the qualitative variables e.g. ownership structure data, specifically, gender, education, attitudes etc. (Yang and Sheu, 2006). Keasey and Watson (1987) discussed that marginally better predictions concerning small company failure may be obtained from non-financial data. Consistently, Laitinen and Kankaanpaa (1999) indicated that

    the efficiency of the prediction model in terms of its discriminatory power

    may be enhanced by non-financial characteristics and pointed that agency

    theories suggest that managerial incentives are potentially influential factors.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    55

    One possible limitation of financial failure or bankruptcy research

    is the limited sample size and data availability. This study also is not the exception. Particularly, many IPOs have to be cut from the analysis because of uncompleted data. Therefore, in future studies, research should put more effort into collecting larger data sets should be considered to avoid the limited reliability of the findings problem and support the empirical results

    found in this research. There have been various empirical methodologies employed to explore financial distress or bankruptcy areas. Researchers

    argue that these models have their own benefits and limitations. Laitinen

    and Kankaanpaa (1999) confirmed that no superior method among the

    six most popular failure prediction techniques e.g. MDA, logit analysis, recursive partitioning, survival analysis, neural networks and the human information processing approach. Accordingly, it can be stated that one of the latest applications, neural networks, is in its present form as effective as MDA which was as early as thirty years ago. Therefore, the future study that incorporates various methodologies e.g. MDA, survival analysis or neural network in predicting financial failure and compare the estimated model

    ability could contribute the empirical evidence to the relevant literature.

    Acknowledgment We would like to express our appreciation to the Office of Higher Education Commission and the Thailand Research Fund for research funding, project number MRG5280056. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all comments and suggestions from the participants at the fifth ACAS

    International Conference on Global Financial Crisis in the Asian Context: Repercussions and Responds by Ateneo Center for Asian Studies, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines that have greatly improved the paper.

  • Corporate Governance and Company Survival

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    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

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  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 63-73, 2013

    Scenario of Exercise, Fundamental Sports and Mass Sports in Thailand

    Pot Chaisena

    Department of Humanities, Faculty of Liberal ArtsUbonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani, Thailand

    Corresponding author: pot.ub.un@hotmail.com

    Abstract The research aimed to study the scenario of exercise, fundamental sports and mass sports in Thailand in terms of input, process and output. The technique known as Ethnographic Delphi Future research was used in the study. The target groups were the experts concerned with sports: 18 sports administrators, academics and others involved in local sports. The research instrument was the interview format. Statistics used in data analysis were mean, median and quartile range. The study found that the scenario of exercise, fundamental sports and mass sports in Thailand could be described as follows: Scenario of development of exercise, and fundamental sports in Thailand Input: personnel of physical education should be increased in line with the proportion of children and youths in educational establishments. It was necessary that teaching personnel in physical education in schools of all levels had to complete at least a degree in the physical education major. As regards administration, children and youths were to be encouraged to continually do exercises; there should be standardized criteria for physical faculty for children and youths; sufficient fund should be provided to be spent on the

    development of exercise and sports. In respect of process in developing the curriculum of physical education, it was necessary that the curriculum be in conformity with local conditions and targets; a body of knowledge and local wisdom should be integrated; an instructional process should be evaluated and followed up the results of educational quality evaluation

  • Scenario of Exercise, Fundamental Sports

    64

    Pot Chaisena

    should be used to determine strategies to solve the problems and improve work performance. Output: in the future children and youths both inside and outside the schools should be equipped with knowledge, understanding of and a positive attitude towards doing exercises and playing sports. Focus should be on exercise to promote health. By comparing the shape and size of people from the developed countries that have standard exercise and sports, it was essential that physical ability of Thai children and youths must be on the same standard or close to the same standard accepted in the developed countries. Scenario of exercise and mass sports in Thailand. Concerning an input, there should be volunteers who could lead a community to promote exercises and local sports. In administration, resources should be galvanized from all parties in a community. In order to get people interested and motivated to do exercises and play sports, media and innovations to disseminate information on exercise and sports were to be created; there should be modern and standardized sports facilities. In the process of developing exercise and sports, the sports bodies should function according to the national sports development plan, promote the mass sports activities, organize the local sports competition, control the quality of evaluation. Other factors which were crucial included a reform and amendment of laws, rules, regulations and relevant announcements. Database should be systematized to develop mass sports. As for output, in the future people from all walks of life were expected to have a chance to do exercise and play sports and take part in recreational activities. The goals were to promote good health, moral, harmony, faculty and discipline.

    Key Words: Exercise; Fundamental Sports; Mass sports

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    65

    Introduction Exercises and sports are important to the development of the country as the make people healthy physically, mentally, socially, intellectually and spiritually. The Thai government had realized the significance of exercise and

    sports, making these activities the policy of the national sports development. Sports could be a source of pride, inspiration, income, occupation and economic development. Based on the researches, it was found that there were several problems and obstacles for developing exercises and sports. The Office of Health

    Promotion Fund (2008) found that although the government had a policy to develop sports continually, fewer youths did engage in exercises. It was found that only 32.47% of children and youths (6-18 years) engaged in exercises and sports. As the majority of Thais did not exercise and play sports, health problem resulted, which cost the country an estimated 96.36 billion baht in spending in the public health and an estimated 2.5 billion in medication each year. Thus it can be said that exercises and sports are vital tools to be used to cut an enormous spending on health and to prevent diseases. Chuensiri and Khuanbunjan (2011) conducted a study on the youths demands for support and promotion of sports in Bangkok. They found that the youths demands for sports support and promotion was at a high level. The demands for tools, equipments, venues and budget, were at a maximum level. However, the government policy for budgetary support was unclear. Probably there might be a number of actors behind it: shortage of staff, budget, tools, equipment and venues, etc. Silapa-anan (2006) studied the problems and solutions found in the project of developing sports and recreation for mass at the district level. They had found that the implementation of the project at the district level was relatively low. It was suggested that district authorities should give more time to sports and recreational activities. Muangkaew (2000) who studied the implementation of the sports development plan found that the cooperation from the relevant agencies was connected with the effectiveness of implementing a policy. The problems and obstacles as seen in the

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    implementation were insufficient budget, non-availability of information,

    of personnel and venues, equipments and facilities. Thus, the researcher was interested in studying the context relating to the development of exercises, fundamental sports and mass sports in Thailand. The researcher used the technique called EDFR. The aim was to predict the likely incidents or circumstances in the development of exercises, fundamental sports and mass sports in Thailand. It is expected that the present work would be a good guideline leading to a better development.

    Purpose of Research To study a scenario of development of exercises, fundamental sports and mass sports in Thailand.

    Review Literature Exercise and sports for health Exercise for health means physical work out or practice that require different parts of a body to work harder than usual in commensurate with age, sex and individual bodily conditions. The result is expected to change in a better direction. Strong and health bodily conditions enable a person to perform very effectively and live happily in society. Exercise contributes to muscular movement and growth. Development of exercise and fundamental sports in Thailand Fundamental or basic sports means the sports in question aims to train and prepare physical and mental preparation through exercise and sports to enhance a positive attitude, harmony and sportsmanship for the young children and youths (Tourism and Sports Ministry, 2006).That is the essence of the national sports development plans. The main strategies to develop basic sports could be carried out by: disseminating knowledge on sports, making the young children and youths know the importance of sports, providing an opportunity to all groups of people to play sports and do exercise, creating media and innovation to give better understanding, having an environment favorable to teaching and learning, coordinating with all parties concerned so that public members can

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    play sports and do exercise, organizing recreational activities, conducting a study and research, developing sports and recreation, and establishing a standard of sports faculty. Development of mass sports in Thailand The development of this kind of sports aimed to encourage all groups of people including the underprivileged to play sports and do exercise and participate in the recreational activity in consistence with the way of life. The goals were to promote health, faculty, virtue, moral, harmony and discipline of the individuals (Tourism and Sports Ministry, 2007). The development of the mass sports could be undertaken by: 1) disseminating knowledge on mass sports, and supporting education and researches on sports and exercise for health, 2) making available sports venues, equipments, etc. 3) having a volunteer who can lead the exercise activity for all groups of people including the elderly and the physically challenged. Development of sports should be continually made through training, seminar and study. In addition, there should be a sports center at all levels of sub-districts. Sports facilities should be available to those desirous of playing sports.

    Research Methodology The present study utilized the technique known as Ethnographic Delphi Future Research: EDFR based on the following methods. Stage one : 18 well-learned informants were interviewed about the future development of exercises, fundamental sports and mass sports. Stage two : information derived from interviewing the well-learned informants was used to create a five-layered rating scale questionnaire. It

    was also used to gather the information in round 2. Stage three : Data acquired from the questionnaire administered on the experts were analyzed to find out median, range of quartile.

    The items with the median value ranged from 3.51 to 5.00. Data were used to create the questionnaire in round 3. Stage four : Consensus granted by the experts characterized a future development of exercises and sports in Thailand.

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    Research Instruments Research Instruments were the rating scale and interview format meant for the experts. The research instrument used in data collection in round one was a structured interview to be used to interview 18 experts in sports. Which , cover both of expert in the center and provincial , compose , 5 executives person groups , 8 sport expert groups and 5 accessory sport group in locality. The interview was focused on 1) input: personnel, administration, budget, resources and basic sport structure, 2) process: development of a curriculum in learning and teaching sports, exercise development, quality control, evaluation and follow-up, 3) output. The research instrument used in round two was the five-layered rating

    scale questionnaire. The research instrument used in data collection in round three was the questionnaire that displayed the results of data analysis with the median value ranging from 3.51 5.00, which means the experts highly agree. Results The study results could be summarized as follows: Scenario of development of exercise and fundamental sports in Thailand. Input: a standard criterion of physical faculty should be set up for children and youths. Physical capability should be tested. Process: a curriculum of physical education was to be evaluated and revised according to changes to enable learners to do exercises and play sports appropriately. Output: children and youths inside and outside the school system had knowledge of and a positive attitude towards health. Considering the quality of children and youths in comparing them to their counterparts from developed countries, their physical faculty must be on the same standard or be close to the same standard. Scenario of development of exercises and mass sports in Thailand. Input: local administrators had a positive attitude towards exercises and developed a policy to promote exercise and sports. Volunteers should lead the activities for all groups of the public members. Regarding budget,

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    resources and basic sports structure, media and innovation were essential to disseminate knowledge on exercise and sports. There should be modern and standard sports facilities. There should be a health park in a community, a sports club, a sports leader club. Process: sports activities should be held at the levels of villages, sub-districts and districts. As for quality control, evaluation and follow-up, reform and correction should be made on laws, rules, and regulations. Research and innovation in sports were necessary. Local administrative organizations were to introduce guidelines to promote fundamental sports and mass sports. Information technology should be put in place to follow up and evaluate database for further development. Output: All groups of people could play sports, exercise and participate in recreational activities in line with their daily life to develop a life quality and promote faculty, virtues, harmony and discipline.

    Discussion Based on the research, the following could be discussed. As regards further development of exercise and fundamental sports, experts predicted that the personnel should be increased in proportion to children and youths in educational establishments. The personnel should at least hold a degree with a physical education major. The prediction made by the experts was probably due to the current circumstances. There were fewer teachers holding a degree in physical education. Some schools did not have a qualified teacher for

    the subject. A teacher tasked to teach could not perform satisfactorily. The finding was consistent with the research conducted by Kritpet (2004) who

    found that the development of the Nations sports should start from the basic sports. The main goal was children and youths. The following projects should be held: a curriculum based on physical education, interschool sport competition, physical education activities for recreation, development for excellence. Considering the administration of fundamental sports, children and youths were to be encouraged to continually exercise at all levels. All agencies concerned had to cooperate by gathering resources from all sources concerned to make sports development effective and successful. Yenjet

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    (2005) found that the basic sports administration should consist of committee members from different agencies, for example the local administration bodies, local sports authority. As far as budget, resources and basic sport structure were concerned, experts predicted that the state should allocate more budget for the development of sports to educational places. It should make special investment and support in an instructional process of a physical education. The prediction was due to a present day condition in which budget, resources and basic sports structure were inadequate. As a result, there should be funds for research and development of sports. Funds were to be acquired from the private and public sectors. Concerning the development of the curriculum and instruction of physical education, experts held that the preliminary education place were required to develop a specific curriculum.

    This was probably due to the fact that many educational establishments focused on core subjects or academic subjects. The aims they focused on were high achievement and high ratio of university admission. The focal points in question deprived students of an opportunity in studying physical education. An appropriate period would give students time to exercise and move adequately. With regard to output, experts held that children and youths should be equipped with knowledge of and a positive attitude towards sports and exercise. The quality should be more on exercise to promote health. As compared to the shape and structure of children in developed countries, the children must have physical faculty similar to or be on the same standard. As regards the development of exercise and mass sports in the future, experts viewed that local administrators had to develop a positive attitude towards exercise. They should encourage personnel to be seriously engaged in sports. The administrators should support volunteers to play a leading role in exercise and sports activities. The prediction possibly came from the current trend in that more people were interested in exercise and sports. The idea was that exercise and sports could make them physically strong and immune from diseases. Besides, exercise could get rid of physical and mental illness.

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    According to experts, administration, budget, resources and sports structure should be more systematized to make it favorable to development. The local organization should be made responsible for local mass sports. There should be continual budget. That was because at present the sport body and private agencies that support sports were sufficient, but they were

    not well cooperative. It was essential that there be coordination among the agencies. In light of output, the experts predicted that all groups of people had a chance to play sports and do exercise and take part in recreational activities, which was consistent with their daily life. The prediction probably came from a combination of current situations, development of mass sports and popular interest.

    Conclusion The present study could be utilized as guidelines in developing and planning the nations exercise and sports activities. To do so, a consideration is to be given to the input, budget, resources and basic sports structure. In respect of the process, a consideration is to be given to the development of a curriculum, the instructional process, quality control, evaluation and follow-up. In output, all groups of people should be encouraged to do exercise and play sports with the goal to promote health.

    Acknowledgements This research would not have been completed if there had been no help or support from many people. First of all I would like to express my sincere thanks to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wasana Kunaapisit, Dr. Buntoom Suraporn who guided and commented as well as gave beneficial suggestions. I also would

    like to thank very much organizations for their good cooperation and for guidance from faculty of liberal arts, Ubonratchathani University.

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    ReferencesBaker, J. (2010) Sport Participation and Positive Development in Older

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    Daume, W. (1972) Sport For All. Munich : Olypic. Forneris, T. (2012) The Development of Life Skills and Values in High

    School Sport: Is there a Gap between Stakeholders Expectations and Perceived Experiences. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10(3): 9-23.

    Fowel, L. (1978) Handbook of Future Research. Connecticut : Greenwood.Jackson, R. S. (1934) Introduction to Physical Education. New York : A.S.

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    Phalapong, P. (1984) History, the Philosophy and Physical Education Principle (5th ed.). Bangkok : Odienstore.

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    Silapaanun, S. (2007) A Problem and Remedy Operating Trend Follow the Project Develop the Sport and , Masses Recreation in Amphur Level, East Area. Masters Thesis, Burapa University.

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    _______. (1994) (2009) The Driving Moves Government Policy for Sports Development of Thailand, Systematically and Last Long. Bangkok : The Sport Authority of Thailand.

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    Yenjitt, K. (2005) Administration Sports Format : Center Tumbol Sport of the Sport Authority of Thailand. Doctoral Dissertation, Burapa University.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 75-97, 2013

    Does Social Capital Work in Thai Politics?

    Wanlapat Suksawas1*, Peter Mayer2

    1 Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand

    2 School of History and Politics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

    *Corresponding author: wanlapats@hotmail.com

    Abstract The study employed Robert D. Putnams concept of social capital to study Thai politics. It had three main objectives: to investigate the capacity of social capital in Thai society to increase peoples political participation in local government, to examine whether social capital improves the institutional performance of local government, and to explore both the impact of peoples political participation in local government on the institutional performance of local governments, and the impact of institutional performance on peoples political participation, in the north of Thailand. There were three main findings in which emerged from the research.

    Firstly, it was found that social capital does not promote peoples participation in local politics. Secondly, it was evident that not all components of social capital can enhance the institutional performance of local government. Networks of civic engagement and generalized trust fail to increase the effective institutional performance of local government. Lastly, it was discovered that political participation by citizens and institutional performance has no positive effect on each other. It can be concluded that Putnams concept of social capital shows clear limitations and cannot be employed effectively in the context of Thai politics.

    Key Words: Social Capital; Political Participation; Thai politics; Local Government

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    Introduction According to the Thailand Human Development Report 2003 (pp. 112-115), the Participation Index1 shows that the north region achieves the highest index score (0.6525) of all 6 regions, while the average of all regions is 0.5758. Similarly, and more recently, the Thailand Human Development Report 2007 (pp. 2-17) shows that the north region achieves a high rank in the participation index. It is very interesting to consider why this region presents such high levels of participation in community, social and political affairs. Lamphun province achieves the highest ranking on both the Human Achievement Index (HAI)2 and the Participation Index. Phichit and Tak, with similar population sizes, are provinces with lower ranking regarding both HAI and the Participation Index. Concerning the participation ranking, Phichit is a middle ranking province. The local residents in Phichit spend much smaller amounts of time in social service and unpaid services to other households. More importantly, Tak province has a very low ranking on HAI both and participation. Why do provinces that are situated in the same region and with similar size of population have such large differences both in terms of human achievement and public participation? This is the central question which will be explored in this study. In seeking to answer this central question, this study will focus particular attention on the role played by social capital in promoting political participation in, and improving the institutional performance of, local governments. In order to investigate the role of social capital in promoting political participation and institutional performance in the Thai context, this study

    __________________________

    1 The Participation Index was constructed from data on voter turnout, community groups, participation in local groups, and participation in social services. 2 Indicators of human achievement index are health, education, employment, income, housing and living environment, family and community, transportation and communication, and participation

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    employs Robert D. Putnams (1993) definition of social capital as a principle

    theoretical framework. Therefore, the concepts of trust, norms of reciprocity and networks of civic engagement so central to Putnams work were studied in the Thai context. Putnam argues that strong networks of civic engagement offer three advantages which both directly and indirectly relate to government performance: they 1) promote norms of reciprocity, 2) assist coordination and communication, and 3) generate collaboration (Putnam 1994, pp. 9-10). Therefore, since it is suggested that social capital has an ability to encourage individuals to contribute in public affairs, to the benefit of

    governance performance; this study argues that it is important to study the impact of social capital in the Thai context. This is primarily because the findings of this study, for practical reasons, may benefit the policies

    government make and/or which may lead to the implantation of public policies which increase strong networks of civic engagement. In turn, this may intensify levels of generalized trust and norms of reciprocity in Thai society. Within each of the provinces which were selected for study, this study chose to focus on the activities of municipal governments. Local governments are the central focus of this study because they are widely accepted as grass-roots governmental institutions (Kauzya 2003; Lin, Tao et al. 2003). The provision of public services to local residents, affording a better quality of life for local residents is one of the main tasks of local government of all types and levels (Ballard and Warner 2000)

    Research Questions Does social capital increase peoples political participation in, and improve the institutional performance of, local governments in Thailand? If not, what explains the different levels?

    Study Area As mentioned, UNDP statistics present the major differences in the Human Achievement Index (HAI) and the Participation Index among three provinces with roughly equal populations in the north of Thailand. Lamphun

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    is the province that achieves the highest ranking on both indices, whereas Phichit has low ranking on both indices. Tak has a very low ranking on both the HAI and participation Index. Indeed, it was the striking differences in ranking that encouraged this study to select the three provinces as broadly representative of different categories of provincial government in the north of Thailand. Additionally, a municipality in each region was targeted for study because the functions of municipalities are clearly associated with the HAI. Also, because the population of the municipalities had to be of a roughly equal size, the municipalities targeted in Lamphun, Phichit and Tak satisfied the requirements of this study

    Data Collection In order to explain the relationships between social capital, political participation and institutional performance of local government, a number of data gathering techniques were employed. In general, research data were collected by employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. This is primarily because these two methods complement each other3 (Neuman 2003). As previously stated, the relationships between social capital, political participation and institutional performance of local government in Thailand are to be assessed in relation to eight hypotheses. Therefore, significant

    emphasis was given to quantitative information because this allows all hypotheses to be tested, research results to be discussed; and the relevant information to be presented both systematically and statistically (Neuman 2003). Consequently, the research data came from a variety of sources and instruments including a survey, interviews and discussions, observations, official statistics and written documents. Generally, the process of data

    collection in this study was conducted in the north of Thailand during April to October 2008. Most importantly, it needs to be underlined that the data

    __________________________

    3 The quantitative method is used to create systematic data collecting and qualitative method is for collecting data in forms of words and images which can be used to describe some specific cases and related contexts (Neuman, 2003, pp. 139, 145).

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    collection was done before the period of political uncertainty and social division of 2009-2010.

    Population The selection of respondents for the survey was restricted to people of voting age (18 years old and older) who were registered in Tak, Phicit and Lamphun town municipalities. Such a restriction was required because people of this age are obligated to vote at every election both at a national and local level.

    Sample The sample studied was intended to be representative of the entire population in the three municipalities. A combination of four sampling techniques was used: proportionate stratified sampling (PSS)4, quota sampling5; probabilities proportional to size measures (PPS)6; and purposive sampling7. The sampling was organized as follows: Step one: to utilize proportionate stratified sampling, samples were

    drawn from the entire population from each municipality. The result of the sampling set a total number of interviews at 1,174, which should have been conducted with 393, 392 and 389 residents in the Tak, Phichit and Lamphun municipalities respectively. Nevertheless, due to all desired samplings being very close to 400, the decision was made to collect data from 400 interviewees in each municipality.

    __________________________

    4 According to Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias (1996, p. 189), proportionate strati-fied sampling (PSS) is a technique that select the same number of sampling units from the different strata. 5 According to Vuuren and Maree (2002, p. 280), the principle used in selecting a sample of the quota sampling teachnique is the identifying distinguishable subgroups of individual in the population. After that the research then selects non-random samples from each subgroup. 6 Probabilities proportional to size measures (PPS) is one of the sampling teachniques that used to select sampling units according to predetermined probalities (Grant, 1998, p. 148). 7 Purposive sampling is used when researcher use their own judgment or intuition to select the best people or proups to be studied (Bouma & Ling, 2004, p. 117)

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    Step two: quota sampling was used by specifying the gender characteristics of the respondents and giving the quota to all respondents in three municipalities. According to the gender ratio from all provinces, 198 males and 202 females from the Tak; 195 males and 205 females from the Lamphun, and 196 males and 204 females from the Phichit Town municipality were selected. Following this procedure, PPS was employed to select the sample. The communities in every municipality were divided into three strata levels small, medium and large depending on the population size8, and then four small, five medium and two large communities were randomly selected from the municipalities. According to the results of the PSS and PPS, four per cent of the population was then randomly chosen from the selected communities in all municipalities9. As mentioned earlier, because housing block maps could not be found, streets were randomly selected in each community to create the housing blocks. Households from each block were then used in the last step of sampling. People were purposefully selected from each household according to their gender. If s/he declined to participate in the interview, or could not finish the interview for some reason, another family member of the same

    gender was asked to be the interview respondent. If there was no one who could meet this criterion, the study then moved to the next household. It is important to highlight that there are many Myanmar migrants in Tak province including in the area of Tak municipality. However, in this study only Thai citizens were interviewed; any Myanmar migrants were specifically excluded. Notably, it was unproblematic for this study to identify

    who are Myanmar migrants since their Thai pronunciation is different from Thai people. Therefore, the data were collected from only Thai people.

    __________________________

    8 This study employed a standard of the Thai governments SML project to categorize level of community: population 251-500 = small community, 501-1,000 medium community and 1,001 = large community (Pimolsathian, 2004, p. 8). 9 There are 25 communities in Tak, 20 communities in Phichit and 17 communities in Lamphun town municipality respectively.

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    Testing Hypotheses The discussion now turns to focus on testing hypotheses. As noted, a theoretical framework was used as a guideline and all variables within the framework were processed in the analyses. In addition, the use of stepwise regression analysis with backward exclusion of variables was utilized as a tool. To process the analysis, the study was divided into two parts: (1) All components of social capital and satisfaction with the institutional performance of local government were simultaneously determined as exogenous variables and political participation was determined as an endogenous variable; and (2) The components of social capital and political participation were simultaneously determined as exogenous variables and satisfaction with the institutional performance of local government was determined as the endogenous variable.

    Table 1 Correlation between all exogenous variables and endogenous variables

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    1 Political Par 1

    2 Networks .397** 1

    3 Gen trust .114 -.404 1

    4 Institutions .234** .276** .310** 1

    5 Incumbents .304** -.267* .259** .000 1

    6 Norms .298** .300 .529** .219** .271** 1

    7 Performance .179 -.306 .375** .444** 310 .357** 1

    ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

    * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

    Generally, the correlations between all exogenous and endogenous variables fall within an acceptable level. However, it is clear that the correlation between political participation and institutional performance is fairly low. This indicates a very weak impact of political participation on

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    institutional performance and vice versa. The results of multiple regression analysis are surprising in that the majority of hypothesized exogenous variables show only weak influences

    on both endogenous variables. This is demonstrated by very low values of R2. Moreover, the Significance of F value for political participation is higher than 0.05 (see Table 2).

    Table 2 Results of multiple regression analysis (testing by hypothesized variables)

    Endogenous Variable

    Exogenous Variable

    Goodnessof fit

    statistics

    Endogenous Variable

    Exogenous Variable

    Goodness of fit

    statistics

    Political Participation

    Networks .20** R2 = .208, sig. = .180

    Performance Networks .03 R2 = .286, sig. =.030

    Gen trust .03 Gen trust .10

    Institutions .19** Institutions .25**

    Incumbents .18** Incumbents .23**

    Norms of reciprocity

    .09 Norms of reciprocity

    .13**

    Performance -.02 Pol Participation

    .01

    The results are graphically demonstrated in a path diagram.

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    Political Participation

    Institutional performance

    Networks

    Generalized trust

    Norms

    Trust

    institutions

    Trust

    incumbents

    Figure 1 A path diagram showing causal relationships between all potential exogenous variables and two endogenous variables (political participation and institutional performance)

    Note: Thick solid lines indicate significant paths from exogenous variables to endogenous variables. The arrows indicate the paths that exogenous variables have effect on endogenous variables. Parameters outside bracket represent standardized coefficients Beta value and parameters inside the bracket represent correlations between a pair of variables. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

    On the basis of the results presented above, it can be concluded that: (1) By focusing on the analysis of political participation, it is clearly evident that a combination of the hypothesized exogenous variables does not make a statistically significant contribution to, and does not well explain the

    emergence of, political participation. Therefore, the null hypotheses were rejected since it is manifest that social capital does not promote political participation in local governments in northern Thailand. However, when isolating each core component of social capital, it is discovered that two factors (political) trust and networks of civic engagement do in fact

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    promote political participation. In contrast, generalized trust and norms of reciprocity fail to promote political participation. (2) When isolating the focus on the institutional performance of local government, it can be argued that there is a significant association

    between levels of trust (political trust) and norms of reciprocity, and peoples satisfaction with the institutional performance of local government. In contrast, networks of civic engagement and generalized trust fail to enhance the institutional performance of local government. (3) There is a no significant correlation between the level of peoples

    political participation and peoples satisfaction with the institutional performance of local government, and vice versa. Furthermore and most significantly, it is clear that Putnams theory

    cannot be applied generally across all circumstances, particularly in the context of the north of Thailand. In this case, the combination of all components of social capital fails to promote citizen political contribution in local government. Therefore, the universal applicability of Putnams theory can be challenged on the grounds that social capital cannot be regarded as the main factor supporting peoples contribution in political affairs in the north of Thailand. Additionally, it is evident that only political trust and norms of reciprocity are able to enhance the institutional performance of government. Generalized trust and networks of civic engagement, in contrast, fail to enhance the institutional performance. Therefore, Putnams premise that a healthy civic society has a strong correlation with effective performance of governments seems to be problematic in this context. Furthermore, this study also found that political participation by citizens and institutional performances have no positive effect on each other. Importantly, these findings leave enormous scope for further questions and

    analyses.

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    Further Analyses In order to answer the big puzzle and provide a better understanding of Thai politics, it is now imperative to investigate and discuss the following issues: If social capital has no impact on promoting peoples political participation, it is important to conduct further analysis into what factors do promote political participation. Apart from political trust and norms of reciprocity, it is crucial to find out whether there are any other factors that enable local governments

    to perform more effectively. It is also important that there be a model created that depicts a general representation of political participation and institutional performance across all three municipalities. However, before shedding light on further discussions it needs to be noted that to undertake further analyses, multiple regression analysis was reutilized to test the dynamics of two relationships: the first being between

    hypothesized and additional variables, and both political participation and institutional performance. The results show that there are an additional five

    variables that impact political participation and/or institutional performance. Details of all variables are shown in Table 3.

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    Table 3 Additional variables

    variables Term used Municipality Mean N SD

    Concern about self-interest

    Self-interest Tak .036 400 1.102

    Lamphun -.033 396 .927

    Phichit .002 397 .965

    Total .000 1193 1.001

    Concern about public interest

    Public interest

    Tak .046 400 1.257

    Lamphun -.014 396 .873

    Phichit -.017 397 .818

    Total .000 1193 1.002

    Political satisfaction Pol Sat Tak -.274 400 1.026

    Lamphun .215 400 .919

    Phichit .050 400 .989

    Total .000 1200 1.000

    Political self-confidence PSC Tak .231 400 1.129

    Lamphun -.254 400 .849

    Phichit .022 400 .944

    Total .000 1200 1.000

    Trust in authorities Authorities Tak .274 400 .874

    Lamphun -.244 400 1.073

    Phichit -.022 400 .975

    Total .000 1200 1.000

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    Analysis on Political Participation

    Table 4 Correlations between exogenous variables and political participation

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    1 Pol Par 1

    2 Networks .397** 1

    3 Institutions .234** .276* 1

    4 Incumbents .304** -.267* .000 1

    5 Pol Sat .216** .354 .206** .243** 1

    6 Authorities .425** .290 .396** .232** .218** 1

    7 PSC -320** -.270* -.365** -.216* -302** -.335* 1

    8 Self-interest .122 .516** .186* -.213 .090* .058* -112** 1

    9 Public interest .152* .336** -.254 .306 .041 .030 -.015 .000 1

    ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

    *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

    Generally, the correlations between all exogenous variables and political participation are at a satisfactory level and represent a positive trend (except for some correlations where the values are negative). Only exogenous variables that meet prior standards were included in the multiple regression analysis.

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    Table 5 Results of multiple regression analyses of political participation (testing by both hypothesized and additional variables

    Endogenous Variable

    Exogenous variables

    Pol Par Authorities .31**

    Networks .20**

    Incumbents .19**

    Institutions .18**

    Pol Sat .15**

    R2=. 495, Sig. = .000

    Authorities Institutions .30**

    Incumbents .27**

    Pol Sat .11**

    R2= .449, Sig. = .000

    Network Self-interest .52**

    Public interest .54**

    R2= .435, Sig. = .000

    Incumbents Authorities .11**

    Pol Sat .11**

    PSC -.17*

    R2=. 237, Sig. = .000

    Institutions Authorities .12**

    Pol Sat .14**

    PSC -.11**

    R2= .251, Sig. = .000

    Pol Sat Institutions .19**

    Incumbents .12**

    Authorities .11**

    R2= .317, Sig. = .000

    Note ** p

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    According to the results of the analysis, it is clear that using a combination of the five stated variables trust in authorities, networks

    of civic engagement, trust in incumbents, trust in institutions, and political satisfaction more effectively predicts levels of political participation. Importantly, the analysis confirms that norms of reciprocity, generalized trust

    and institutional performance of local government have no impact on political participation. Notably, the existence of networks of civic engagement fails to support the emergence of trust and norms of reciprocity in these three municipalities. Consequently, it is worth stating that even if Putnams claim about the importance of social capital in Italy has been generally accepted around the world, it is not all clear that social capital has any significance

    in other contexts, particularly in the context of northern Thailand. Moreover, in order to investigate which variable plays the strongest role in promoting political participation in these three municipalities, both direct and indirect effects of all variables on political participation are shown in Table 6.

    Table 6 Effects of exogenous variables on political participation

    Exogenous variables Direct effect Indirect effect Total causal effect (TCF)

    Authorities .31 .06 .37

    Incumbents .19 .11 .30

    Institutions .18 .12 .30

    Networks .20 .00 .20

    Pol Sat .15 .08 .23

    PSC 0 -.05 -.05

    Public interest 0 .01 .01

    Self-interest 0 .01 .01

    Additionally, results of multiple regression analysis are graphically demonstrated in a path diagram (see Figure 2).

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    To summarize, according to the results of multiple regression analysis, it is evident that the findings seem to contradict Putnams theory. The three

    most important factors that promote political participation in these three municipalities are trust in authorities, trust in incumbents, and trust in institutions. This confirms the previous finding generalized trust and norms

    of reciprocity have no impact on promoting peoples political participation.

    Analysis of Institutional Performance An important element of this study is an investigation into the additional factors that impact the institutional performance of local government in the three municipalities and each municipality.

    Political Participation

    Institutional performance

    Networks

    Political Satisfaction

    Generalized trust

    Norms of reciprocity

    Trust in

    institutions

    Trust in

    incumbents

    PSC

    Self interest

    Public interest

    Trust in authorities

    Figure 2 A path diagram showing causal relationships between all exogenous variables and political participation

    Note: Thick solid lines indicate significant paths from exogenous variables to political participation. Thin solid lines signify significant paths from an exogenous variable to another exogenous variable. Dashed lines indicate nonsignificant paths. The arrows indicate the paths that independent variables have effect on dependent variables. Parameters outside bracket represent standardized coefficients Beta value and parameters inside the bracket represent correlations between a pair of variables. (** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed), * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)).

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    The results of multiple regression analysis make it clear that that an analysis which combines the four variables political satisfaction ( = 28), trust in incumbents ( = 22), trust in institutions ( = 25), and norms of reciprocity ( = 16) provides a more efficacious prediction of institutional performance. Moreover, the analysis confirms that networks of civic

    engagement, generalized trust and political participation do not have any impact on institutional performance. Consequently, Putnams claim that there is a positive association between social capital and effective institutional performance does not appear to apply to the political context in the north of Thailand. In addition, the results clearly signify that the three prime factors that have the strongest impacts on institutional performance are (1) political satisfaction (TCF= .64), (2) trust in authorities (TCF= .50) and (3) trust in institutions (TCF= .48) respectively.

    Institutional performance

    Pol Sat

    Generalized trust

    Norms

    Trust

    institutions

    Trust

    incumbents

    PSC

    Trust authority

    Networks

    Political Participation

    Figure 3 A path diagram showing causal relationships between all potential exogenous variables and institutional performance

    Note: Thick solid lines indicate significant paths from exogenous variables to institutional performance. Thin solid lines signify significant paths from an exogenous variable to another exogenous variable. Dashed lines indicate nonsignificant paths. The arrows indicate the paths that independent variables have effect on dependent variables. Parameters outside bracket represent standardized coefficients Beta value and parameters inside the bracket represent correlations between a pair of variables. (** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed), * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)).

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    Capability of Trust in Authorities in Thai Local Politics The findings presented in this study lead to a significant question: why

    is trust in authorities an important factor in promoting political contribution and enhancing institutional performance in the north of part of Thailand? This study argues that the concept of trust in authority in Thailand is different to the way that the concept is represented in the West. Western scholars explain that trust in this sense is understood in its relationship to the satisfactions that members of a [political system] feel they obtain from the perceived outputs and performance of the political authorities (Easton 1975). Similarly, Cremer and Tyler (2007) explain that trust in authority is created when people perceive a trustworthy and productive performance by the political authorities. Furthermore, Finkel (1985) argues that trust in authority is closely linked to a belief that the authorities or political regime are receptive to peoples attempted influence. Therefore, on the basis of

    these explanations, if the performance by the authority fails to satisfy the public, or if the will of the people is disregarded by the authority, then the potential for trust in the authority to be created and/or promoted is severely diminished. Importantly, this study argues that the Western representation of the concept of trust in authority is closely related to the concept of trust in incumbents employed in this study. Trust in incumbents is a type of political trust defined as a belief in the incumbents ability to perform their functions

    and responsibilities professionally and efficiently.

    In contrast, even though the concept of trust in authority in Thailand may partly depend upon an evaluation of the performance of the political authority, this study argues that trust in authorities and trust in institutions are not the same. It can be argued that trust in authority originates from the peoples belief in, and surrendering to, the power and authority of political institutions. However, this study argues that trust in authority in Thailand is more closely linked to a vertical patron-client relationship, and is built upon mutual reciprocity. This relationship has long been the principal foundation of Thai society, and has contributed to the establishment of an acceptance of social inequality and inequitable behavior in Thai society. Moreover, it

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    demonstrates that egalitarianism is not successfully employed in Thailand as almost all social relationships remain influenced and characterized by

    distinctions between rank and notions of supremacy and inferiority (Mulder, 2000a, p. 85). In the past (and even nowadays), authority was associated with supremacy and those in authority were people who had higher (social, economic or political) status, power, charisma and prestige. Thus, there is no doubt as to why university students in the 1970s aspired to be government officials upon graduation (Jumbala, 1974, p. 539; Darling, 1974, p. 9).

    Notably, the officials position of power and authority has the potential to

    provide positive or negative outcomes to the people of an inferior standing. By investigating the concept of trust in authority in relation to the promotion of political participation and enhancement of institutional performance, this study argues that such trust through its perpetuation of inequality and process of mutual reciprocity links both authorities and local residents to each other. One incident that helps to clarify this point occurred during the data collection process when a man in his 60s said that he has taken part in the municipalitys meeting in his community regularly because he loves and respects the Major. To him the Mayor is a good and hard-working man, and therefore he is willing to participate in political affairs. In turn, this example demonstrates that trust in authority correlates closely with an evaluation of the performance of the political authority. However, in contrast to this incident, another man in his 60s revealed that he often participated in the political activities because he received a monthly living allowance from the municipality. He therefore believed he should participate in municipal affairs as a show of gratitude. Arguably, this example demonstrates the mutual obligation between authorities and local residents in that the municipality provides service delivery to local residents and so local residents count it as their obligation to partake in municipal affairs. Interestingly, an unemployed women in her 50s frankly explained that what encouraged her to participate in municipal meetings was that she was always asked to take part because the municipality needs to show a record of participation. Notably, when she was asked whether she defines

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    Wanlapat Suksawas and Peter Mayer

    her involvement as set up participation, she replied something like that. The last example cited above gives further weight to the argument by Siroros and Haller (2000) that the platform for public participation in political affairs in Thailand, particularly the public hearing processes, is organized by the state as a tool for public relations rather than as a stage for meaningful involvement. This is probably because genuine public hearings in Thailand have the potential to create divergence and disagreement between government officials and villagers, and, in most cases, the state has already

    reached a decision prior to the public meeting (Siroros and Haller 2000). Subsequently, the function of meetings is more often to communicate prior decisions to the attendees rather than to foster discussion and problem solving to reach a decision acceptable to all (Siroros & Haller, 2000, p. 161). People who regularly attend the perfunctory meetings are the ones who generally surrender to authorities. However, they generally attend the meetings to serve their own interests, believing that the officials position of

    power and authority may be of benefit to them at some point in the future.

    Significantly, this study argues that the more people trust in authorities the

    more they will be unconditionally satisfied with the performance of political

    institutions and incumbents. Suggestions for Public Policy In accordance with the findings presented in this study, the following is an outline of important issues for the Thai government to consider for future public policies. With regard to state intervention and the process of social capital formation, the state can play an important part in building social and generalized trust by providing the support and opportunity for people to more actively participate in professional associations. Significantly, the study finding that politically oriented associations in

    Phichit present as the most important factor promoting public participation in municipal government affairs reinforces the need for a practical strategy which aims to encourage people to become more politically involved. The findings suggest that the state increase public participation by establishing

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    more effective politically oriented activities and by encouraging people to more meaningfully participate in these types of associations. Furthermore, the reluctance by local residents in Tak to interact with the migrants from neighboring countries negatively affects the development of norms of reciprocity and generalized trust in community. Therefore, even though the migrants have played an important role in supporting the growth of the Thai economy, to control social security and to building civic community, the state may need to reconsider its policy on limiting the number of migrants in Thailand. Additionally, because the findings presented in the study reveal that

    trust in authority and political trust play a critical role in Thai politics, the Thai government should take this issue more seriously. Of course, fostering trust in authority and political trust can bring both positive and negative outcomes. However, if the government fosters such trust appropriately and makes a genuine attempt to overcome the negative attitude towards the Thai government and the incumbents that is felt by Thai people in general, this study argues that there is the opportunity to increase public participation in local government affairs.

    Summary The study demonstrates the degree to which social capital, political participation and institutional performance vary from municipality to municipality. What became evident is that the people in Lamphun tend to have the highest levels of social capital, followed by the residents in Phichit and Tak respectively. Additionally, the Phichit municipality appears to achieve the highest level of political involvement from its constituents. Residents from the Lamphun municipality rate their local government as the best performer. On the basis of the survey findings the study also makes clear that

    Putnams concept of social capital cannot be applied effectively in the north of Thailand. It can be concluded that Putnams concept of social capital shows clear limitations and cannot be employed effectively in the context of local government in Thai politics.

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    Bibliography

    Ballard, M. J. and M. E. Warner (2000) Taking the High Road: Local Government Restructuring and the Quest for Quality. Cornell Working Papers in Planning Number 194, Washington, DC. : American Federation of State, Municipal and County Employees.

    Bouma, F. D. and R. Ling (2004) The Research Process. South Melbourne : Oxford University Press.

    Cremer, D. D. and T. R. Tyler (2007) The Effects of Trust in Authority and Procedural Fairness on Cooperation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3): 639-649.

    Easton, D. (1975) A Re-assessment of the Concept of Political Support. British Journal of Political Science, 5(4): 435-457.

    Finkel, S. E. (1985) Reciprocal Effects of Participation and Political Efficacy: A Panel Analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 29(4): 891-913.

    Frankfort-Nachmias, C. and D. Nachmias (1996) Research Methods in the Social Sciences. New York : St. Martins Press.

    Grant, B. F. (1998) The Impact of a Family History of Alcoholism on the Relationship between Age at onset of Alcohol Use and DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22(2): 144-147.

    Kauzya, J. M. (2003) Local Governance Capacity Building for Full Range Participation: Concepts, Frameworks, and Experiences in African Countries. Discussion Paper N 33. New York : United Nations.

    Lin, J. Y., R. Tao, et al. (2003) Decentralization and Local Governance in the Context of Chinas Transition. Center for Chinese Agriculture Policy Working Paper 03-E3.

    Neuman, W. L. (2003) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Boston, London : Allyn and Bacon.

    Putnam, R. D. (1994) Social Capital and Public Affairs. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 47(8): 5-19.

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    Siroros, P. and K. Haller (2000) Thai Public Hearings: Smokescreen or Ceremony? Thammasat Review, 5(1): 147-164.

    Vuuren, D. v. and A. Maree, Eds. (1999) Survey Methods in Market and Media Research. Research in Practice : Applied Methods for the Social Sciences. Cape Town : University of Cape Town Press.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 99-122, 2013

    A Comparative Study of the Tourism Industry Development of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat

    Province in a View of Develop the Innovative of Communications to Promote Tourism

    Archarin Pansuk

    Faculty of Communication Arts, Krirk University, Bangkok, ThailandCorresponding author: acharin204@hotmail.com

    Abstract This research aims 1. to compare the study of the tourism industry development of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammrat province ; 2.to study the innovative of communication to promote tourism of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat in the future and 3. to study the usage of eleven elephants paradigm to promote the tourism of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province. The research methodology used in this research was mixed method between survey research and applied Delphi technique. The research samples were divided into two following groups. Samples in survey research were 300 samples of Thai tourists, foreign tourists, relevant persons in tourism industry, local people and people living in Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province and in Delphi techniques research were 33 samples of tourism and communicative professionals in Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, standard deviation, t-test, One-way ANOVA, Median and Interquartile range. The research findings were as follows:

    1. The comparative study of the tourism industry development of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province were different at statistical significant. 01 level.

    2. The study of communicative innovations to promote the tourism of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province in the future. The findings were

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    Archarin Pansuk

    as follows : Persuding medias of tourism in high level were Website, Search engine, E-mail Blog/space, Webboard, Chat room, Wikipidia. Persuding media of tourism in medium level were Youtube. 3. Eleven Elephants Paradigm could be applied in promoting tourism of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat as follows: 1. The Oneness theory 2. The principle of two-way communication theory 3. The triple matrix of positive communication theory 4. The four kinds of infotimes theory 5. Earth journalism the five principles of the future journalism theory

    6. Six functions for worthwhile mass communications theory 7. Seven Sigma of human needs theory 8. Eight steps of integrated organizational communication theory 9. Nine Ps of marketing mix theory 10. Ten social categories of the target audience theory and 11. Eleven principles of corporate communication theory.

    Key Words: Tourism Industry Development; Tourism Promotion;Innovative of Communications; Eleven Elephants Paradigm

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    Introduction Tourism industry is very important for Thai economic and society in particular as a resource of making revenues, jobs and expanding the growth to local areas of the country. Also, it develops basic structure system of transportation, trading and investment. The industry plays important role when the country encounters economic crisis. To recover the crisis and enhance the potential of the country, the development plan needs to be employed. In 4-5 years ago, the tourism industries were not developed properly due to unstable politics and world economic crisis as well as the outbreak of Influenza A 2009 (H1N1) happening in Thailand and other

    countries, affecting to the volume of tourists and revenue of the country since late year 2008 until early year of 2010. Besides, it resulted to the decrease of GDP and employment in tourism industry and other related businesses (Ministry of tourism and sport, 2010). The characteristics of international tourists from 2005 - 2010 (Ministry of tourism and sport, 2010) The numbers of international tourist arrival to Thailand rise continually with average 7.51% per year. According to the statistics of international tourist coming to Thailand from 2005 - 2010, the volume goes up continually from 11,516,936 in 2005 to 15, 841,683 tourists in 2010. The increasing rate is approximately 7.5% per year which results from the rising of tourists worldwide and the strength of Thailand tourism such as opening Suvarnabhumi airport, having various tourism products - natural tourism resources, cultures, entertainments, medical tourisms, Spas. The numbers of international tourist in Thailand relates to world tourists positively. The change rate of world tourist numbers increases continually from 2005 - 2008 and 6.38% of the growth rate is highest in 2007. The volume of world tourists decreases from 2008 until 2009 because of financial crisis in United State and Europe (Hamburger crisis) bu

    it starts to increase again in 2010. For the numbers of international tourist in Thailand, it relates to the numbers of world tourists overall but in some year as in 2009, there is more serious change.

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    Archarin Pansuk

    Figure 1 The number and change rate of tourists from 2005 2010 (source : immigration bureau and tourism department)

    Figure 2 The change rate of international tourists in Thailand and worldwide from 2005 - 2010 (source : immigration bureau)

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    The main factors affecting toward the numbers of tourist are natural disaster, domestic political and financial crisis from 2005 - 2010. Thailand

    encounters with those effects many times for example in 2005, the numbers of tourist decrease 1.15% as a result of violence in 3 southern border provinces and natural disaster (Tsumani), affecting to East Asian tourists confidence. In 2009, Thailand tourism industry is affected by both internal

    and external factors. The Suvarnabhumi airport is closed due to political conflict, leading to Thailands image in sense of tourism security. In United

    State and Europe, due to financial crisis, the tourists change their travel,

    for example, some cancels the plan and travel to nearer tourist attractions instead. Consequently, in 2009, the number of tourists decreases 434,379 with 2.98%. Although, domestic political crisis in 2010 is severe than 2009, overall numbers of tourist in 2010 increases because the trend of numbers of world tourist goes up and Ministry of tourism and sport and tourism authority of Thailand launch projects to attract tourists such as cancelling visa fee, providing insurance coverage for tourists, opening the center where the tourists could ask for any assistance. The number of Asian tourists increases importantly than East Asian. By 2010, the highest number of 4,415,789 tourists comes from Asian countries with 27.87% of international tourists, followed by the Europe, East-Asia, South Asia, United State, Oceania, Middle East and Africa respectively. Comparing to 2005, the numbers of Asian tourist move to the third rank, resulting from the increase of numbers of Asian tourist in particular Laotian tourists whose numbers increase approximately 47.70% per year since its more convenient to come to Thailand as well as the numbers of East Asian tourist decrease due to they feel not secure to travel to Thailand where political violence always occur.

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    Archarin Pansuk

    The Statistics of tourist arrivals to Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat province, Thailand from 2009 to 2010 are illustrated below.

    The Statistics of tourist arrivals to Suratthani from 2009 - 2010

    Nationality January - June

    2010 2009 (%)

    Thai 410,432 345,300 + 18.86

    Brunei 37 - -

    Cambodia - - -

    Indonesia 223 446 - 49.98

    Laos 721 11 + 6450.70

    Malaysia 3,479 7,200 - 51.68

    Myanmar 155 3,262 - 95.24

    Philippines 318 839 - 62.09

    Singapore 2,616 4,093 - 36.09

    Vietnam 127 154 - 17.63

    China 9,762 9,830 - 0.69

    Hong Kong 1,502 4,773 - 68.53

    Japan 4,975 8,088 - 38.49

    Figure 3 The proportion of tourists in 2005 and 2010 categorized by country (Source : Immigration bureau and tourism department)

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    Korea 2,279 4,130 - 44.80

    Taiwan 648 935 - 30.65

    Austria 10,892 19,164 - 43.17

    Belgium 2,475 3,846 - 35.66

    Denmark 10,490 14,174 - 25.99

    Finland 5,679 8,261 - 31.26

    France 24,371 27,301 - 10.73

    Germany 66,942 67,209 - 0.40

    Italy 7,628 15,516 - 50.84

    Netherlands 11,541 16,730 - 31.02

    Norway 6,927 8,341 - 16.95

    Russia 15,944 17,155 - 7.06

    Spain 2,561 5,381 - 52.41

    Sweden 24,423 37,772 - 35.34

    Switzerland 10,457 16,656 - 37.22

    United Kingdom 63,073 88,230 - 28.51

    East Europe 4,462 3,133 + 42.39

    Canada 8,110 11,864 - 31.64

    USA 14,066 22,469 - 37.40

    India 3,373 6,369 - 47.04

    Australia 51,894 61,831 - 16.07

    New Zealand 4,970 8,900 - 44.15

    Middle East 3,959 1,904 + 107.92

    Israel 24,209 26,816 - 9.72

    Africa 6,713 2,226 + 201.58

    Others 65,294 50,167 + 30.15Grand Total 887,728 930,476 - 4.59Thai 410,432 345,300 + 18.86

    Foreigners 477,296 585,176 - 18.44

    Source: Tourism department and Ministry of Tourism and sport

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    Archarin Pansuk

    The Statistics of tourist arrivals to Nakhonsrithammarat from 2009 - 2010

    Nationality January-June2010 2009 (%)

    Thai 471,173 654,902 - 28.05

    Indonesia 8 105 - 92.25

    Laos 0 4 -

    Malaysia 2,163 2,047 + 5.69

    Myanmar 0 4 -

    Philippines 13 142 - 90.67

    Singapore 129 43 + 200.26

    Vietnam 10 8 + 22.84

    China 42 60 - 30.09

    Hong Kong 59 52 + 12.83

    Japan 110 115 - 4.61

    Korea 63 36 + 78.27

    Taiwan 79 115 - 30.95

    Austria 49 129 - 62.15

    Belgium 48 109 - 55.42

    Denmark 203 68 + 199.21

    Finland 79 216 - 63.54

    France 211 283 - 25.64

    Germany 279 441 - 36.73

    Italy 57 86 - 33.20

    Netherlands 107 133 - 19.78

    Norway 0 82 -

    Russia 4 54 - 91.85

    Spain 4 44 - 91.66

    Sweden 440 162 + 171.06

    Switzerland 93 161 - 42.35

    United Kingdom 181 447 - 59.58

    East Europe 13 49 - 73.44

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    Canada 86 111 - 22.81

    USA 311 664 - 53.17

    India 34 69 - 49.99

    Australia 89 166 - 46.71

    New Zealand 5 33 - 84.89

    Middle East 75 12 + 524.63

    Israel 14 8 + 76.66

    Africa 7 1 + 398.84

    Others 1,441 611 + 136.03Grand Total 477,680 661,773 - 92.78Thai 471,173 654,902 - 28.05

    Foreigners 6,507 6,871 - 99.89

    Source : Tourism department and Ministry of Tourism and sport

    As shown above, it is true that the volume of tourist arrivals to Suratthani from January 2009 until June 2010 is higher than Nakhonsrithammarat province. According to the Tenth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2007-2011), the high potential areas have been planned for development. Besides other southern provinces in the Gulf of Thailand, both Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat province are identified as high potential area (Provincial Administration Development and

    Promotion Bureau, Office of the Permanent Secretary for Interior Strategic

    plan in Southern gulf of Thailand 2010-2013 : 2011)

  • A Comparative Study of the Tourism Industry Development

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    Archarin Pansuk

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  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

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    According to the table, it represented that Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat province have tourist attractions similarly such as beach, sea, mountain, waterfall, home-stay, historical place, religion and culture, presenting their image. Its noticed that the numbers of tourist coming to Suratthani province highly increases from 2005 - 2006, resulting from the flow of

    European tourists who intend to avoid the areas located nearby Andamun sea, affected by Tsunami before while the numbers of tourist coming to Nakhonsrithammarat province grow up mostly from 2006 - 2007 due to their wish to seek for sacredness of JatukhamRamthep holy object. (National research council of Thailand Research strategy in South 2012-2016)

    Communicative resources of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat province It is found that overall, Nakhonsrithammarat uses communicative resources more than Suratthani province (Table 1)

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    Table 1 The numbers of communicative resources of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat province

    Communicative resources of Suratthani province Numbers

    Radio stations 8Television stations 10Central newspapers 17Local newspapers 11General mass medias 5Broastcast building, Suratthani province 1Journalist Suratthani province 1Public relation office, Suratthani province 1

    Radio Television and newspaper professional association, Suratthani province

    2

    Community radio learning centers 89Total 145

    Communicative resources of Nakhonsrithammarat province Numbers

    Provincial Public Relation Bureau, Television stations, Radio broadcast stations

    13

    Radio-Television reporters, Radio broadcast Newspapers, DJs 18Public relation office, Nakhonsrithammarat province 1DJ Radio broastcasts 26Community radio learning centers, Nakhonsrithammarat province

    127

    Total 185

    Innovative communications in globalization era and tourism industry of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammrat relates to the advancement of informative communication technology (ICT) since the advancement of internet causes to have many innovative communications at the present. The innovative communications are developed to be a part of tourism industry of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat since communicative innovation leads to the tourists decision concerning tourism attractions, accommodations, foods as well as downloading data relating to their decision to travel to Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat. In addition, innovative communications

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    influence on tourism industry in sense of searching tourism information for

    tourists decision because presently the tourists could access information more quickly than in the past. Moreover, innovative communications are necessary to tourism entrepreneurs in case they lack of knowledge, skills in tourism development, language competency, ICT benefit that are important to support the change of

    tourists travelling style. That corresponds with Asean Economic Community (AEC) agreement, saying tourism is one of three pilot projects that need to be implemented urgently. According to this agreement, free trade is opened to both travelling in and out of tourists, services, investments, labor movement within 2015 that (Tourism Council of Thailand : 2010) The factors mentioned above lead to study the tourism industry development of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province comparatively and to develop the innovative communications to promote the tourism of Surathani and Nakhonsithammrat.

    Research Methodology The research method used in this study is divided into 2 following groups. Group 1 Survey research 300 samples comprise of Thai tourists, foreign tourists, and relevant persons in tourism industries-transportation, accommodation, food and entertainment, tour operation and tour guide, souvenir business, people living in local and public areas in Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province. The statistics used for data analysis are percentage, standard deviation, T-test, One-way ANOVA. Group 2 Delphi Technique research There are 33 samples consist of professionals in 2 dimensions-tourism and communication in Suratthani and Nakhonsithammrat. The data are collected 3 times within 4 months starting from March until June 2012. The statistics used for data analysis are Median and Interquartile range.

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    Research Findings The followings are the research findings that the researcher analyzes from data collected by questionnaire in part of opened question 1. Oneness theory The standard tourism of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat needs to be maintained. It bases on the concept of Oneness theory of the world that is an important philosophy in persuading tourists worldwide to travel to Thailand. The followings are 5 components.

    1. To make awareness and participation in tourism development 2. To use communication technologies in promoting tourism development 3. To announce the guideline of tourism development to the public clearly 4. Public media plays an important role in making awareness towards tourism development 5. To support good image of tourism

    2. Two-way communication People pay respect to each other and accept the others opinion towards tourism industry development. That is communication factor in developing tourist attractions comprising two-way communication in promoting tourism and two-way communication through media and technologies 3. Positive communication The positive outcome results from positive communication and good minded service provider and all tourists regardless of religion, nationality and so on. It consists of making positive thoughts of tourism, having honesty and sincerity in tourism development as well as people and tourism public media have positive communication. 4. Information resources There are physical, biological, psychological and sociological Information consist of making new innovation, presenting new ways through media and technologies in developing tourism, quality of life, and mental health and employing media and technologies in management.

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    5. The presentation of any information to promote tourism industry must be done aesthetically. The honor and honesty must be given to all humans. Producing advertisement media concerning tourism industry of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat or presenting all kinds of news towards the public needs to be concerned the following 3 things to show quality and responsibility of organization to society and the world 1. To emphasize on promoting and developing tourism particularly natural resources in local area by using media and communication technologies

    2. To use the research method in tourism development 3. To pay respect the message receiver by making the presentation at the appropriate time and being honesty

    6. The roles of public media are as follows: 1. Verifying data, facts, and necessary knowledge in order to present to the tourists as a regular basis.

    2. Presenting knowledge, thoughts creatively and correctly. Warning natural disaster, crime promptly and appropriately with the situation.

    3. Entertaining to people that may be infotainment, edutainment, and ideatainment. 7. Awareness of Basic human needs Basic human needs are belonging and love needs, biological and physiological needs, safety needs, esteem needs, and so forth. 8. Integrated organizational communication is used in communication process of tourism industry of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat. Its process is as follows: 1. To use the research in order to know about SWOT and organization image. 2. To increase all kinds of resources particularly human resource, public media, information resource. 3. To reorganize the structure systematically so that communicative organization department enables to support corporation, the increase of production and service, information management,

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    mass communication, interaction. 4. To create media network and informative technology in the organization both internal and external. 5. To evaluate communication outcome regularly in an appropriate period of time yearly for further improvement and development. 9. Nine Ps of marketing mix is applied in tourism industry as follows:

    1. Product The tourist attractions and service with good quality.

    2. Price Cost or expense which is appropriate with the quality of tourist attractions or service. 3. Place

    The place for product distribution must be convenient to reach the target customer.

    4. Promotion Communication techniques used for marketing promotion are advertisement, public relation, campaign, and sales promotion, giving incentive, discount and coupon.

    5. Politics Political strategy used for tourism promotion.

    6. Public opinion Referendum is studied to make the good image of tourist attractions or service and to be acceptable among tourists.

    7. People Relevant persons in tourism industry as producer, seller, marketing promoter, sales promoter, sales representative, service provider who communicates directly to the tourists.

    8. Period Timing and speed are important resources and supportive factors for marketing promotion and sales. The timing and speed in production, advertisement and distribution process is involved.

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    9. Psychology Psychological factors used for marketing promotion are public relation in order to make good image of social responsibility and to have credibility and trustworthiness of people, producer, seller, sales representative. In addition, image of tourist attraction and service makes the customers proud in travelling and consuming the services.

    10. Awareness of different message receiver in terms of sex, occupation, culture, income, age, locality, marital status, education level, social status, success recognition.

    Summary and Discussion Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat are southern provinces along the gulf of Thailand located on the eastern shore of the gulf of Thailand. These provinces have high potential in tourism since they have long coast around 600 kilometers. Also, they have interesting tourism attractions like islands, beach, sea, natural places including local peoples way of life, history, religion, culture, and tradition. Suratthani focuses on sea, islands tourism while Nakhonsithammarat focuses on culture, tradition, and historic site tourism. In Suratthani, the target group is foreign tourists while Nakhonsithammarats target group is Thai and Malaysian tourists. The numbers of tourist in Suratthani are higher than Nakhonsithammarat. According to the 11th national economic and social development plan, Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat are determined as high potential area besides other provinces along gulf of Thailand. Both provinces have similar tourist attractions. During 2005 - 2006, the tourists from European countries came to Suratthani excessively; as a result, the tourism income raised exceedingly (National Research Council of Thailand, 2010)

    Suratthani Province Concerning the comparative study of tourist attraction promoting the image of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province, the findings show

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    that Suratthani has outstanding tourist attractions beneficial for tourism

    development as a main strategy. Most of tourists travelling to Suratthani prefer to go to the beach and islands and satisfy with tourist attractions and services within the province. Samui Island is accepted as one of the popular destinations of the world. Also, Phangan Island is famous for full moon party. Additionally, the findings reveal that the tourists are satisfied

    with tourist attractions, travelling conveniences, information services during their travelling and stay in tourist attractions, tourism brochures, security services, tourists right services, tourist attraction images, friendliness of persons working in private business sector, tourism seasons. As there are so many tourists from all over the world travelling to Suratthani and the tourist attractions are increasing developed as well as having competition among entrepreneurs; as a result, the tourist attractions are decayed and it lacks of serious management in conservation of natural resources and tourist attractions. In addition, the findings indicated that even the government has

    development strategy; however, the private sector and government have different development plan. As there is knowledge base without development; thus, learning and adjustment is required. Also, management of government is less effective than private business sector particularly in view of communication. Local people themselves develop tourism promotion plan especially in islands while the government manages it slowly. Furthermore, local people in Koh Samui, Koh Phangan, Koh Tao, Koh Ang Thong and others are worry about invasion of Thai and foreign investors. The researcher found that people are so proud of their land and like to own and keep it. An important thing that makes them so proud is coconut strains which presently could not be conserved since they are destroyed by nature or being ruined by human in order to build real estates. Samui airport is another place where foreign tourists mostly use services such as gateway, accommodations, facility. The findings show

    that furniture served for tourists is not cleaned properly. In addition, the traveling cost within the province is quite high affecting tourism. Tourist attractions like mountains, waterfalls, historical places, religions, cultures of

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    the areas close to Nakhonsithammarat and Chumporn province do not have well public relation compared to islands located in Suratthani province. The findings also revealed that Saunmok temple is a place for tourists who are

    interested in studying Buddhism. Also, its developed by government and private business sector to be the training center of Southern gulf of Thailand. Thats a great opportunity for those who like to be trained in tourism in any particular area or like to travel to islands in Suratthani. It can be said that government and private business sector develop the cities of Suratthani and surrounding areas in order to create more jobs for local people.

    Development plan of tourism industry of Suratthani province The followings are development plan of tourism industry of Suratthani province : - To strengthen tourism knowledge base. - To develop tourism entrepreneurs by using a principle of psychology. - To determine development strategy in order to facilitate the tourists going to tourist attractions and seeing local peoples life. - To develop new tourist attractions and maintain the former ones. - To promote tourism market continually. - To provide facilities to the tourists such as accommodations, food, security. - To develop and promote tourism activities by using tourism innovation. - To enhance the service standards in tourist attractions to reach the international goal. - To establish provincial tourism network connecting to educational institutes, local areas, provincial public relation, provincial tourism, provincial leader in local areas to have mutual understanding about tourism development plan. So, private business sector and community network should participate in working evaluation.

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    Nakhonsithammarat Province Nakhonsithammarat province has famous tourist attractions particularly cultural places such as temples and also traditions which are the major strategy of tourism development. These correspond with local peoples way of life since the province is known as Buddhism province with many temples located. Also, its culture and ancient places are significant

    and popular within the country and in abroad. In addition, some local areas emphasize on Ecotourism due to having many beautiful natural tourist attractions. As the incidence of crimes and drug abuse occurring in the past until the present might affect the tourists decision to travel to Nakhonsithammarat province, resulting to negative image of the province. Beside this, as the province has wide area with a large number of population; thus, brainstorming about tourism development is quite difficult. In the past tourism development

    focused on Lumnam Pak Phanang with unclear structure, communication, tourist attraction; therefore, the tourism is not developed continually.

    In 2012, Nakhonsithammarat launched a project Nakhonsi Dee Dee Tee Deaw Teaw Krob Krieng to promote the province over all and change the image of the province. The variety of culture, mountain, forest, historic site, Pink Dolphins, waterfall, sea, seasonal fruit, seafood, etc are presented. The target tourists are youths and working people.

    Development plan of tourism industry of Nakhonsithammarat province

    The followings are development plan of tourism industry of Nakhonsithammarat province:

    - Tourism entrepreneurs are concerned about the importance of tourism development.

    - To develop tourism facilities, fundamental structure. - To reach the world standard. - To promote the tourism industry both domestically and internally. - To use IT for tourism marketing development and public relation. - To encourage people for participation.

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    - The service providers have service mind. - The service providers have knowledge about image presentation

    in positive sense. - To improve and develop old tourist attractions together with new

    ones since Nakhonsithammarat has beautiful seas and remarkable cultures, traditions. Its related to the study of Konecnik and Go (2007) tourism destination brand identity : the case of Slovenia which aimed to survey tourism entrepreneurs opinion towards tourism destination brand identity. The findings indicated that the tourism destination brand identity (Slovenia case) is visible big flower sign, reflecting country image. In addition, major identity of Slovenia comprises of varieties in the country such as mountain, lake, beach, city, health center, adventure, historical and cultural tourism, night life, entertainment, enhancing tourism potential of the province. Furthermore, its found that theres no public relation and communicative technology specialist resulting to tourism development. Thats related to the study of Rapeephol Yuwaniyom (1994) the public relation of Tourism Authority of Thailand (TOT) found that public relation policy of Tourism Authority of Thailand (TOT) is good but manpower and budget is not enough; as a result, the province could not reach to the goal as plan. The followings are the comparison of tourism between Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province. - The tourism of Suratthani is well-known and developed than Nakhonsithammarat since Suratthani people welcome those coming from other areas better than Nakhonsithammarat people. Also, Suratthani people use official language in communicating with those coming from other areas; as a result, they feel more comfortable.

    - Public relations brochures, signboards, roads, cleanliness, travelling conveniences and accommodations of Suratthani province are more effective and interesting than Nakhonsithammarat

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    in responding to tourists need. - Theres no well cooperation between government and local sector

    in Nakhonsithammarat province. - Some communities in Nakhonsithammarat dont accept the better

    change. - Tourism activities in Nakhonsithammarat could be done in some

    seasons without continuity. - The policy and support of government sectors are not sustainable.

    Suggestions The comparative study of tourism industry development of Suratthani and Nakhonsithammarat province in view of developing the innovative communications to promote the tourism is applied Delphi research. Acquired data is given by professionals only. In the future, research method might be used widely in every dimension such as entrepreneurs and extended to various target groups increasingly in order to benefit tourism

    development. Concerning the media usage, everyone is able to be the media in communicative era presently and access to technology. And public media is the most important since it supports tourism including the tourism study of professionals by considering from direct experience and identity in any particular area. In addition, media development process to promote the tourism of Nakhonsithammarat and Suratthani province worldwide should be studied.

    Acknowledgement Strategic Scholarships Fellowships Frontier Research Networks (Specific for Southern region) (Consisting of the agency responsible.

    Commission on Higher Education.) (Strategic Scholarships Fellowships Frontier Research Networks (Specific for Southern region) University

    of Kirk. Education and Production Songkla University, Stool Campus. University affiliation and Assoc.Prof.Dr. Somkuan Kaviya Advisor.

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    Archarin Pansuk

    ReferencesMinistry of Tourism and Sport. (2010) National Tourism Development Plan

    2010-2016, December. Thailand.National Research Council of Thailand. (2010) Research Strategy in

    Southern Part of Thailand 2012-2016. Walailak University, Nakhonsrithammarat Province.

    Provincial Administration Development and Promotion Bureau, Office of

    the Permanent Secretary for Interior. Strategic plan in Southern gulf of Thailand 2010-2013. [Online URL: www.pad.moi.go.th/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=54&Itemid=98] accessed on June 2011.

    Tourism Department and Ministry of Tourism and Sport. Guest Arrivals at Accommodation Establishments (Hotels, Guesthouses, Resorts) in South from July - September by 2009 - 2010. [Online URL: www.tourism.go.th/2010/upload/filecenter/file/stat_2554/apirl/South.xls] accessed on 10 June 2011.

    Tourism Department and Ministry of Tourism and Sport. [Online URL: www.tourism.go.th/2010/upload/filecenter/file/ stat_2554/apirl/South.xls.] accessed on 10 June 2011.

    Yuvaniyama, R. (1994) Public relations of Tourism Authority of Thailand. Thesis (Communication Arts). Bangkok : Chulalongkorn University.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 123-138, 2013

    The Cave of Healing: The Physical /Spiritual Detoxification and The Distinctive Healing Program

    for Drug Rehabilitation at Thamkrabok Monastery, Thailand

    Pataraporn Sangkapreecha1* and Taweesak Sangkapreecha2

    1 School of Communication Arts, 2 School of Architecture,Bangkok University, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand

    *Corresponding author: pataraporn.s@bu.ac.th

    Abstract This research paper provides a comprehensive case study research of the relevance of the principles and practices of Buddhism in the field

    of drug and alcohol healing. Wat Thamkrabok, a Buddhist monastery in Thailand, is selected as it is cited of conducting the world-famous drug and alcoholic rehabilitation program. Based on Buddhist techniques and beliefs, the Thamkrabok healing program is extremely distinctive from other healing treatments. This paper first presents a brief story of Thamkrabok

    monstery and requirements for the addicts to entering to the rehabiitation program. It next focuses on the healing techniques employed in the program: physical and spiritual detoxification. The paper ends with the analysis on

    the distinctive characteristics of the Thamkrabok rehabilitation scheme in which its unique therapeutic elements would prove effective in rehabilitation programs elsewhere.

    Key Words: Buddhism and Drug Rehabilitation; Buddhism and Health; Thamkrabok Detoxification Program; Thamkrabok Monastery

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    Introduction Many contemporary practitioners recognise the value and utility of techniques and approaches found in religious and spiritual traditions in the context of rehabilitation and healing (Mikulas, 1983). Many see the realm of healing as a broad field, into which ideas and practices from different

    sources can and should be incorporated as necessary. Buddhism has been used particularly widely in this way. Several present-day remedy settings have used Buddhist techniques and ideas, and the reports available suggest a positive and fruitful outcome. Since Buddhism espouses the notion of a productive and healthy lay life, it offers ways not only of dealing with problems and difficulties, but also of improving spiritual well-being in

    general. We thus intend to study a comprehensive case of the relevance of the principles and practices of Buddhism in the field of drug and alcohol

    healing. Wat Thamkrabok, a Buddhist monastery in Thailand is selected to be our case study research as it is cited of conducting the world-famous drug and alcoholic rehabilitation program. We aim to give the story behind the program result by capturing what happened to bring it about. This can be a good opportunity to highlight a programs success and to bring attention to a particular characteristic in the rehabilitation program. We found that the Thamkrabok program is based on Buddhist teachings and is known for its use of unconventional methods to treat addictions. These include herbal medicines which induce vomiting in order to alleviate the craving for substances, herbal saunas, a supportive but strict disciplined environment under the care and control of monks, an emphasis on Buddhism, and a sacred vow (sajja) to the Buddha to forever quit addictive drugs.

    Approach to the Case Study We collected data from multiple sources of information and methods to provide as complete a picture as possible. Starting with the monitoring visit in June 2011 at Thamkrabok Monastery located in the mountains approximately one hundred and thirty kilometres north from the city of Bangkok, between Saraburi and Phraputthabat, on the way to Lopburi. After

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    the first visit, during July and September 2011 we collected data by reviewing

    relevant information, obtaining additional information about the program from monastery staff and ex-drug addicts, and employing observation and in-depth interviews with program staff and participants. The descriptions of the Thamkrabok program in this case study report are not intended to reiterate or confirm information about the program that is available through

    other documentation and sources. Rather, the descriptions we provide are meant to offer a more complete picture of what happened in the program and why, to highlight the programs success, and to bring life the distinctive principles and practices of Buddhism in the field of drug and alcohol healing.

    A Brief Story of Thamkrabok Monastery The Thamkrabok Monastery was discovered in 1956 by Luangpaw Charoen Panchand, who was at that time a young monk on a pilgrimage. The monastery started to develop the drug detoxification program in 1959. The

    meaning of Tham (falling tone) means in Thai, cave. Krabok (low tones) is a creation of the abbot, Luangpaw Charoen: Kra ja bawk means to have something to say. The name of the monastery could thus be translated as Cave of the Teaching. Also, the abbot, once called Thamkrabok as an airport to Nirvana (Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). Over a period of 40 years, the monastery has been offering detoxification and rehabilitation to those addicted to harmful substances

    more than 150,000 patients from both Thais and foreigners around the world with minimal payment or reward as part of the goodwill of the Monastery in supporting its people. Significantly, in 1975 the Abbot of Thamkrabok

    was presented with the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service, by which time he had already treated 57,000 addicts and which is considered to be an achievement of worldwide significance. This greatly added

    to the popularity of the program. Furthermore, it has been said that the Thamkrabok Monastery in Thailand runs the toughest drug rehabilitation regime in the world (TARA Detox Organisation, 2011). The program is administered by the monk and ex-addict assistants. There are about 300 monks living at Thamkrabok monastery, of which half

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    are ex-addicts. The rules of the program are strictly enforced. It consists of the following: a) complete abstinence from drugs causing dependence, b) obedience to the monk, c) refrain from any disruptive behaviour, and d) remain within the compound of the temple through the admission period without any excuse. There is no cost to attend the program as it relies on donations for support. It costs less than US$3 per day to feed and house each participant.

    Participants are given 20 baht (55 cents) worth of coupons per day to buy personal supplies. However, foreigners who accept referral packages from representatives abroad must pay for referral, insurance, travel, medical, accommodation, meals treatment, and other services (see www.tara-detox.org, www.alba-thai.org, www.thamkrabok.org.au, www.east-westdetox.org.uk). The Thamkrabok rehabilitation program has been in operation since 1959. Admission statistics revealed that over the past decades there have been between 4,000 and 5,000 annual intakes, which correspond to between 300 and 400 per month. The majority of admissions were Thai young males (91%), mostly aged in their twenties and late teens. Thai females (7%) were under-represented in comparison with national statistics which have shown that approximately 20% of treatment admission are female. Also, there were about 5% of the foreigners (Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). The administrative staffs do follow-up surveys by mailing out card to addicts or their relatives, or in some cases by sending representatives of the monastery to visit village headmen during the third to twelfth month after release. Their findings have shown that approximately 70 percent are

    living drug and alcohol-free and that 25 percent have returned to addiction; the remaining 5 percent are not found (Yogachandra, 1978 cited by The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention, 2005).

    Requirements for Admission to the Program In order to entering to the program, addicts have to be interviewed to determine whether they are coming under voluntary motivation and whether they are physically able to undergo the treatment program. Applicants who

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    are ill or who have not come of their self-determination will not be admitted. The friend or family member who brought them to the monastery signs those accepted into the program. During their stay at the treatment program, only that person (or one of four others, whose names are listed) will be permitted to pay a weekly visit. Also, upon completing the program, the same person who signed them in must sign them out, and in some cases, addicts are required to stay for an additional length of time at the request of family members. The finality of their decision is further reinforced by informing them

    that they can only attend the course one time in their lives. In the evening of the first day, after sunset, the new patients are taken to an open shrine where

    they make the vow in front of the image of the Buddha and in the presence of a monk. Those who are not Buddhist may make the pledge according to their own beliefs. After following this ceremony, the addict attends his/her first physical healing session.

    The Healing Program: Physical and Spiritual Detoxification

    Drug detoxification means two things: a) to withdraw the poisons from ones body and b) to withdraw ones soul from the ghetto of darkness. This process starts as soon as one stops nourishing darkness with thought, speech, language and bodily actions and as soon as one begins to nourish what is good and light, with thoughts, speech, language and bodily actions. The alcohol and drug-treatment thus basically requires four components: 1) the total detoxification of the body, 2) the mental confrontation with oneself and ones situation, which can lead to fundamental life changes, 3) strategies to construct ones motivation, and 4) the insight, that the search and the realisation of ones life-task will be a long-term effort. In order to live a satisfying life, it needs more than a struggle against (drugs); it needs a positive aspiration. At the moment that one has found ones constructive life-task, as well as the motivation to realise it, alcohols and/or drugs no longer be necessary. We found that the healing program at Wat Thamkrabok for alcohol and drug addicts is divided into two complementary components: physical

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    and spiritual detoxification. The physical element is the painful part of the treatment. It basically involves quitting the drug habit called cold-turkey, which is stopping drugs abruptly with no substitute offered to aid in the withdrawal. The spiritual side involves taking a vow or sajja never to touch narcotics again.

    The Physical Detoxification

    The program is perhaps best known for its use of vomiting in order to relieve the craving for alcohols and drugs. It requires the following elements: The Strong Herbal Medicine and Vomiting which Luang Paw Yaai, the holy man of Thamkrabok, has developed the rather disgusting, yet very effective potion. The herbal preparation comes from herbs gathered in the vicinity and some from Chiang Rai, Thailand. The dose of herbal liquid is given to patients everyday for five days. This dark strong smelling herbal

    mixture is taken with large quantity of water which induces profound vomiting. It is explained that severe vomiting is the therapeutic as it causes physical weakness which renders good sleep (Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). Besides, peers of patients also provide moral support by cheering and singing spiritual songs. Program participants who had completed the detoxification phase stood around and chanted slogans to encourage and

    assist the newcomers. There seemed to be an impression of excitement and a strong expectation that the newcomer do a thorough job of vomiting. This peer support and encouragement appears to be a significant component of

    the ritual. The Black Herbal Pills are another element of purification. According to the constitution of the patient, the tablets produce an energising or a relaxing effect. During the detox-process, no other kind of medicine is allowed because it would disturb the procedure of detoxification.

    The Tea and the Herbal Saunas are given every afternoon in order to reduce pain in the muscles and bones and to induce relaxation. The tea has a purifying effect and can be taken throughout the day. Similar to the vomiting, the herbal sauna is a classical element of physical purification.

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    The green herbs that are added to the steam are exceptionally good for the skin, the lungs and the eyes.

    The Spiritual Detoxification

    Spiritual treatment is the primary approach to rehabilitation, and patients must make a vow (sajja) of lifetime abstinence from drugs and alcohols during a religious ceremony held on the very first evening of their

    stay. A warning is given for those who fail: If breaks this vow, the spirits will punish him (Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). According to Luangpaw Charoen, (Abbot of Thamkrabok Monastery), the physical detoxification is

    only 5 percent of the treatment as he stated that:You must do the remaining 95 percent of the work in your mind and through your actions (TARA Detox Organisation, 2011; Thamkrabok monastery, 2011).

    Therefore, the mental detoxification is created as a principal healing

    aspect of the program, which consists of two essential elements: Sajja; and Kahtah. Sajja is a Pali word found in Buddhist texts which has the broad meaning of embracing truth, loyalty, purity and honesty. It is a solemn declaration about the active fulfilment of a truth. All addicts agree that Sajja

    is the most effective part of the treatment but the most difficult as the patients

    have to keep it for the rest of their lives. Addicts volunteering for treatment at the monastery, which now has some 100 monks in residence, take Sajja, a sacred vow, never to touch drugs again and commit themselves to a new life. The Sajja is a sacred act that if the patients believe, it will connect them with their will power and with something beyond as the abbot Luangpaw Charoen has called the whisper of God (Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). Significantly, breaking a sajja is considered a very serious thing. There is

    the belief that those break sajja will have to bare unpleasant consequences in their lives. Therefore, the advance notice is given for addicts to consider before deciding to take Sajja.

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    The ceremony will be conducted by patients who light three incense sticks, put the sticks into the bowl, then they fold their hands and repeat the formula the high monk speaks:

    I cordially render my worship - physically, verbally and spiritually - towards Our Lord Buddha, His Teachings and towards all His Disciples. May the Teachings of Our Lord Buddha bring these sacred vows towards the true Nirvana.I hereby solemnly promise to commit my vows to Our Lord Buddha and pledge, for the rest of my life, commencing from today, that; I will never again allow myself to become addicted, I will not enter the trade or be in the possession of dangerous drugs, I will never again use or add any addictive substance or solvents-namely; opium, heroin, morphine, cocaine, crack-cocaine, marijuana, hallucinogenic drugs (such as LSD - lysergernic acid), amphetamines (such as Speed or Ecstasy) - to any non-toxic substances, solvents, food or drinks. I will not urge other people to use addictive drugs. I call upon the earth, the sky, and the air to be my witnesses. May Our Lord Buddha, all of those present and all those who can hear our vows be my witness. May the Teachings of Our Lord Buddha grant the merits gained to the Beings in the universe, living or dead, and to the father, the mother, the benefactors, the patrons and Chao kam nai wane. Please help me to acquire the four Noble Truths of Buddhism, the four Perceptions of Buddhism, the four Orders of Merit of Buddhism, and to attempt the demanding route towards Nirvana

    Source:www.alba-thai.org

    Kahtah is a tool for raising ones determination. Even though its syllables have no intellectual meaning, its function is purely energetic. The

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    patients will receive a little paper with a sacred word after the first phase

    of their treatment. The patients learn kahtah by heart, then eat the paper after 7 days and state it constantly when perform meditation, when endurance and strength are needed, or in moments of craving and temptation. It has been believed that saying the kahtah can also be a very powerful strategy for helping people acquire the things that they desire. Besides, Meditation, traditional Thai massage, chanting, working and medical cares are the further options of the detoxification program. After the first five days of detoxification, the second five days are

    referred to as the recovery phase. In this phase, the patient is permitted to rest and recover from physical exhaustion. They are circulated from the locked detoxification ward to more comfortable quarters and are free to

    wander. During this phase, the monks teach Buddhist doctrines and encourage participants to share and reflect upon their experiences. At the conclusion

    of the 10-day program, the participants reaffirm their vows to abstain from

    alcohols, after which they are free to leave (unless they have contracted for a longer stay). It is recommended that most youth alcohol addicts stay beyond the 10-day basic program for periods of one to six months during which they pursue vocational or religious training. In addition, they are expected to do work assignments which are given out each day by the monks. Some patients chose to be ordained as monks and stay on permanently to further the work of the monastery.

    The Distinctive Treatments of Thamkrabok Healing Program The rehabilitation scheme at Thamkrabok monastery is an indigenous program based on Thai culture and Buddhism. It raises some interesting issues for discussion concerning treatment for addictions. There are some similarities with traditional programs. For instance, the detoxification

    procedure resembles the cold turkey approach seen in other countries, where addicts are locked in cells to suffer through the pains of withdrawal (The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention, 2005).

    Additionally, therapeutic communities in some countries practice the employment of project graduates to stay on as staff and the emphasis on

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    discipline. There are various characteristics, however, which are extremely distinctive from other healing treatments; these include the role of Buddhism in healing, purging and herbal sauna used during detoxification, shock and

    discipline, and the sacred vow. The details of each treatment are presented here:

    The Role of Buddhism in Healing The goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering by means of the Noble Eightfold Path, which consists of three principle parts: morality (sila), concentration (samadhi), and wisdom (prajna) (Buswell, 2004). It advocates a middle way between the two extremes of constant attachment to sensual pleasure and self-mortification. Attachment (grasping of an object)

    is distinguished from craving (aspiring to an object not yet reached). Both are opposed to contentment and lead to suffering. In this view, addiction can be understood as an excessive attachment to and craving for drugs which provide sensual pleasure. The Buddhist treatment approach focuses on both morality and understanding. The moral teaching is that addiction to intoxicants is wrong as it leads to suffering, neglect of family, heedlessness, danger, squandering of wealth and so forth. Addicts must be taught about the wrongfulness of addiction and its consequences, and change their behaviours accordingly. It can be seen that there is an explicit emphasis at Thamkrabok monastery on the morality of addiction. This is first apparent during the sacred vow where

    the addict acknowledges the wrong fullness of his/her actions and makes a sajja to live without drugs and alcohols. According to the abbot, the pain and suffering of the vomiting procedure has punishment and chastening as part of its intended effects (The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance

    Abuse Prevention, 2005). The strict discipline, the teaching of the monks, and emphasis on responsibility for ones actions could also be thought of as moral conditioSimultaneously, understanding must be developed through meditation, with its two aspects of concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (prajna). Meditation is available at the Thamkrabok for Thais who are willing to stay for longer period and for foreigners, but it would depend

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    on whether there are monks available who can speak English (or other foreign languages). In addition to formal meditation learning, the Buddhist philosophy and way of life is transmitted through the example of the monks. Several monks have recovered from addiction through the practice of Buddhism. The abbot, Luangpaw Chamroon Parnchand, is regarded as a holy man, and his presence serves as a powerful positive influence for Thai

    Buddhists and foreigners.

    Purging and Herbal Sauna It has been reported that all addicts who attended the Thamkrabok program agreed that purging did relieve craving for alcohols and drugs, and the reputation of the project both in Thailand and abroad certifies to

    widespread belief in its effectiveness. In an interview (Flamm, 1993, p.25 cited by The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention

    2005), the abbot was quoted as giving the following therapeutic benefits of

    vomiting:Nausea is a prime symptom of drug withdrawal, the symptom which is consistently feared by incoming patients. Overcoming nausea by causing severe vomiting is part of the treatment and makes a deep impression upon the patient. First, it gives him or her the feeling of having effectively purged all the narcotics. Second, severe vomiting masks over the abstinence syndrome, so most patients tolerate and forget about withdrawal symptoms. Third, it causes physical weakness; and fourth, it is perceived as a kind of punishment and is expected to have a chastening effect that would prevent an ex-addict from relapsing into the old habit. (p.45)

    The notion of purging narcotics from the gastrointestinal system by means of vomiting is not consistent with Western medical views of addiction, which focus on the presence of drugs in the bloodstream and effects of drugs on the central nervous system. Nevertheless, purging could be effective in relieving craving, either physically or as a symbolically meaningful and emotionally cathartic act. Regarding the abbots second point, perhaps profound vomiting does mask the abstinence syndrome,

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    much like the familiar case of the tobacco smoker who loses all interest in smoking during a severe bout of influenza. The patients informed that they

    felt very weak and tired during the first few days of detoxification, and this

    possibly takes the concentration aside from the withdrawal symptoms they would normally have suffered. In regard to the fourth point, several addicts reveal of the detoxification phase as a miserable experience, which they

    would not desire to reiterate. Perhaps the intensity and suffering develop a lasting memory that reinforces emphasis on their determination to avoid alcohols and drugs in the future. In the West, emetic drugs have been used in aversive-conditioning procedures, but that would seem to be according to an altogether different paradigm. Typically, in aversive conditioning, the drug is paired with exposure to the emetic. After conditioning has occurred, subsequent encounters with the drug will induce nausea (The Asia-Pacific NGO on

    Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention, 2005). The patient would then be less likely to return to drug use. At Wat Thamkrabok, however, there is no explicit procedure of pairing nausea with exposure to stimuli associated with drug use. During the purging ritual, anti-drug slogans are chanted, while the addicts are in the act of vomiting, and it could be argued that some kind of conditioning of nausea to drug-related stimuli may be occurring. Besides the herbal medicines, green herbal sauna is the highly speculative combination that can further purity, detoxify and reinvigorate the body.

    Shock and Discipline The term shock has been described as the harshness and difficulties of the rehabilitation program, despite the fact that the patients viewed the shock experience as therapeutic. Shock-incarceration techniques, sometimes referred to as boot camps, have been in operation in the US and UK since the early 1980s (MacKenzie, 1994). The basic rationale for these procedures is that they provide structure and discipline, something that criminals and drug addicts supposedly lack. They are modelled after military boot camps and involve many hours of physical training and drill, also include rehabilitation and educational activities. Recreation is fairly limited,

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    typically consisting of only a few hours per week. The shock incarceration programs have also been tested in the US for drug offenders, yet there is not much consensus on the effectiveness of these methods (MacKenzie, 1994). One difficulty is that a large percentage

    (30 to 50%) of entrants ceases to participate before completion. Nonetheless, this problem will not happen at Thamkrabok monastery as leaving before reaching the end is not an option. Singapore also has been utilising shock-incarceration methods (i.e., cold turkey, indoctrination, drilling and physical training, strict rules and harsh conditions) together with rehabilitation activities at its drug user rehabilitation centres (Ong, 1989 cited by The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention, 2005).

    In the Thamkrabok monastery, the participants wear uniforms and are marched to single file in small groups to attend scheduled activities announced

    over the loudspeaker. The monks monitored, directed and controlled every waking moment of the lives of the participants. Even if perhaps not as harsh as a prison boot camp, there appeared to be a strong emphasis on discipline and a strong expectation to comply with the regulations or accept punishment, including physical beatings and confinement in chains.

    One of the rationales for boot camp programs is that they might serve as an initiation experience for addicts to earn the right to return as respected members of society. This is consistent with the goal of returning the addict to his/her community, FULLY CURED, head held high - with dignity restored. In traditional Thai society, it has been the custom for young men to enter a monastery for a period of a few months, which might be thought of as a kind of initiation into adulthood and in order to make merit for their parents. Perhaps staying at Wat Thamkrabok serves a similar purpose for participants due to the overwhelming majority of whom are young Thai males. Another aspect of boot camp projects is the companionship or bond that forms between participants. At Thamkrabok monastery, there is a kind of natural segregation into cohorts of addicts who enter at the same time and who will remain together throughout their stay. The bond between these members was evident in the way that they were proud to help one another

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    through the program, which is the switch roles to become the helper.

    Sacred Vow A central aspect of the Thamkrabok healing program, as conceived by the abbot, is the value of making a spiritual commitment and solemn vow to the Buddha or according to ones own religious beliefs as a condition of entry into the program. Such a vow will be based on good intentions, and may be quite heartfelt and sincere. Furthermore, it would seem that making a sacred vow or sajja to abandon the use of alcohols and drugs for the rest of ones life might result in a terrible sense of failure and guilt. For example, if one were to lapse, it may lead to the abstinence violation effect in turn. This not only disappoints oneself, family and friends, but also has broken a sacred promise to the Buddha. This is the threat of retribution by the spirit, who will punish those who break the vow (TARA Detox Organisation, 2011; Thamkrabok monastery, 2011). A further positive view would be that giving a sajja and a commitment to change supports to restore a sense of dignity and aspiration as well as provides a sense of intention. The success of healing is guaranteed after addicts making the sacred vow. Because there is no possibility of leaving the project until completion, at least while in the confines of the program. The

    sajja is made again upon completion of the 10-day program. Since when the addicts return to his/her community, they may have overcome the physical part of the illness and the battle then becomes a mental and spiritual one, and it is thought that the vow will provide strength, especially if accompanied by a supportive environment.

    Conclusion: Success of the Thai Buddhist Healing Program According to research conducted at the Thamkrabok monastery, 70 percent of program graduates following completion of the treatment was reported living drug-free lives. However, the definition of success is not

    given, though lifelong abstinence is clearly a major purpose of the program. The Thamkrabok rehabilitation program has been designed within the local

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    context to serve Thai addicts, the overwhelming majority of which are youth, male, and Buddhist. Even so, we argue, it can be assumed that the program is an appealing alternative to Western treatment approaches. The attractive features for this group might be the exotic nature of the healing technique, the use of herbal medicines to relieve craving, the emphasis on Buddhism, and the challenge and adventure of completing the course. One aspect of the Thamkrabok program that is highly attractive is the very low cost of operations. Furthermore, the popularity and longevity of this healing program can be proposed that it not not only provides a valuable notion and service to alcohol and drug addicts in Thailand, but also contains some unique therapeutic elements which would prove effective in rehabilitation programs elsewhere.

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    ReferencesBuswell, R. E. (2004) Encyclopaedia of Buddhism. New York : Macmillan

    reference.MacKenzie, D. L. (1994) Shock incarceration as an alternative for drug

    offenders. In D. L. Uchida (Ed.), Drugs and Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications.

    Mikulas, W. L. (1981) Buddhism and Behaviour Modification. The Psychological Record, Volume 31.

    TARA Detox Organisation. A Buddhist Approach to Addiction. Thamkrabok Assistance & Recovery Advice. [Online URL: http://www.tara-detox.org] accessed August 12, 2011

    Thamkrabok monastery. Drug Detoxification. [Online URL: http://www.thamkrabok. org; http://www.thamkrabok.net; http://www.alba-thai.org] accessed August 12, 2011)

    The Asia-Pacific NGO on Drug and Substance Abuse Prevention (2005) The Program for Curing Alcohol Addiction. Bangkok : Pim Dee printing. [in Thai]

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 139-156, 2013

    Research for Development and Changing in Cultural Tourism toward Creative Economy through

    Participation Process of Sustainable Network Alliances in Ratchaburi Province

    Narin Sangragsa1* and Somchai Lukhananuluk2

    1Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand 2Faculty of Human and Social Science,

    Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand*Corresponding author: narin2100@yahoo.com

    Abstract This research was aimed to 1) study the value of art and cultural tourism given along the way of creative economy 2)develop the one management model of cultural tourism 3) compare the successful and failure factors of cultural tourism management in communities 4) study the way of how to manage cultural tourism based on Self-Sufficient Economy Philosophy (3 loops and 2 conditions) through the participation of sustainable network alliances and 5) study the manipulation of significant trips in cultural tourism

    of Ratchaburi province. Based on the two integrated research methodologies of research and development (R&D) and participatory action research (PAR), this research would be divided into 4 stages as follows: 1st stage: Explored and analyze the basic data. 2nd stage: Design and develop the research instruments based on the basic data mentioned earlier. 3rd stage: Try out the research instruments. 4th stage: Use the instruments to implement, analyze the collected data and conclusion the lesson learnt. The research instruments here were interviewing questionnaire, guideline for in-depth interview and guideline for meeting forum and focus group discussion. The collected data was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with Statistical Computer Program Package and technique of content analysis respectively.

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    The results were found and presented as follows: 1) The art and cultural tourism were value by the respondents (tourists and other related

    groups) at much level ( X =4.08, X =4.16). 2) The one model was developed and so called to RATCHABURI MODEL and this abbreviated name was came from 1) R=Research (Research on Tourism) 2) A=Action Learning (Action Learning from Learning Sources) 3) T=Technology (Application of Technology) 4) C= Community of Practice 5) H =Horizontal (Horizontal Relationship of Organization) 6) A= Awareness 7) B=Best Practice (Best Practice accordingto Philosophy of Self-Sufficient Economy) 8) U=Universal (Universal Tourism) 9) R= Responsibility (Community Responsibility) 10) I= Identity (Construction of Outstanding Identity) 3) From the comparative study, the successful factors were the co-working together of three main components namely House, Wat (Temple) and School (HTS) in the tourism management. Furthermore these components also had many of their strengthening points as leaderships, structure of organization, participation of tourist members, technology, knowledge, skills/competencies, management, organizational cultures, public mind and community capitals. When considering into the failure factors they were jealousy, shortage of participation and conflict of interests among

    communities and tourist members. 4) To manage the cultural tourism it should be proceed on the way of self-sufficient economy and based on background,

    socio-landscape and interests of community. Also the management should be focused on cost-benefit in many more dimensions than cost recovery in

    term of economic value. 5) The tourist trips of Ratchaburi province would present to 4 trips as follows 1) Half-Day Trip 2) One Day Trip 3) One Day and One Night Trip 4) Two Days and Two Nights Trip.

    Key Words: Cultural Tourism; Creative Economy; Participation; Network Alliances; Sustainable

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    Introduction Ratchaburi province is one of the provinces located in west-central part of Thailand. It has many diverse landscapes and is known as the one land of rich cultures in Maeklong river basin and mist of Tanowsri mountain range. Its history can be traced back long time ago. The province also has many ethnic groups who can live together in peaceful ways. We can say to that Ratchaburi province is now widely known as the one province fulfilled

    with its historical issues, various arts, cultures and traditions. All of these are assimilated and perfectly merged together. For the tourists It has so many interesting and attractive sites and related activities for them to visit and these are such as historical sites, antiquities and local handmade handicrafts (master pieces of sculpture, interlace and weaving jobs). Moreover the province has a lot of beautiful natural resources and is not far from Bangkok. It can be of cited here to that Ratchaburi province is the one important tourist province in this region. The cultural tourism is the one type of community tourism that can be self-managed by any one community. This can yield and change its art and cultural value toward the creative economic value. It also creates the natural way of living life in community and can lead to the sustainable development and self-sufficient economic income and living of community dwellers as

    well. From the two research projects studied in Ratchaburi province by our research members as The Good Outcomes of Application in Philosophy of Self-Sufficient Economy in Learning and Management Processes of

    Community Enterprises of Ratchaburi province and The Lesson Learnt on Integrative Learning Processes of Community Enterprises for Well-Being Society in Ratchaburi province, it was found that if we want to change up the tourism management to have its more sustainable economic value it is indeed to set up the one model of tourism management through participative process of sustainable network alliances. And this should be significantly managed by their community dwellers. Research Objectives 1. To study the values of art and cultural tourism given along the way of creative economy

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    2. To develop the one model of tourism management 3. To compare the successful and failure factors of tourism management in communities 4. To study the way of how to manage the tourism management under the three loops and two conditions of Self-Sufficient Economy Philosophy

    5. To manipulate the trips of cultural tourism in Ratchaburi province

    Materials and Methods, Area Descriptions, Techniques This research would integrate both of Research and Development methodology and Participatory Action Research methodologies to give more of overview and clearer points of results in term of macro-micro linkage. The research processes were conducted as Multi-Sites and Multi-Cases Research and could be divided into 4 stages as follows: 1) Research1 (R1): The basic data was collected and analyzed to develop the research instruments 2) Development1 (D1): Based on the basic data mentioned earlier, the research instruments as two interviewing questionnaires, guidelines for in-depth interview, arrangement on focus group discussion, documentary analysis, set up forum on exchangeable learning through dialogue process, training session, and seminar for policy manipulation in additional to SWOT analysis were all designed, constructed and developed at this stage. 3) Research2 (R2): The research instruments were tried out and some were really implemented in the next action processes 4) Development2 (D2): The instruments tried out were evaluated and adjusted before using in the action processes. 5) Research3 (R3): The action processes were conducted and many of the research results as the lesson learnt were presented here.

    Research Results 1) The art and cultural tourism given along the way of creative economy were valued by both of the tourists and the other related groups at much level. However the other groups gave this a little more

    value than the tourists ( X tourists=4.08 and X groups =4.16 respectively). From the

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    synthesis on values of four important tourist sites well-known as the cradle of civilization of Ratchaburi province it was found that these values could be categorized into two parts as the values of personal development and social development. For the personal development they could develop and enhance any person to have his intelligence, emotion, psychical development and social adaptation. When considering into the latter part they could develop any society on education, ethic, arts, economy, community impression and identity. These could be shown as Figure 1.

    Figure 1 Demonstration to Values of Cultural Tourism in Ratchaburi province

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    2) The one model of tourism management could be developed and was named to Ratchaburi Model. This was came from its major components as 1) R=Research (Research on Tourism) 2) A=Action Learning (Action Learning from Learning Sources) 3) T=Technology (Application of Technology) 4) C= Community of Practice (Community of Practices) 5) H=Horizontal (Horizontal Relationship of Organization) 6) A= Awareness 7) B= Best Practice (Best Practice according to Philosophy of Self-Sufficient Economy) 8) U= Universal (Universal Tourism) 9) R=

    Responsibility (Community Responsibility) 10) I = Identity (Construction of Outstanding Identity). Besides the minor components were also developed and could be shown as: Component 1: Development on Competencies in Cultural Tourism Management. Component 2: Management of Cultural Tourism. Component 3: Participation of Network Alliances. Component 4: Development of Cultural Tourism along the Way of Self-Sufficient Economy. Component 5: Building

    up Self-Sufficient Value to Creative Values. Component 6: To Develop

    Tourist Groups for Enhancement on their Satisfaction, Responsibilities and Public Mind to the Communities. All of these were presented in Figure 2. 3) From the comparative study of the successful and failure factors related to Museum of Miscellaneous Products, Ban Khoobua, the successful factors were co-working together of the three main components namely House, Wat (Temple) and School (HTS) in the tourism management. Also all of them had their strengthening points in leadership, participation of tourist members, structure of organization, technologies, knowledge, skills/competencies, management, organizational cultures, public mind and community capitals. For their failure factors they were come from jealously, shortage of participation and conflicts of interests among tourist members

    and communities. These were depicted in Table 1-2. 4) The Guidelines of Management on Cultural Tourism along the Way of Self-Sufficient Economy Philosophy (3 Loops and 2 Conditions)

    through Participation of Sustainable Network Alliances The guidelines of management suggested from the respondents could be depicted here as follows:

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    Figure 2 Management Model of Cultural Tourism in Ratchaburi province

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    Table 1 The successful and failure factors in Museum of Miscellaneous Products, Ban Khoobua

    The Successful Factors The Failure Factors

    1. The leaders had their knowledge, competencies and visions of development

    2. The leaders had their public mind and commitment

    3. The site had its administrative structure in the form of one committee

    4. It used HWS (House, Wat and School) concept to build up public mind and cultural capitals in community

    5. The public relation was done through Websites

    1. If the operational goal was changed to be commerce its performances might not sustainable. The majority of committee was also elderly and this could cause it to lack of continuous performance.

    2. The shortage of community participation and conflict of interests with the community dwellers

    3. The high value things were hoarded by the dwellers such as the swellers tried to sell these things in market more than donate them to the museum

    4. To transfer and propagate the in-depth knowledge of dwellers was difficult to practice

    5. The shortage of contribution from government and private sectors

    Table 2 The successful and failure factors of Local Museum, Ban Samrong

    The successful factors The failure factors

    1. The leaders had their visions of development

    2. The site had its administrative structure in the form of one committee

    3. It used HWS concept to build up public mind and social capitals in community

    4. It had the organizational cultures which could enable to the development such as the community had social cohesion and the dwellers also loved together and shared the one same goal on sustainable development

    5. The committee had knowledge and skills in using of technologies for the management

    1. If the administrative goal was changed into commercialization it might not be enduringly operated.

    2. To hoard of high valued products by the dwellers such as they tried to sell their high valued things in market more than donated into the museum

    3.To transfer the in-depth knowledge of dwellers was difficult to practice

    4. A little supporting from government and private sectors

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    (1) The tourist groups: For the cultural tourism its overview was valued by the tourist groups at much level. The attractive and interesting resources and the basic services were firstly and secondly weighted by them

    respectively. And the services of how to travel were prioritized at the lowest level. (2) The other related groups: For the overview of tourism it was weighted by them at much level as well. Each of the tourist sites will have its different managements and practices. The leaders still have their important roles in the management. To pull out the community powers to participate in the development, it is known as the self-determination. Even though the sites will use the different means on management but finally these can lead to the one same goal known as

    the success along the way of Self-Sufficient Economy Philosophy. When

    saying about this self-sufficient way it has the guidelines of management

    which are based on the background, historical root, outstanding identities, and interests (allocated resources) of community. Moreover the management should be handled on the cost-benefits of more dimensions (such as cost-

    social benefits) than the only one dimension of monetary value.

    These can be presented to Figure 3. 5) The Manipulation of Cultural Tourist Trips in Ratchaburi Province From the research results, the tourist trips could be manipulated as shown below in Figure 4

    Conceptual Framework from the Research All of the four cultural tourist sites known as the cradle of civilization had their capacities and readiness in the management of cultural tourism. They had the six capital types and could be shown as follows: -The Natural Capital: Each of the sites had its different characteristics and it had full-filled art and cultural values.

    -The Physical Capital: Each of them also had its own management based on the socio-landscapes and community ways of life. It also had enough facilities to support the tourist groups.

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    Figure 3 The Guideline of Management in Cultural Tourism

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    Figure 4 The Manipulation of Cultural Tourism

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    The researchers synthesize the capacities of four cultural tourist sites as shown in Figure 5

    Figure 5 Synthesis in Capacities of Cultural Tourist in Four Studied Sites

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    -The Human Capital: They were received and supported from the participation of community leaders, tourist members and network of alliances. -The Social Capital: This capital was occurred from all of the groups mentioned above had their public mind and sacrifices for the

    mobilization of this tourism. -The Cultural Capital: The sites had varieties of community cultures and these could be used as the one community base of development -The Money Capital: All the sites had a few of this capital but they could self-develop with their gradual paces. When considering into the self-determination of community, the community could draw up the community powers for this and it could be categorized into the five areas of

    self-determination as mind, social, resources, appropriate technologies and economy. All of these could be pulled out from the community powers and could lead to their self-standing. To achieve the stabilities of development it was however needed to have some monetary and academic supports from the government sector. Its outcomes could therefore lead to the one model of creative tourism so called to RATCHABURI Model. This could be presented to Figure 6.

    Recommendations from the Research Policy Recommendations 1. From the one model generated from this study named toRATCHABURI Model, therefore the related government offices at

    all levels should promote and support the cultural tourism in Ratchaburi province seriously and continuously. These are included into the one part of its preparation of readiness for Asean Community in 2015. 2. From RATCHABURI Model the government offices in Ratchaburi province should transform this model to be the strategic plan and the action plan of cultural tourism. These should be responded and served to the strategic of Ministry of Tourist and Sport and the strategic of Ratchaburi Tourist. It is needed to earnestly mobilize RATCHABURI Model in Ratchaburi province and this can lead to the sustainability of cultural tourism in this province.

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    Figure 6 Conceptual Frame Taken From This Research

    3. From the one result about the activities in each tourist sites could not be concretely happened, for tackle on this problem the related offices in

    Ratchaburi province should therefore develop their personnel at all levels through the training and seminar sessions. These sessions should be added up with the contents of how to make and mobilize the creative economy and outstanding identities occur in the cultural tourism. 4. From the one result about that some of the tourist sites still were lacked of continuous budget and academic supports from the government and local sectors. These sectors should support and full fill in them. This

    could lead to the mobilization of sustainable development. Recommendations for the Usage of Research Results 1. From the one result which could be presented here to that some parts of the network alliances had a lot of their strong points in participation and some had a few of them. These problems were come from their conflicts

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    of interests. Some of them were come from the actions of local political and the misunderstanding among tourist members. The stakeholders and the community leaders should use the peaceful ways and held on the conceptual framework of co-working together among House, Wat (Temple) and School (HWT) to solve these problems. The community powers known as community capitals should be pulled out or draw up to use and joint in the activities of management in cultural tourism. 2. From the one result was that the tourist sites were valued at much level, this value is therefore needed to keep on continuously and the tourist groups must be activated to have their public mind and responsibilities about how to keep the tourism being in its sustainable ways. The tourist groups must be forced to concern about the ways of how to get the maximized benefits of tourism. It should promote the three different age groups as

    children, youth, working and elderly groups in community to share their love and self-belonging in additional to take care in the tourist sites. From their participation and mobilization mentioned earlier it can be surely made to that their tourist sites and cultural roots are continually kept on for long times. Furthermore they should be advised to recognize and have their good roles as tourist host and enabler to the tourist groups. 3. Based on the one finding about the four tourist sites had their

    management of cultural tourism along the way of Self-Sufficient Economy

    Philosophy (3 Loops and 2 Conditions) and this management was determined and gradually proceed by themselves, so the government offices should focus

    on this management and it should be adjusted to serve communities which has their different socio-landscapes. The officers should explore and rise

    up the outstanding identities of each tourist sites and this can lead to the sustainable development. 4. From the one result which was found that the tourist sites had their potentials in cultural tourism however the related groups still lacked their skills and techniques in this management, therefore the government offices

    should develop and enhance the competencies in tourism management for these groups through the arrangement of interesting and appropriate activities. These can make the groups have their knowledge, understanding

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    and skills in practices about the tourist management. 5. From the results about that the tourist sites still had their problems of development and improvement especially in the problems of tourist management, shortage in facilities or basic services, tourist marketing, management of security, public relation in active approaches and building up in public mind, therefore the three stakeholders as government, local community and private sectors should co-work together for solving these problems along its operational plan. 6. Even though the tourist groups had their satisfaction toward the tourism at much level however this satisfaction should be increased or developed to have more responsibilities to the cultural tourism than being.

    Recommendation for Future Research 1. It should have the new one research about Ratchaburi Study and this should be done with integrated research methodologies and in various dimensions. Furthermore the research should be implemented in eight ethnic groups through Participatory Action Research. To do like this it is aimed to promote the well-being of all community dwellers in Ratchaburi province. 2. The RATCHABURI Model should be applied to use in other cultural tourism sites especially in the tourism network of four Dvaravati provinces namely Ratchabri, Nakhon Phathom, Kanchanaburi and Suphaburi province. To do like this it is expected to make the tourist sites increase more expand and cover than the being sites. 3. It should develop the one type of integrative tourism management through the management of clustered sites along the different tourist sites of this province. It should be included to the enhancement of competencies in competitions for the related groups 4. It should have the one research about how to develop the creative economic activities related to the tourist products and OTOP commodities in Ratchaburi province. 5. It should have the one research to explore about the behavioral patterns and motivation of tourism in foreign tourist groups. Based on the explored data it can be used to set up and launch the tourism campaign to

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    serve their wants in more active approaches. This is the one way of how to prepare ourselves to serve and enter ASEAN Community in 2015. 6. It should have the one study about how to develop the one management model of tourist site with its creative approaches and this will be used to link with the tourism network of four Dvaravati provinces.

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    References Aesichaikul, R. (2011) Introduction about Knowledge Tourism Resource.

    In Sustainable Tourism Resource Management Set. Nonthaburi : Sukhothai Thammathirat University Printing.

    Creative Industries Task Force. (2001) The Creative Industries Mapping. London : UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport.

    Greg, R. (2008) Creativetourism and Local Development. In Creative Tourism, a Global Conversation : How to Provide Unique Creative Experience for Travelers Worldwide, edited by R. Wurzburger, T. Aageson, A. Pattakos and S. Pratt. Santa Fe, New Mexico : Sunstone Press.

    Mitchop, C. (2010) Creative economy : New concept in economic driven in the decade. in Sukhothai Thammathirat University Journal, 5 (1 June): 81-114.

    Ministry of Tourism and Sports. (2009) Strategies for Tourism 2009-2013. Bangkok : Policy and Plan Department.

    Ralf, B. (1994) International Center for Ecotourism Research. (Research Report, 1993) ICER : Gold Coast.

    Sigala, M., and Leslie, D. (Eds.) (2005) International Cultural Tourism: Management, Implications and Cases. USA : Elsevier Science and Technology.

    Sungrugsa, N. (2010) The Research Report; A Study of Situation of Cultural Tourism in Nakhon Pathom Province. Nakhon Pathom : Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University.

    _________ . (2012 a). Research and Development in Education Book. Nakhon Pathom : Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University.

    _________ . (2012 b) Tourism for Education Book. Nakhon Pathom : Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University.

    Sunkakon, K. (2009) The Research Report; Application for Sufficiency Economic Guideline for Sustainable Community Tourism Development. Changmai : Social Research Institution, Changmai University.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 157-177, 2013

    A Curriculum Development Utilizing TPACK as Content Framework to Enhance Digital Courseware

    Production Competency for Teachers

    Santhawee Niyomsap, Sumlee Thongthew* and Sugree Rodpothong

    Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand*Corresponding author: tsumlee@yahoo.com

    Abstract Regarding the lack of digital courseware, especially in the Social Studies subject which could well represent the Thai traditional society, social studies teachers must possess competency to create digital courseware based on local and learners needs, situational adaptable, as well as uniquely different from other commercial or imported courseware. Therefore, it is very important to develop a curriculum to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teachers by applying the principle of TPACK as its content framework. This paper exhibits the experiment of applying a curriculum utilizing TPACK as the content framework to 11 social studies teachers in Punpin district in Southern Thailand. It is found that knowledge in applying social studies pedagogy to digital courseware production (adapted from PCK), knowledge in using technology to collect resources of social studies content (adapted from TCK) and knowledge in using computer program for digital courseware production (adapted from TPK) should be appropriately adapted based on existed knowledge and experience of teachers. In addition, the learning of the three knowledge areas should be integrated for better digital courseware production competency. It is recommended that knowledge in using technology to collect resources of social studies content and knowledge in using computer program for digital courseware production should be added in the learning management of knowledge in applying social studies pedagogy to digital courseware

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    production in order for the teachers to see the overall picture of digital courseware and to guide and plan for the better self-production of digital courseware. It is also noted that follow-up coaching and encouragement is necessary to keep teachers participating in the curriculum accomplishing their productions.

    Key Words: Competency; Curriculum Development; Social Studies Teacher; Teacher Development; TPACK

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    Introduction The Office of the Basic Education Commission of Thailand (OBEC)

    (2010 P.25-32) identified curriculum and learning management as one of

    teachers functional competencies. The key indicator for this competency is that a teacher must be able to use and develop technological media to manage the learning activities by implementing 3 behavior indications, including (1) the use of innovative and technological media to manage multi-learning which is appropriate with learning content and activities, (2) the information searching through internet networks to develop learning management, and (3) the use of computer technology to produce learning media or innovation. This competency is a guideline for teachers to develop their skills in using informational and communication technology (ICT) to produce learning media which could help enhance students learning activities. The mentioned competency is consistent with teachers competency proposed by UNESCO (2002) based on the principle of ICT Application in Subject Areas, which mentioned that teacher should possess basic knowledge and skills in applying ICT, including the use of necessarily fundamental devices and peripheral devices, to develop learning by integrating ICT and learning content altogether. It is also consistent with the thought suggested by Phelps et al. (2005 cited in Markauskaite, 2007) that teachers need the ICT-related skill development based on basic competency theory. Furthermore, currently there is a public interest in ICT literacy in the areas of technological integration for educational system, including conducting research on self-learning materials and learning media. (Markauskaite, 2006 cited in Agbatogun, 2010) With the ultimate goal to develop teachers competency, it can be assumed that teachers competency in using and developing innovatively technological media for learning, including the ability to search information on the internet, is an appropriate guideline for teacher development in the digital age, which computer and internet inevitably play an important role in peoples lives. Nevertheless, the promotion of subject matters which are local-oriented or consistent with Thai context should be considered in the areas of teacher competency development in using and developing computer and internet. This is based on a proposal proposed by Jaitip

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    Na-Songkhla (Na-Songkhla, 2004) which stated that Thailand should develop a curriculum for teachers in the digital age to develop their competency in (1) applying appropriate technology to the Thai context, (2) building up the knowledge-based society and local-oriented subject matters which are balanced with foreign culture, easy, and fast to learn, (3) analyzing the subject matters which will be appropriately and effectively transferred through technology, (4) managing digital learning environment in the areas of knowledge management, as well as the development of digital courseware and digital learning activities, (5) being a technological leader to appropriately and effectively create digital courseware for both teachers and students, and (6) creating an ambience to facilitate the use of technology for fostering learning, analysis, and creation. According to the Department of Curriculum and Instruction Developments research regarding the computer use and development for teaching and learning in primary schools in Thailand which was conducted by Kannika Prampituk (Prampituk, 2002) digital courseware which was bought by schools or sold in the market is not consistent with subject areas or teachers requirement. This thought is fully supported by another research conducted by Jaitip Na-Songkhla (Na-Songkhla, 2003) which exhibited that Thailand produces too little digital courseware and that which was produced is low quality. In Thailand, it is found that digital courseware is mostly imported from overseas so it is lack of Thai uniqueness, including language, culture, and thinking model. The mentioned research also suggested interesting solutions to solve the problem, which are (1) a technology management center should be established in each educational service area to coordinate with central unit in producing the digital courseware which possesses the same standard as textbooks which are better selected based on subject areas and written by teachers themselves, (2) teachers skills in using technology to design and produce digital learning content should be enhanced by providing training courses or granting scholarships, and (3) students should participate in the production process of digital courseware. Furthermore, the Office of

    the Education Councils report on the performance assessment of the use of computer technology for education in primary educational institutes

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    indicated that teachers in Southern Thailand is the largest group, which requests for training courses on digital courseware production, and students in Southern Thailand is the only group, which requests for additional digital courseware to sufficiently satisfy their need.

    Considering that Thailand lacks the digital courseware which is built on local context, teachers in Southern Thailand shows their preference to create digital learning content by themselves, and students in the same areas also requests for additional digital courseware, it is necessary to develop teachers competency in using computer and internet to create media or innovation for learning management. Although relevant public agencies provided various training courses on the use of computer program for digital courseware production, there was no evidence-based practice which could prove that teachers would be able to create their own digital courseware after attending those training courses. Furthermore, the authors also found that the content provided at those general training courses solely focused on how to use computer program and did not mention how to integrate teaching techniques into digital courseware, as well as lacked the content on how to systematically design digital courseware so it could not help trainees to successfully create digital courseware further. Also, some parts of computer program, content, and skills which were trained were too complicated for teachers, particularly the use of advanced computer program. Regarding all above-mentioned matters, the authors conducted a research and development of a curriculum using learning process approaches framework and TPACK conceptual framework to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teachers. The research objectives are to develop a curriculum based on the mentioned frameworks to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teachers and to experiment digital courseware production competency of social studies teachers who are trained with the developed curriculum. This paper exhibits some parts of the aforementioned research by focusing on the use of TPACK framework to develop a curriculum to enhance courseware production competency for social studies teachers.

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    Literature Review In order to develop this curriculum, the authors adopted two conceptual frameworks widely known as Learning Process Approaches Framework and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Approach (TPACK) to design an appropriate curriculum by designating the curriculums goals, selecting and arranging learning contents, and setting evaluation methods. The two concepts are detailed below. Learning Process Approaches Framework A curriculum development framework which focuses on learning process approaches views that a curriculum is not a tangible thing but is a relationship between teachers, learners, and knowledge. The learning management is a system for promoting thoughts and challenging to apply to practical part. Both learning process which occurs inside a learner and which can assume from learners productivity will be assessed (Smith, 1996, 2000; Thongthew 2010). Stenhouse (1975 cited in Smith, 1996, 2000) is an expert in curriculum development who views a curriculum based on learning process approaches framework that a curriculum is an attempt to transfer basic principle and necessary characteristics by widely considering significant facts and enabling a transfer to effective practice. This

    is consistent with a thought of Sumlee Thongthew (2010) which mentioned about a curriculum based on this mentioned framework that, although a curriculum is printed in a paper-based form, that paper must not be used as a regulation which would be strictly implemented but should be used as a framework or an outline which proposes a guideline for a user to thoroughly think and try to figure out a method to take it into concrete action. In terms

    of the implementation based on contextual conditions including community and learner condition, researchers involved in the areas of learning process approaches framework concluded that curriculum development significantly

    focuses on learning process development of learners by depending on several principles as follows:- 1) Determine a goal which is widely open for learners development; 2) The scope of content is broad principle or concept which

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    learners can further apply on their own; 3) Determine and analyze the classification of relationship

    between activities/tasks and competency which should be further developed; 4) Organize learning experience including situations, tasks, or activities which have some meanings to learners to create an opportunity for learners to develop working process on their own; and 5) Evaluate learners by considering their competency between learning and use their productivity to reflect the occurred learning process.

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Approach Technological pedagogical content knowledge approach (TPACK) is a necessary framework for teachers to integrate technology into learning activities. This framework focuses on new knowledge which is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge, including technology (TK) pedagogy (PK) and content (CK), in 4 ways (Koehler 2011: online) which are (1) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), (2) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), (3) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and (4) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) means knowing what teaching approaches fit the content and knowing how elements of the content can be

    arranged for teaching. This is the integration between content and pedagogy on how content elements are well arranged, applied, and expressed for teaching and learning. The important factor is methods or ways to adapt content to pedagogy which would take place when teachers interpret the content, find a different way to present it, and make it accessible for learners.

    Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) means knowledge about the method or the manner in which technology knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) are reciprocally related to each other. Although technology limits types of expression which might occur, new technology is mostly more compatible with new and different expression, as well as more flexible. Teachers need to not only know about subject content which they

    are teaching, but also the method or the manner which that content would be adapted by applying technology.

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    Technological Pedagogical knowledge (TPK) means knowledge of the components, and capabilities of various technologies when they were used in preparing teaching and learning, as well as an understanding on the scope of tool existing for a particular task, the ability to choose appropriate tools, strategies for using the tools affordances, and knowledge of pedagogy strategies and ability to apply those strategies to the use of technology. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) means knowledge occurring from the integration of technology, which teachers must try to understand, and the management of relationship between PCK, TCK, and TPK. Teachers ability in management this relationship might be differently expressed based on teachers skills. The authors adapts TPACK framework to be consistent with the context of the development of social studies teachers. In this case, as the educational institutes in Thailand lack of digital courseware with local-oriented content, social studies teachers, who have responsibility to teach traditional knowledge and Thai culture to students, must develop their competency on digital courseware production (Table 1; Figure 1; Figure 2)

    Scope of Knowledge for Teacher Development Based on TPACK

    Framework

    Scope of Knowledge for Teacher Development

    Adapted by the Authors Based on TPACK Framework

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

    ] Knowledge in applying social studies pedagogy to digital courseware production

    Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)

    ] Knowledge in using technology to collect resources of social studies content

    Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)

    ] Knowledge in using computer program for digital courseware production

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ] The competency of social studies teachers to produce digital courseware

    Table 1 Exhibits scope of knowledge for teacher development

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    Knowledge in applying social studies pedagogy to digital courseware production (adapted from PCK) means knowing how to determine elements of social studies learning management (learning objectives, content, and evaluation) in digital courseware, as well as knowledge in choosing teaching method which is suitable for content and digital courseware presentation, such as arranging content based on the chosen teaching methods.

    Knowledge in using technology to collect resources of social studies content (adapted from TCK) means the use of computer, internet, and peripheral devices (such as digital camera and microphone) to collect resources (content, photo, motion picture, and sound) which are related to local content. This might be internet searching or self-record of real picture and sound, as well as saving and using these collected resources for further customized adapting or editing.

    Knowledge in using computer program for digital courseware production (adapted from TPK) means the use of Adobe Captivate Program to arrange prepared/collected content and resources to produce digital courseware based on elements of learning management.

    The competency of social studies teacher to produce digital courseware (adapted from TPACK) means knowledge and ability in producing quality digital courseware based on process analyzed by social studies teachers themselves. This process should be built on learning process approaches and TPACK framework by integrating knowledge gained from a curriculum into digital courseware production which has elements as follows: - (1) designing digital courseware, (2) collecting digital courseware resources, and (3) using a courseware production program to produce digital courseware. The application of TPACK to develop a curriculum to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teachers can be exhibited as appeared in the following diagrams.

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    Figure 1 TPACK Framework (Resources: http://www.tpck.org/)

    Figure 2 Adapted TPACK Framework by the authors

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    Research Methodology A curriculum research and development based on learning process approaches and TPACK framework to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teachers was conducted by collecting fundamental information, then analyzing and synthesizing it for further details which are consistent with content elements (R1). This preliminary result would be further used to develop a drafted curriculum, which would be proposed to the experts to consider content elements and implementation possibility. Then, the concluded result built on experts views would be considered for developing drafted curriculum (D1) which would be further experimented with research sample. Next, the implementation outcomes would be analyzed and concluded (R2) for developing the finalized curriculum (D2). As mentioned earlier, there were 4 research processes as follows: -

    R1: the researcher studied relevant conceptual frameworks, analyzed, and synthesized preliminary information to develop curriculum outline, content, and learning management. The researcher also synthesized competency framework for digital courseware production, behaviors, and tasks and proposed to experts to evaluate consistency between these 3 things by using Index of Consistency (IOC). Then, the researcher created an appropriate survey on learners knowledge and computer-skills background, as well as expectation and needs for digital courseware production, in order to apply this information to prepare experience, create content materials, and provide content examples to satisfy social studies teachers expectation and needs.

    D1: the researcher applied R1 result to draft a curriculum and proposed it to 5 qualified experts for their consideration by using curriculum

    evaluation forms developed by the researcher. The 5 qualified experts included

    3 experts in the areas of curriculum development based on learning process approaches, and 2 experts in the areas of digital courseware production and TPACK framework.

    R2: the researcher experimented a drafted curriculum adapted based on experts comments with a sample, which is 11 social studies teachers in the

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    Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area Office 2 in Southern Thailand.

    The sample was between 27-58 years old and had social studies teaching experience between 1-36 years, as well as expressed their need to produce digital courseware with a concrete target in terms of local-oriented content. The subject areas included Bulrash Mat weaving, rubber farming, Visakha Bucha Day, and The Suan Mokkh International Dharma Hermitage. In terms of this pilot test, the researcher invited a qualified and experienced expert

    in the field of social studies teaching and digital courseware production

    and a qualified expert in the field of ICT, digital courseware production,

    and a courseware production program, to be the speakers by following a developed curriculum which totally took 30 hours (6 hours a day for 5 days). For computer practice, the researcher invited 3 technicians who possess experience in applying a courseware production program to accommodate the sample. The research site was the meeting room of the Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area Office 2, Punpin District, Suratthani Province.

    During the test, the sample took pre-, formative, and summative evaluation, as well as was observed and interviewed in between and after the test. The sample was also assigned activities to conduct in each learning subject and the researcher recorded significant circumstances such as time usage in

    each subject learning, addition or reduction of content in real situation, and samples learning behavior.

    D2: the researcher used the conclusion from R2 to develop the finalized curriculum.

    Results Based on the four steps of research described earlier, the authors present the results of each step as the followings:

    Results of Step 1 (R1): The researcher applied knowledge of teacher development based on TPACK and learning process approaches framework to synthesize digital courseware production competency framework for social studies teachers and curriculum development scope. The TPACK application details are exhibited (Figure 3)

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    The researcher applied TPACK framework by disseminating the flower, so called TPACK flower, into the format of curriculum development

    to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teacher. The knowledge framework in each part of curriculum is synthesized from 3 petals of TPACK flower. The objective is to enable social studies

    teacher to integrate knowledge in each part to develop digital courseware, which is represented by the pollen of TPACK flower.

    From the first step, the competency framework of digital courseware

    production was developed for further adapting to knowledge framework in developing a curriculum. The details are as follows: - 1) Designing Digital Courseware: includes 3 sub-components which are (1) ability to analyze social studies content and choose appropriate

    Figure 3 Exhibits the application of TPACK framework in curriculum development

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    teaching techniques within digital courseware, (2) ability to determine learning elements (learning objective, content, and evaluation) within digital courseware production, and (3) ability to appropriately arrange screen design; 2) Collecting Digital Courseware Resources: includes 2 sub-components which are (1) ability to use computer, internet, and peripheral devices to collect local-oriented resources (content, picture, motion picture, and sound) which are suitable for content and digital courseware production program, and (2) ability to use computer program to edit and convert resources file format which is compatible with each use type; and

    3) Using A Digital Courseware Production Program: includes 2 sub-components which are (1) ability to use program to create frame and relationship with students, as well as relate all learning elements, and (2) ability to evaluate the developed digital courseware. Results of Step 2 (D1): The researcher developed curriculum and learning materials based on the determined competency framework. The drafted curriculum included 4 lessons as follows (Table 2): -

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    UNIT CONTENTDURATION (HOURS)

    THEORY PRACTICE TOTAL

    Transferring Social Studies Pedagogy to Digital Courseware Production

    1.1 Selecting and implementing social studies teaching methods within the design of a social studies digital courseware; and

    1.2 Determining and designing learning elements in a digital courseware.

    3 3 6

    Using Technology as a representative of Social Studies Content Resources

    2.1 Searching and saving internet resources;

    2.2 Recording and saving resources via peripheral devices; and

    2.3 Using programs to edit resources to be compatible with each use type.

    3 3 6

    Using The Digital Courseware Production Program

    3.1 Creating frame including resources;

    3.2 Creating a test in digital courseware with 7 answer types;

    3.3 Relating content framework; and

    3.4 Publishing a digital courseware.

    3 3 6

    Producing Digital Courseware 4.1 Integrating knowledge

    into self-production of digital courseware; and

    4.2 Evaluating a self-produced digital courseware.

    - 12 12

    Total 9 21 30

    Table 2 Exhibits curriculum outline to enhance digital courseware production competency for social studies teacher

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    Results of Step 3 (R2): The researcher used the drafted curriculum with the sample of 11 in-service primary social studies teachers at the meeting room of the Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area Office

    2, Punpin District, Suratthani province for 5 days continuously. The key findings for curriculum development were as follows: -

    Unit 1: The duration should be reduced because social studies teachers had some existed experience in this matter prior to the test.

    Unit 2: The duration for internet resource searching and digital camera recording should be reduced; while the duration for video editing program as well as sound recording and editing should be added.

    Unit 3: The overview information of digital courseware production program should be introduced on the first day so the teachers would be able to

    design digital courseware which is compatible with program specifications.

    Unit 4: The review of Unit 2, 3, and some unclear matters should be conducted prior to practicing session. Furthermore, in terms of computer-related learning practice, there should be technicians to accommodate and give some advices to social studies teacher when problem occurred in the ratio of 1 technician per 3 teachers.

    Results of Step 4 (D2): The researcher developed the finalized curriculum outline based on information gained from earlier steps. This led to the improvement of TPACK flower by changing the weight of each

    petal. The new ratio among knowledge in using social studies pedagogy for digital courseware production: knowledge in using technology to collect social studies content resources: knowledge in using digital courseware production program: digital courseware production competency of social studies teachers is 4:6:8:12 of teaching hours (totally 30 hours) or 1:1.5:2:3 in ratio. Furthermore, the introduction of unit 2 and 3 should also be introduced on the first day of curriculum. This can be concluded as follows (Figure 4): -

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    Discussion and Conclusion The use of TPACK framework in developing a curriculum to enhance digital courseware production competency of social studies teachers is to frame the course contents based on TPACKs elements, including PCK, TCK, and TPK, and create a new TPACK scope, which hereinafter is digital courseware production competency, as a key target for social studies teacher development. A curriculum is for managing the learning of PCK, TCK, and TPK; while TPACK is for conducting context and accommodating learners to work on their own. The competency of each social studies teacher can be developed differently and can be increased based on time which each person spent on practicing both inside and outside the training. This theory is different from the curriculum development of Doering et al. (2009) which used TPACK to develop a curriculum by framing content in the areas of TK, PK, and CK, focusing on the integration of geospatial technologies in education, as well as using TPACK framework for teachers self-evaluation. This theory is also different from the curriculum development of Niess et al. (2010) which created online curriculum to develop sciences and mathematics teachers in using spreadsheet program in learning activities by designing some parts of a curriculum from PCK and extending to TPACK knowledge of teachers. In terms of the ratio of curriculum outline, considering the elements of PCK, TCK, and TPK, the duration for PCK should be reduced as social studies teachers already had existed experiences on social studies teaching.

    Figure 4 Exhibits TPACK Flower before (left) and after (right) researchers adaptation

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    However, the duration for TCK should be partly added in the areas of using computer program to edit resources. Particularly, the duration for TPK should be significantly added because it is the new and complicated knowledge for

    teachers. This is consistent with the research finding of Doering et al. (2009)

    regarding the size of circles representing TK, PK, and CK, which stated that it is not necessary that the 3 circles must be the same size. For example, secondary-school teachers should have bigger TK and PK circle than CK one; while high-school teachers should have a bigger CK circle than the other ones. In terms of the arrangement of learning content for the use of curriculum, although the outline of curriculum exhibits separated content based on elements (PCK, TCK, and TPK), a curriculum should be applied by introducing some parts of TPK and TCK on the first day of curriculum

    which should be all-integrated with PCK in order to accommodate learners to see the overview of digital courseware which they will be further produce. It is also noted that we rethink the ways in which we are characterizing TPACK for this particular project. The TPACK is needed and expressed as the competency of social studies teachers to produce digital courseware, so the application of content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge would be expressed within the resulting social studies software, rather than the lesson plan or unit completed by students in the classroom. The TPACK necessary to produce content-based digital courseware would be the same as the TPACK needed to select and use materials and types of learning activities in the classroom.

    AcknowledgementsThis research was funded by the Chulalongkorn University Graduate

    School Thesis Grant. The authors would like to thank the Suratthani Primary Educational Service Area Office 2 for providing experimental location and

    accommodation.

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    ReferencesAgbatogun, A. O. (2010) Gender, Academic Qualification and Subject

    Discipline Differentials of Nigerian Teachers ICT Literacy. Academic Leadership (15337812), 8(1): 1-6.

    Bureau of Teacher Education Personnel Development, The Office of the

    Basic Education Commission. (2010) Teacher Competency Evaluation Manual Revised Edition. [Online URL: www.hrd.obec.go.th/news/feb/article_20100204133338.pdf] accessed on December 20, 2011.

    Doering, A., Veletsianos, G., Scharber, C., and Miller, C. (2009) Using the technological, pedagogical, and Content knowledge framework to Design online learning environments and professional development. Educational Computing Research, 41(3): 319-346.

    Koehler, M. (2011) TPACK-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. [Online URL: www.tpck.org/] accessed on July 30, 2011.

    Markauskaite, L. (2007) Exploring the structure of trainee teachers ICT literacy: the main components of, and relationships between, general cognitive and technical capabilities. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(6): 547-572.

    Na-songkhla, J. (2003) Research Report on Technological Wave of International Education: Policy Recommendations for Primary Education.

    Na-songkhla, J. (2004) Teacher Competency in Electronic Learning Age. Faculty of Education of Chulalongkorn University Journal, 32(3) Mar-Jun: 121-128.

    Niess, M. L., van Zee, E. H., and Gillow-Wiles, H. (2010) Knowledge Growth in Teaching Mathematics/Science with Spreadsheets: Moving PCK to TPACK though Online Professional Development. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(2): 42-51.

    Office of Education Council. (2005) Report on Performance Assessment of Computer Technology Use for Education in Primary Educational Institutes. Bangkok : Evaluation Bureau.

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    Prampituk, K. (2002a) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Avemariah School in Ubonratchathani Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002b) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Ban Thamnieb School in Suratthani Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002c) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Rayong Kindergarten School in Rayong Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002d) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Assumption Lampang School in Lampang Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002e) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Lampang Kindergarten School in Lampang Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002f) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Ubonratchathani Kindergarten School in Ubonratchathani Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002g) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Teap Nimitr School in Suratthani Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

    Prampituk, K. (2002h) Substances on Development and the Use of Computer for Primary Education: Case Study of Saint Joseph Rayong School in Rayong Province. Bangkok : Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development.

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    Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) Curriculum Theory and Practice the Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. [Online URL: www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm] accessed on January 3, 2012.

    Thongthew, S. (2010) Teaching Documents for Subject Code 2716854: Curriculum Development Processes. Copied.

    UNESCO. (2002) Information and Communication Technology in Education : A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development. France : Division of Higher Education.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 179-196, 2013

    Teaching Foreign Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Kesinee Chaisri

    Faculty of International Studies,Prince of Songkla University, Phuket Campus, Thailand

    Corresponding author: ckesineeth@yahoo.com

    Abstract Learning about foreign culture is becoming increasingly more important in the learning of a foreign language. Learners, apart from learning grammar, the phrasal structure and the vocabulary of the target language, have to learn how to communicate with the native speakers of a particular language. They have to achieve an intercultural understanding while still preserving their own culture. Different teaching methods take this into account; traditional methods (Grammar-Translation approach), Audio-Oral and Structured-Global Visual-Audio approach (SGVA), the Communicative approach, the Socio-cultural approach and the Intercultural approach. This article aims to show the different teaching methods that language teachers can adapt or be aware of when they teach foreign culture in the classroom.

    Key Words: Foreign Culture; Intercultural; Learning Foreign Culture; Teaching Methods

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    Introduction At present, in the era of globalization, an understanding in intercultural communication is necessary and the learning of foreign languages is beneficial in many ways. It is vital for the communicative exchanges between

    people from different nations and different cultures. To be successful in communication and relationships, the knowledge of other peoples cultures is essential. Abdallah-Pretceille and Porcher (1996 : 1) stated in the introduction of their work that the cultural dimension of learning is, from now on, the objective of the large consensus in which nobody could be against without risk of being either someone ignorant and/or someone incompetent, or someone who is like a dinosaur of pedagogy. From now on, the objective of language courses is not only to solicit the learners to know the grammar, the phrasal structure and the necessary vocabulary to be able to communicate with the native speakers of the target language, but also to have a better understanding and to accept the difference of others while keeping their own culture.

    Objectives of Teaching and Learning Culture In foreign language class, apart from the objectives like promoting communicative ability and the four base language skills, there are also objectives of learning the culture of the target language. Many pedagogues try to collect the important ones. According to Puren and Bertocchini (1998), the teaching of foreign culture in language class consists of - making students aware of the superficial representations and the erroneous they have with that culture, - initiating students to a necessary minimum knowledge about the reality of the country of the target language, - making students aware of the great artistic and intellectual works of that country, - making students understand, from inside, the subjective experiences of the people of the country, - helping students to be able to see their own culture and to accept other peoples culture,

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    - allowing each student to have a personal and subjective perspective in foreign culture, - teaching students to behave like the citizens of that country in some situations, - leading students to systematically compare foreign culture with their own culture, - leading students to discover their own and inside coherence to the foreign culture. Keller (cited in Abdallah-Pretceille 2004 : 180) points out that the objectives in a civilization class are as follows; - to recognize prejudices in the judgments of the person belonging to the target culture and to the culture of the students, - to know the function of the prejudices in each individuals life, - to know the role of prejudices in social life (the study of the auto-stereotypes and the hetero-stereotypes), - With awareness, discuss how the harmful consequences of the prejudices could be neutralized, - to see how the relationship between different groups, especially international relations can be ameliorated by the knowledge of the stereotypes mechanism. As a consequence, schools and teachers have to take into account the cultural diversity and the respect and tolerance of others, while avoiding the prejudices, stereotypes and the ethnocentrism, in order to promote inter-comprehension between people from different cultures.

    Role of Teachers Teachers have a double role to play in teaching foreign culture. Firstly, they have to teach students to use wisely a system which makes them understand the world and be able to express themselves. Secondly, they have to teach students to have an awareness of the stereotyped and cultural characteristics of a particular culture. Students then have to be able to relate to the representations, this will then enable them to respect the cultures of other people and be able to change (De Smet & Rasson cited in Kerzil &

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    Vinsonneau 2004 : 83-84). The work of Pubiget (1983) demonstrated that if the stereotypes are directly related to the original environment of each individual, it is because they were learnt and not acquired through birth. As for the consequence, negative attitudes towards the country concerned develop, which can lead to the abandonment of foreign language learning. The teachers, being the cultural mediators, have to be able to arouse the construction of the inter-subjective representation in their learners. Zarate (1986 : 66) specified that the objective pursued in the class is to make

    students aware of the precariousness of stereotypes, to the ethnocentric vision and the manichaeism of the world which underlies it. The teacher then should show the students, when and why the stereotypes happen. The problem with stereotypes is that they dont allow time for thinking; things seem to be fixed forever, even worse, the people, the language, the country

    are characterized intrinsically (Auger 2003 : 29).

    Teaching Methods In foreign language teaching many methods involve cultural elements, which now have become an important issue. In this article, we are going to present some methods that we find interesting for the comprehension of

    a foreign culture and in the acquisition of the communicative competence which we find in exoglossic situations like Thailand.

    1. Traditional Method (Grammar-Translation) The traditional method (the oldest method, from the Nineteenth century to the beginning of the Twentieth century), comes from the method used in the teaching of dead languages (or old languages), that are Latin and Greek. The methodology is based on the Grammar-Translation method or Lecture-Translation (Cuq & Gruca 2003 : 234). This method gives priority to the translation and the grammar involved. The grammar is taught in a very formal way, it emphasizes the parts of speech and the presentation including analysis of linguistic forms, such as; articles, verbs and objects. Each sequence is normally comprised of an explanation of grammatical rules, followed by practice exercises.

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    Apart from the translation and grammar, this method also associates importance to the teaching of literature, in a general way. It is often in the form of extracts or literacy works, (or pieces of work chosen from them). Cuq and Gruca (ibid : 236), later on these literacy texts become the preferred support to the oral translation and their explication is used in the acquisition of the literacy stories and the learning of civilization or more precisely, the literacy teaching of civilization. Neuner (2003 : 19) adds that, in concerning the socio-cultural aspect, priority is given to the presentation of important productions (culture with a big C: arts and literature) and its incarnation by the great men, including the important events in history of the country studied. We can see through a more modern version that this method presents the facts and the numbers and life and institutions of the country concerned. It is noted that, at present, we can still find this method in traditional

    exercises and in the translation activities of extracts. 2. Audio-Oral and Structured-Global Visual-Audio (SGVA) The audio-oral method appeared during the 1940s. It gives priority to oral learning and focuses the content to be learnt around various real life situations. The method is also based on the acquisition of the linguistic structure. This method was developed to respond to the immediate needs of particular groups. The United States of America during that period was taking part in World War II and needed their personal - their soldiers and their diplomats to learn foreign languages as quickly as possible. Due to this need, a new teaching method called the audio-oral method was developed. Richards and Rodgers (cited in Martinez 1996 : 55) resume this methodology by insisting on priority been given to the exclusive usage of the oral component of the target language in class, on the facts that the new components introduced are always there in the situations provided. The place for vocabulary and grammar are also there, reading and writing intervene once the linguistic methods are assured. Tagliante (2006 : 51) stated that this method is characterized by - The presentation of the grammatical structure in a dialogue,

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    - The repetition and the memorization, - The introduction of the structural exercises. During the next 60 years this method was further developed by French pedagogues, which led to the development of SGVA - Structured-Global Visual-Audio (SGVA), which is based on the following principles; - linguistic theory explicitly structured for content and progression, - the firm dominance of the oral component,

    - the heavy integration of audiovisual methods, - the theory of teaching based on a mobile structure of the optimal stimuli, - the global conception of communication in society (Martinez 1996 : 60). In general, the sequence of the SGAV method has various steps; - Presentation of recorded dialogue accompanied with pictures for the overall comprehension of the situation, - Explication of the lexical elements and the structures, - Repetition of the dialogue with phonetic correction and the memorization of language structures and dialogue, - Utilization or reemployment of the new elements (vocabulary and structure) and the off by heart memorization of the situations that have already been studied, - Transposition or reutilization of the learned elements (vocabulary and dialogue) in the form of role play or drama activities in similar situations to which have been studied (Cuq & Gruca 2003 : 242-243). Concerning the learning of culture, the priority of this approach moves the large theme (Culture with a big C) towards the study of different aspects of daily life (culture with a small c). This is shown in some situations and contexts which provide more than a background often presented visually to the dialogues happening in foreign countries. These situations are always in the form of contact between tourists and local people of the target country (Neuner 2003 : 21).

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    3. Communicative Approach According to Puren (1998), the communicative approach is the third generation of the audio-visual method. For the definition of this approach,

    Beacco (1980 : 35) said that, it aims to create the communicative aptitude in foreign language. Cuq (2003 : 24) mentioned that this approach is applied to the dispositive of methodological choices aiming to develop the communicative competence among students. This communicative competence is, at present, one of the main objectives of foreign language learning because linguistic competence is no more sufficient in the communication perspective. In short,

    the communicative approach aims mainly to: - Develop communicative competence, or communicative skills, it is the practical knowledge of society, cultural rules, and psychology which control the use of speech, and create the language exchange in the community, - Acquire the pragmatic knowledge related to the cultural norms of language used in the community, this means the know-how, the implicit knowledge of the way to use the linguistic system to be able to understand and to express themselves. In this framework, the rules of usage for both communicative competence and linguistic competence have to be learned simultaneously. It is not only about understanding or producing utterances of a particular language but also, and especially, the knowledge of when and where to use them, - Assure the autonomy of students while teaching, - Enhance the interactions in different communicative situations. For the component of communicative competence, Coste (1980 : 27) stated that it is composed of five parts: linguistic (mastery of system),

    textual concerning the organization and the sequence of linguistic materials, the referential linked with the different domains of experience, the relational (adequate speech to the intentions and the positions of the speakers) and the situational related to the other factors that can have an affect, in a community, in any given circumstance or the choices operated by the language users.

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    Canale and Swain (1980) identified that the ability to communicate

    required four different sub-competences: - Grammatical competence, it is about the knowledge of lexical items and rules of morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics and phonology, - Discourse competence, the ability to connect sentences in discourse and to form meaning out of the series of utterances or the ability to combine grammatical forms and meanings to achieve a unified spoken or written text in different genres, - Sociolinguistic competence, is composed of two parts: the socio- cultural rules which are necessary to interpret the social meaning of the sentences and the discourse rules, - Strategic competence, verbal and non-verbal communicative strategy that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or due to insufficient competence. The competence that we are interested in here is the sociolinguistic competence because it is significant to the knowledge of the socio-cultural rules of using language. It means the ability to communicate while considering the interpersonal relationship and the context of the communicational situation. Edelhoff and Bommel (1980 : 50) identified the factors that

    characterize the communicative situation as follows: - References to the people concerned (age, sex, profession, nationality, etc.), - The group relationship between participants and partners in the communication, - Social relations ( superior to inferior, colleague to colleague, student to teacher), - Affective relations (sympathy, antipathy, level of familiarity, etc.) - The intention of communication, - The external surroundings (country, place, environment, date, time, etc.), - The topic of conversation,

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    - The nature of the text (report, discussion, emission of information, etc.). Hence, we have to characterize the types of texts and their communicational applications so that the subject, the communicational situation and the type of text could be constructed by using certain techniques and skills. In short, this approach gives the priority to the discourse and to the use of texts or authentic documents. Besides, the communicative approach is very closely related to the intercultural approach, like stated by Debeser (cited in Atienza, Berard & De Carlo 1990 : 155) that in intercultural communication, it is always the culture which provokes the obstacles. Its the intercultural competence which allows the knowledge of how to live with others. Then the awareness of the cultural component in teaching, learning language and foreign cultures becomes important and necessary to the development of true communicational competence. 4. Socio-cultural Approach This approach is actually sociologic and anthropologic. Windmuller (2003 : 393) stated that this approach places humans in the middle of the social organization and the cultural system in which they develop. Humans have multiple relationships to culture: they are based on the unconscious impregnation of behaviors, the mechanisms, the values and the principles shown in maternal culture, all of which characterize their cultural identity. It is also based on the relationship with which each individual has with the different structures, appearances and social products. The learners here make contact with foreign cultures through their cultural practices. These practices could happen in unauthentic situations such as when they learn about historical, social or artistic data. The anthropological data plays a role in foreign culture acquisition, because it reflects the culture specificity and reveals a large specter of the appearance,

    the representation and the values shared by the members of the community. In teaching and learning foreign culture, this approach is important for the knowledge and the comprehension of the studied culture.

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    5. Intercultural Approach During the 1980s, the intercultural concept progressively entered foreign language teaching (through the communicative approach). Chambeu (cited in De Carlo 1998 : 43-44) identified that this concept changes the

    modality to radically access foreign culture. The authors claimed that the intercultural competence and the intercultural communication are the priority, in contrast to the interaction, which is the exchange process that allows two interlocutors to influence

    each other and to mix mutually, it also involves the inter-subjectivity. The intercultural element solicits two Subjects. It recognizes the status of the other, by accepting the eventual reciprocity of the Significant look.

    According to Zarate (1983 : 36), for foreign learners contact with other cultural systems and other visions of the world, construct points of friction, places of dysfunction and develop occasions where aberrant significations could develop. The intercultural approach, according to

    Defays (2003 : 78), aims to teach students the culture of others, to help them to understand and to encourage them about tolerance. It has the objective of allowing students to cross over the cultural difference and to live in a pluri-cultural society without incomprehension. Steele (1996 : 57) stated that the learning of foreign language according to the intercultural model is done in the context of human relations, the discovering of oneself, of others and of the plurality of cultural identities. Competence will help students avoid generalizations about the behavior and mentality of foreigners and to put into perspective the stereotypes concerning the country of the language studied. For Neuner (2003 : 22), from the 80s, there are in the intercultural approach, some themes aimed at increasing awareness, not only of the language but also of the intercultural experiences, stereotypes, and the construction of meaning, etc.. The intercultural pedagogy is dynamic. It inspires a coordinated life and living together amongst a variety of different people. It makes the school a place of study, and a place to live. Porcher and Abdallah-Pretceille (1996 : 8) stated that the intercultural concept is based on the principle of hard and simple at the same time, identical to me and different from me. This means that in order to live alongside other people

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    with different cultures can be smooth or difficult at the same time. If they

    have opposite ways of seeing things, it might be difficult for people from

    other cultures, but if their cultures are similar, it will be easy to those who want to adapt themselves to be one part of this new culture. The acquisition of intercultural competence has to be based on the interaction between knowing how to be, knowing how to learn, knowledge and knowing how to do. Denis (2000 : 62) stated that learner should know how: - to construct and maintain the attitudes system, and this inside the same class is done in their relationship with the other learners (know how to be), - to develop critical thinking, which means the methods allowing them to evaluate and to readapt their ways of doing (know how to learn), - to create points of reference among the general socio-cultural data, the elements concerning communication, and the intercultural connection (knowledge), - to learn to react/interact in unpredictable situations and to deal with contextual information and the interlocution situation (know how to do). For the implementation of these five approaches; traditional methods

    (Grammar-Translation), Audio-Oral and Structured-Global Visual-Audio (SGVA), Communicative Approach, Socio-Cultural approach and Intercultural approach, it depends on the type of material or document the teachers select for their class. Two kinds of documents used with these approaches are created documents and authentic documents. The first

    type of document is composed of: - the presentation of the cultural themes, - the different situations in daily life of people of the target language, - the other documents created for teachers to teach culture of the target country. For the second type of document, authentic documents, they are normally produced by the native for the native, not for people who speak

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    other languages. A type of this kind of document, for example, is a tourism brochure, metro ticket, newspaper, etc. As an example, contemporary French language textbooks include an increasing amount of intercultural issues within them. The producers of French language textbooks present not only French culture to the students, but also the ability to compare French culture with their own culture. Textbooks such as Latitudes 1 or Initial 1 or Studio 60 contain some topics that need to be discussed about the differences between the country of the students and that of the target language (see annexe). Teachers can choose one or many methods which they think are best suited to the materials used. For the conclusion, the aim of language class must not be only to learn to practice language perfectly but it is also a place where learners can increase their level of language, cultural and intercultural skills and competency. Tagliante (2006 : 166) states that the teacher should give importance to the socio-cultural practices and the content which create the comparative analytical approach, while watching that nothing could shock learners who have different ideology. We can conclude by borrowing the conclusion given by Hayde Maga in the article Educate students of French language to the intercultural, published on the website Franc parler1: The awareness of culture in teaching foreign languages is necessary, not only to communicate efficiently, but also because it addresses the ethical

    issues. Fighting xenophobia and ethnocentrism, avoiding prejudice and discrimination is from now on the responsibility of the pedagogues and the people in education. And one of the educational objectives of learning institutions from now on is to, enlarge the humanist project to the global level (understanding between people, mutual enrichments). Learners have to know how to behave and how to face the native speakers of the language they are learning in different situations.

    __________________________

    1 http://www.francparler.org/dossiers/interculturel_former.htm

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    ReferencesAbdallah-Pretceille, M. (2004) Vers une pdagogie interculturelle. 3rd

    Edition. Paris : Anthropos. Abdallah-Pretceille, M. and Porcher, L. (1996) Education et communication interculturelle. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. Atienza, J. -L., Berard, E., and De Carlo, M. (1995) Approches

    communicatives : une enqute sur ltat de la question. Etudes de linguistique applique, 100: 151-160.

    Beacco, J. -L. (1980) Comptence de communication : des objectifs denseignement aux pratiques de classe. Le franais dans le monde, 153: 35-40.

    Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980) Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics, 1: 1-47.

    Coste, D. (1980) Communicatif, fonctionnel, notionnel et quelques autres. Le franais dans le monde, 153: 25-34.

    Cuq, J. -P. (2003) Dictionnaire de didactique du franais, langue trangre et seconde. Paris : Cl international.

    Cuq, J. -P. and Gruca, I. (2003) Cours de Didactique du Franais Langue Etrangre et Seconde. Grenoble: Presses universitaires de Grenoble.

    De Carlo, M. (1998) Linterculturel. Paris : Cl International.Defays, J. M. (2003) Le franais langue trangre et seconde. Belgique :

    Mardaga.Edelhoff, C. and Bommel, H.V. (1980) Objectifs de lenseignement des

    langues et pratiques relevant de la comptence de communication. Le franais dans le monde, 153: 48-52.

    Lavenne, C., et al. (2001) Studio 60. Paris : Les Editions Didier. Kerzil, J. and Vinsonneau, G. (2004) Linterculturel : Principes et ralits

    lcole. Paris : Sides.Martinez, P. (1996) La didactique des langues trangres. 3rd Edition. Paris:

    Presses Universitaires de France.Mrieux, R. and Loiseau, Y. (2008) Latitudes 1. Paris : Les Editions Didier.

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    Neuner, G. et al. (2003) La comptence interculturelle. Strasbourg: Editions du Conseil de lEurope.

    Poisson-Quinton, S. and Sala, M. (1999) Initial 1. Paris : Cl International.Puren, C. (1998) La culture en classe de langue : Enseigner quoi ? et

    quelques autres questions non subsidiaires. Les langues modernes : Les contenus de civilisation 4, novembre-dcembre-janvier, 40-46.

    Puren, C., Bertocchini, P., and Costanzo, E. (1998) Se former en didactique des langues. Paris : llipses.

    Pugibet, V. (1983) Des strotypes de la France et des Franais chez des tudiants mexicains. Le franais dans le monde, 181: 45-53.

    Steele, R. (1996) Culture ou intercultures. Le franais dans le monde, 283: 54-57.

    Tagliante, C. (2006) La classe de langue. Paris : Cl International. Windmuller, F. (2003) Comptence culturelle et comptence interculturelle :

    pour un apprentissage culturel en classe de FLE. Thse. Universit de Rouen.

    Zarate, G. (1983) Objectiver le rapport culture maternelle/ culture trangre. Le franais dans le monde, 181: 34-39.

    Zarate, G. (1986) Enseigner une culture trangre. Paris: Hachette. (N.A.) (N.D.) Educate students of French language to the intercultural. [Online URL: http://www.francparler.org/dossiers/interculturel_former.htm accessed on June 10, 2012.

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    Annexe

    Latitudes 1, page 74

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    Latitudes 1, page 75

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    Studio 60, page 56

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    Initial 1, page 78

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 197-213, 2013

    The Use of the Hybridity Theory and the Third Space Concept to Develop a Teaching Identities

    Enhancement Program for Student Teachers

    Chuleeporn Phompun1*, Sumlee Thongthew1 and Kenneth M. Zeichner2

    1Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education,Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

    2College of Education, University of Washington, Seattle, USA*Corresponding author: choochu_edu@hotmail.com

    Abstract Due to the absence of a linkage between the university and school components of programs, student teachers normally imitate ideas and teaching styles from either their professors or cooperating teachers. Self-development of student teachers in their teaching career is an ability to develop new teaching styles in the third space concept by analyzing all of knowledge that they gained and applying it to a class. Teaching identities can be created from knowledge gained from university professors and from cooperating teachers in school. Therefore, it is very important to develop a program which can enhance teaching identities of student teachers. The purpose of this research was to develop a teaching practicum program for elementary education pre-service teachers based on hybridity theory and the third space concept. There were 10 student teachers majoring in elementary education in Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participating in this experiment. The sample group was selected using purposive sampling. Professors and cooperating teachers also participated in the training program developed based on the third space concept. Data were collected through participant observation and evaluated by the researcher, professors, and cooperating teachers. It is found that student teachers participated in this program created their teaching identities after all. In addition, the hybridity theory and the third space concept should be adapted to teacher education programs.

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    Key Words: The Hybridity Theory; The Third Space Concept; The Teaching Identities

    Introduction According to the Professional Teaching Standards B.E. 2548 under Concise of Teachers and Educational Personnel Council Act B.E. 2546 which is the key manual used by the Board of Teacher Education Review in order to control the quality of any person who is willing to be a teacher, there are 3 qualifications for a person who can receive a professional teaching

    license, including (1) qualifications in knowledge standard and professional

    experiences, (2) qualifications in working standard, and (3) qualifications

    in personal behaviors. Therefore, apart from following the common standards set by the Office of the Higher Education Commission, every

    educational institute in Thailand must design an instructional curriculum and instructional management based on the 3 qualifications stated in the

    mentioned Professional Teaching Standards since 2005 (B.E. 2548) as well. With reference to a follow-up research on the instructional management of educational institutes in both bachelor and diploma degree which was conducted by the Sub-committee on Curriculum Standard Evaluation and Production Standard to Certify Educational Diploma for 120 Private and Public Instructional Institutes in 2009-2011, it is found that the instructional management of several teacher-producing institutes is not consistent with conditions, guidelines, and criteria set by the aforementioned Board of Teacher Education Review. To sum up, the instructional management methods which were found are similar to the common professional training method whereas the student teachers will be trained under the supervision of cooperating teachers and the methods are not consistent with teaching practice criteria which aims to train student teachers to study and figure out

    the professional teaching processes themselves by being advised by and communicating with cooperating teachers. Furthermore, it is also found that many teacher-producing institutesstill using the word teaching practice instead of on-the-job training of teaching (Thongthew, 2011)

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    In terms of on-the-job training of teaching in the real classroom, there are several instructional management methods. Each method has different pros and cons. It is not possible to judge which method is the best as the most appropriate method must be selected based on various factors. Therefore, it is a duty of each student teacher to select the most appropriate instructional management method in the existing context by considering the desired content and timeframe. Each student teacher should also be able to solve any problems occurred in the classroom. Because students are different, a student teacher cannot solely follow the theories learnt from university professors or the practices given by cooperative teachers; but a student teacher must improve himself in creating professional teaching identities in the context of the third space which could be created by analyzing theoretical knowledge gained from university professors as well as on-the-job training practices gained from cooperating teachers, and then accumulating knowledge and skills as a base of teaching identities creation, which include 3 aspects:- (1) abilities in creating identities on applying major knowledge based on real context which was being encounter during on-the-job training, (2) abilities in creating identities on innovation creation and application to promote learners learning based on real context which was being encounter during on-the-job training, and (3) abilities in creating identities on the promotion of learners development. According to the results gained from reviewing many researches regarding instructional management in teacher-producing institutes, the researchers found that there are many literatures and researches in the areas of education mentioning about the linkage between theoretical knowledge (content, teaching methods, and teaching major) and real practice which gains an enormous interest from people in the fields of education, particularly

    in the United States and United Kingdom. Those literatures and researches gave a great amount of principles, practices, and guidelines in this area. (Bullough et al., 1997; Bullough et al., 1999; Zeichner, 2007; Darling-Hammond, 2010;Turney et al., 1985; Berliner, 1985; Grossman, 2005; Metcalf & Kahlich, 1996)

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    Zeichner (2010) conducted an experimental study on professional teaching experiences for students at University of Wisconsin which is later used as a model guideline of teacher production at several teacher-producing institutes in Wisconsin and Washington in 2011. Zeichner also stated that teacher-producing curriculum must consist of both theoretical knowledge and professional practice. Moreover, there must also be teaching tasks and other responsibilities of teachers which are existed in a particular context in each educational institute. The professional practice can be developed during on-the-job training in each particular educational institute. Therefore, on-the-job training is the core of teacher production which focuses on student teachers ability of knowledge connection not only in terms of theoretical knowledge and professional experience; but also in terms of the creation of linkage between theoretical as well as practical knowledge and experiences gain from on-the-job training. Zeichner explained that the knowledge connection ability can help a student teacher to deeply understand how to be a professional teacher in the real life. Zeichner based his study and his recommended instructional management guideline on the hybridity theory (Bhabha, 1994), which focuses on creating new opportunity for permanent teachers in schools and teacher-producing institutes to apply practical knowledge and for university professors to integrate and connect all related theoretical knowledge to develop learning of student teachers. Moreover, this theory also mentions about the importance of the third space (Gutierrez, 2008; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1999) which is a knowledge area or a place for permanent teachers or practitioners who already have theoretical knowledge and student teachers to collaborate equally. Apart from providing student teachers with a new learning process, this theory also creates an opportunity for all related sides to learn from one another. Therefore, the real learning and new knowledge extended from theoretical and practical knowledge can happens at this third space exclusively. Lastly, from the preliminary study regarding professional teaching on-the-job training, it is found that student teachers usually have practical ability in teaching but they cannot link the theoretical knowledge to the

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    real life practice even though they already passed the practical training from a university and on-the-job training from an educational institute. The researchers realize that the hybridity theory and the third space concept are significant models to create student teachers connection ability. Therefore,

    we would like to study on this matter and then develop a curriculum on professional teaching experience to further advance and enhance efficiency

    in this area.

    Related Literature According to the results gained from reviewing many researches regarding on hybridity theory and the third space concept, the researchers found that there were three researches in the areas of education mentioning about the combination of two things. King (2002) conducted a study regarding the success of teachers training and online professional development. This study presents a research on several case studies regarding professors and student teachers experiences in the third space concept which was integrated between online and classroom learning. It is found that instructional model based on the third space concept possesses more intensive, more flexible,

    and more adaptable content for each student and also has higher quality as well as is a guideline of success in teacher training and professional development. Moreover, it also helps create teachers expertise. Technology is an important key to access knowledge and contents, as well as to create an online student community which can help enhance students abilities in the long run. Pane (2007) studied the third space concept, which is the new model of learning. The result shows that (1) the third space concept might be developed from knowledge gained from daily life and connected with knowledge from textbook taught in a classroom, (2) there are many learning cultural researches which were trying to develop the connection between students daily life knowledge and textbook knowledge taught in a classroom because it is related to society, politics, and economy, i.e. a student growing in a family with laundry- or farming-related business will well understand the empirical meaning of impacts of water pollution on their quality of life even though they were taught only the basic concept of

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    this issue, (3) deep understand can help develop a curriculum whereas the direction of curriculum and the third space concept development strongly depends on the existing of the connection between daily life knowledge and textbook knowledge, and (4) currently there is no training curriculum which can truly help prepare student teachers to be able to access, support, and promote students learning by connecting real life knowledge and school knowledge. A teacher who applies the third space concept will understand that there are complicated components in school learning which are related to social practice and culture, as well as will be able to connect textbook knowledge to real life practice which help open opportunity to learn several new things., and Levy (2008) also studied the third space concept by applying this concept to primary students to promote reading skills. He researched on reading behaviors of primary students in both at-home and school context and found that primary students can create a bridge to connect at-home experiences (i.e. common culture, TV and computer screen reading, and playing games) with school knowledge. It is also found that the demand on a learning curriculum might be conflicted with students

    self-development, which is complicated and valuable, and this might create problems for students themselves. Therefore, Levy suggested that primary students teachers should assist students to exploit the self-benefits from

    reading skill development to create students confidence and success in

    reading in the future.

    The Hybridity Theory Bhabha (1994) explained that the hybridity theory is a space between the combination, so called the third space, which can help solve replacement and cultural bargaining problems.Zeichner (2010) explained that the hybridity theory refuses two-parts things, such as practice & academic knowledge and theory & practice, but it is related to the combination which is a new model used in several fields,

    namely geography, literature, Post-colonial education, feminism education, and teacher training.

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    According to the aforementioned meanings of hybridity theory, it can conclude that the hybridity theory is a model based on the thought to combine two things which are different but related to each other to create a new thing. The new combination is called the third space.

    The Third Space Concept Soja (1996) explained that the third space concept is a gap between the first and the second space which can collaborate to create the third

    space. The first and the second space are different and might be conflicted

    with each other, such as home (daily life knowledge) and school (academic knowledge). Zeichner (2010) explained that the third space concept was developed from the hybridity theory and is a new thing which was created from the combination of two things. According to the aforementioned meanings of the third space concept, it can conclude that the third space concept means the center area between the first and the second space which works collaboratively to create a new

    thing.

    Challenges in applying the hybridity theory and the third space concept to the pre-service teacher education program Cochran-Smith & Lytle (1999) applied the third space concept to train teachers by presenting ideas regarding teachers learning and practice, as well as explaining the relationship between knowledge and practice in 3 ways, including (1) knowledge-for-practice, (2) knowledge-in-practice, and (3) knowledge-of-practice. Knowledge-for-practice is a general knowledge and theories which teachers acquired from university learning. Knowledge-in-practice is the practical knowledge which is the most important one which teachers gained from on-the-job training in a classroom. Knowledge-of-practice is different from the others mentioned earlier as it is a knowledge which teachers learned from theories related to social context and this kind of knowledge can be developed by connecting cultural and political issues.Zeichner (2010) brought the third space concept to develop a new

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    pre-service teacher educational program to promote student teachers learning by integrating academic knowledge, professional knowledge, social knowledge, and on-the-job training experience gained from school and university. Regarding studies which applied the hybridity theory and the third space concept to the pre-service teacher educational program, it is found that the third space concept can be adapted to the mentioned program and is related to the first and the second space as shown below (See Figure 1)

    Figure 1 The Relationship of the Third Space Concept

    HybridityTheory

    Third Space

    First Space (Theories)

    Second Space(Practices)

    Third Space

    Second Space(Practices)

    First Space (Theories)

    Third Space (New Creation)

    The combination between theories and practices

    First SpaceUniversity(Theory)

    Second SpaceSchool

    (Practice)

    HybridityTheory

    Used in Developing Pre-service Teacher Educational Program

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    From Figure 1, it is described that the first space is theories whereas

    students gained from university education, the second space is practices whereas students gained from on-the-job training in schools, and the third space is the connection and relationship between theories and practices which creates a new knowledge with its own identities. Self-development of student teachers in their teaching career is an ability to develop new teaching styles in the third space concept by analyzing all of knowledge that they gained and applying it to a class. Teaching identities can be categorized into 2 major categories:- (1) Teaching identities integrated from knowledge gained from university professors and from cooperating teachers in school., and (2) Teaching identities created by student teachers on their own by researching new concepts, new techniques, or new teaching styles and adapting them to a class. In this case, student teachers create the new teaching identities according to the third space concept and the new identity is different from both cooperating teachers and professors teaching identities. There are 3 aspects in the self-development in teaching career:- (1) abilities in creating identities on applying major knowledge based on real context which was being encounter during on-the-job training, (2) abilities in creating identities on innovation creation and application to promote learners learning based on real context which was being encounter during on-the-job training, and (3) abilities in creating identities on the promotion of learners development.

    Research Methodology This program research and development is based on the hybridity theory and the third space concept and aims to enhance the student teachers teaching identities. It was conducted by collecting fundamental information, then analyzing and synthesizing it for further outcomes which are consistent with content elements (R1). The preliminary result was further used to develop a draft program, which was later proposed to the designated experts to consider content elements and the possibility of implementation. Then, the ultimate result based on experts views was considered to develop draft program (D1,) which was further tested with research sample. Next, the

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    implementation outcomes were analyzed and concluded (R2) to develop the final draft program (D2). As mentioned earlier, there were 4 research

    processes as follows:- R1: the researchers conducted a field research and literature review

    to research context and factors related to the change in professional teaching standard and criteria on educational diploma certification set

    by the Higher Education Commission, to analyze the pre-service teacher educational program developed for educational students majoring in primary education in the faculty of education, Chulalongkorn University, compared with professional teaching standard and criteria on educational diploma certification B.E. 2548, as well as to study the social context, on-

    the-job training situation, and the professional experience management process which is an academic majors uniqueness by observing students classroom practice. The third space concept and guidelines on professional experience development program were studied and researched from relevant publications and textbooks. The collected data was further used to identify compositions and to draft a professional experience development program. D1: the researchers applied R1 results to draft a program and proposed it to 5 qualified experts for their consideration by using program evaluation

    forms developed by the researcher. The 5 qualified experts included 5 experts

    in the areas of program development, elementary education, education program, professional teaching standards, and research methodology. R2: the researchers tested a draft program adapted based on experts comments with a sample group, which was elementary education pre-service teachers (n = 10), minoring in social studies, Graduate Diploma in Education. In addition, both professors (n = 3) and cooperating teachers (n = 9) also enrolled in this program. There are 2 phases of this study. During the first

    phase, professors, cooperating teachers, and student teachers participated in a training program regarding the hybridity theory and the third space concept. The training program contained 20 teaching hours and was conducted in May 2012. There were 5 sessions with four training hours each. The sample group later identified what they had learnt from both university professors

    and cooperating teachers. During the second phase, the researchers observed

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    student teachers actual teaching practice in schools for a total of 30 hours (3 times, an hour per time, for each student teacher) during June to September 2012 to see whether they could perform teaching in consistency with what they had planned to do in the first phase.

    D2: the researchers used the conclusion from R2 to develop the final

    draft program.

    Results Results of Step1 (R1): The researchers applied the hybridity theory and the third space concept to synthesize a draft program for student teachers. The application details of the hybridity theory and the third space concept are exhibited as below. (See Figure 2)

    Figure 2 Exhibition of the Application of the Hybridity Theory and the Third Space Concept to Program Development

    The First SpaceTeaching identities of

    the university professors

    The Second SpaceTeaching identities of

    the cooperating teachers from school

    The Third SpaceTeaching identities of

    student teachers

    Student teachers integrated teaching styles from both professors and

    cooperating teachers

    Student teachers created by student teachers on their own by researching new concepts, new techniques, or new eaching

    styles and adapting them to a class.

    Results of Step 2 (D1): The researchers developed a draft program and learning materials based on the hybridity theory and the third space concept. The draft program included 7 components as follows (See Tab. 1):-

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    Table 1 The Seven Components of the Draft Program

    Program Components

    Details

    Principles 1. The connection between knowledge/theories gained from university education and on-the-job training experience gained from practicing school focuses on student teachers learning through on-the-job training experience and student teachers ability to create their own identities in terms of the third space concept.

    2. Under the cooperation between cooperating teachers and student teachers which can help motivate student teachers to practice teaching, student teachers can teach by using their own identities.

    3. The promotion of research and development is needed to develop teaching profession and to focus on student teachers self-assessment.

    Objectives To develop student teachers self-ability in creating identities in 3 ways as follows:-

    1. The application of major knowledge to real situation encountered during on-the-job training

    2. The creation and the use of innovation to promote learners learning complying with real situation encountered during on-the-job training

    3. The promotion of learners self-development

    Structure of experience and timing allocation

    The pre-service teaching education program is an enhancement program for the senior undergraduate students majoring in primary education at the Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, during the first semester enrolling in the subject

    named professional practice II, subject code 2700507. The structure was divided into 2 parts which were (1) identity creation in the third space concept which was taught prior to the start of the semester for a total of 20 hours (learning unit 1-5), and (2) teaching practice by using the created identities which was held during the semester for a total of 30 hours. There were 50 hours in total.

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    Program Components

    Details

    Contents and experience provided in the program

    Unit 1: Professional Teaching Experience Standard based on the third space concept.Unit 2: Religion, morals, and morality regarding Buddhism historyUnit 3: Civic duty, culture, and ways of life regarding good citizen for democratic societyUnit 4: Economics regarding the concept of sufficiency

    economy and its application to daily lifeUnit 5: History regarding Thonburi EraUnit 6: The ability development of the application of the created identities to instructional method

    Instructional method

    Teaching unit 1-5 through story-telling, dialogue, and learning study process.

    Media and learning resources

    1. Informational paper2. Assignment paper

    Assessment and evaluation

    Identity assessment of student teachers was conducted during on-the-job training in 3 ways by using evaluation form to evaluate student teachers ability in creating their own identities by professors, cooperating teachers, and the researchers. Each student teacher also needed to complete the self-evaluation form which was recorded in the teaching memorandum.

    Results of Step3 (R2): The researchers used the aforementioned draft program with the sample group of 10 student teachers at the meeting room of the Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, for 20 hours. In addition, both professors (n = 3) and cooperating teachers (n = 9) also attended this program. Then, the researchers observed student teachers actual teaching practice in schools for 30 hours. The experimental outcomes are as follows:- (See Tab.2)

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    Table 2 Experimental OutcomesTeaching Identities Number of student

    teachers (n=10)

    Type I

    Student teachers integrated teaching styles

    from both professors and cooperating teachers.

    8

    Type II

    Student teachers created by student teachers

    on their own by researching new concepts,

    new techniques, or new teaching styles and

    adapting them to a class.

    2

    Regarding Figure 2, it is concluded that there were 8 student teachers who integrated teaching styles from both professors and cooperating teachers; whereas there were only 2 student teachers created by student teachers on their own by researching new concepts, new techniques, or new teaching styles and adapting them to a class. They adding what they searched or learned from others resources to what they learned in the university and what they learned in school. For instance, a student teacher creates a teaching style and teaching materials adapted from a popular television show in order to gain students attention. Results of Step4 (D2): The researchers developed the final draft of program outline. This led to the improvement of content and experience structure which were created earlier. It is found that a new learning unit should be added to the program structure which is geography in order to make it consistent with all 5 contents regarding social study, religion, and culture that include (1) religion, morals, and morality, (2) civic duty, culture, and way of life, (3) economics, (4) history, and (5) geography. Therefore, the structure of experience and time allocation should be adapted accordingly.

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    Conclusion The use of the third space concept in developing pre-service teacher education program, linked between university and school, is to shape a training program based on the hybridity theory and the third space concept. The teaching identities of student teachers can be developed differently through collaboration between professors and cooperating teachers.The results of this study show that pre-service teaching education program could help create student teachers identities in 2 way, which are (1) student teachers integrated teaching styles from professors and cooperating teachers, and (2) student teachers created by student teachers on their own by researching new concepts, new techniques, or new teaching styles and adapting them to a class.

    Acknowledgement The research described in this paper was funded by the Thailand Research Fund and Chulalongkorn University through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No.PHD/0110/2551).

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    J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London : Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 207-221.

    Bhabha, H. K. (1994) The Location of Culture. London : Routledge.Bullough, R., Hobbs, S., Kauchak, D., Crow, N., and Stokes, D. (1997) Long-

    term PDS development in research universities and the clinicalization of teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2): 85-93.

    Bullough, R., Birrell, J., Young, J., Clark, D., Erickson, L., Earle, R. et al. (1999) Paradise unrealized: Teacher education and the costs and benefits of school-university partnerships. Journal of Teacher Education, 50(5): 381-390.

    Cochran-Smith, M. and Lytle, S. (1999) Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in Communities. Review of Research in Education, 24: 249-306.

    Darling-Hammond, L. (2010) Teacher education and the American future. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2): 35-47.

    Gannon, S. (2010) Service learning as a third space in pre-service teacher education. Educational Research, 20(1): 21-28.

    Grossman, P. (2005) Pedagogical approaches in teacher education. In M. Cochran-Smith and K. Zeichner. (Eds). Studying Teacher Education. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 425-476.

    Gutierrez, K. (2008) Developing sociocultural literacy in the third space. Reading Research Quaterly, 43: 148-164.

    King, K. P. (2002) Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. The Internet and Higher Education, 5(3): 231-246.

    Levy, R. (2008) Third spaces are interesting places; applying third space theory to nursery-aged children s constructions of themselves as readers. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 8(1): 43-66.

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    Metcalf, K. and Kahlich, P. (1996) Laboratory experiences ad transition from campus to field. In D.J. McIntyre and D. M. Byrd (Eds.) Preparing Tomorrows Teachers: The Field Experience. California : Corwin Press, pp. 97-114.

    Moje, E., Ciechanowski, K., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., and Collazo, T. (2004) Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1): 38-70.

    Pane, D. (2007) Third space theory: Reconceptualizing content literacy learning. In S. M. Nielsen & M.S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section, 78-83. Miami : Florida International University. [Online URL: www.coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/] accessed on June 25, 2011.

    Soja, E. (1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and other Real-and-Imagined Places. Oxford : Blackwell.

    Tangnamo, S. (2001) Introduction to Understanding the Colonial Ideology. [Online URL: www.midnightuniv.org/midnight2544/newpage11.html] accessed on February 14, 2011.

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    Turney, C., Eltis, K., Towler, J., and Wright, R. (1985) A New Basis for Teacher Education: The Practicum Curriculum. Sydney : University of Sydney Press.

    Zeichner, K. (2010) Rethinking the Connections Between Campus Courses and Field Experiences in College- and University-Based Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61: 89-99.

  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 215-230, 2013

    An Analysis of Cultural Substitution in English to Thai Translation

    Patcharee Pokasamrit

    Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand

    Corresponding author: patchare@nida.ac.th

    Abstract Cultural substitution refers to the translation of some known or unknown concepts in the source language by using the substitution from the culture of the receptor language rather than by other available means of meaning equivalence. For examples, a black sheep is translated into literal Thai as a cub outside a pen rather than a person with different and unacceptable characters, and a corner stone is translated as a supreme pole, rather than an indispensable and fundamental basis. This study analyzes cultural substitution in English to Thai translation in order to document its types, linguistic patterns, and cultural significance; and to find and draw

    conclusions as to the translators opinion of this technique. In the first part

    of the study, culturally substituted items were randomly collected from 1000 pages of different types of English to Thai translated works which were published during B.E. 2542 (1997) to B.E. 2552 (2007). These data were then classified and listed according to their generic types and presented in

    categorized tables with their linguistic and cultural comments as findings.

    In the second part, 12 translators whose works have been published during the past 10 years were asked to fill in questionnaires and interviewed on

    their opinions on cultural substitute translation technique. The conclusions of the opinions are provided, and the recommendations for the use of the findings and for further research are offered.

    Key Words: English to Thai Translation; Cultural Substitution; Language and Culture

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    Introduction English to Thai translation has had a long history in Thailand as a means of communication and technology transfer. In the field of communication, Thailand has been receiving and exchanging information on various areas of study, entertainment, and culture. Translation as a language skill has developed as a profession and an academic subject taught in schools and universities at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Since Thai is the only major native and official language of Thailand, knowledge,

    technology, and culture from English speaking people have found their ways into Thailand mainly through translation into Thai, especially prior to the last two decades, when more Thais have been exposed to and thus acquired better knowledge of English language and culture. At present, English to Thai translation is done in most areas of interest and has developed to be of high quality, with many competent translators who are equipped with a theoretical background of translation and excellent command of both English and Thai. Moreover, with globalization and widespread acculturation, many translators are doing their best to produce outstanding work according to the ethical standards of the business and academic world. Documenting and describing Thai language usage in the framework of descriptive linguistics through translated work, then, is one of the valid methods to compare English and Thai culture and the ways English and Thai people perceive the world. This study seeks to analyze the use of cultural substitution technique of English to Thai translation in order to record and document the different ways Thai and English people express their thinking and perspective of the world. The results of the analysis can also benefit the

    teaching and learning of translation by providing evidence and examples of translation, the types of the culture, and the varying opinions different translators have on the technique.

    Objectives of the Study To analyze the cultural substitution in English to Thai translation in order to:

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    1. Identify the types of cultural substitution and their examples in order to document the language usage in the framework of Documentary and Descriptive Linguistics (Himmelmann and Bochum, 2007). 2. Analyze the technique of cultural substitution translation and describe its linguistic and cultural patterns (Denoun, 2000; Karamanian, 2002; Triveni, 2002). 3. Study the opinions of Thai translators on this cultural substitution technique compared to other standard translation techniques using the framework of Mildred M. Larson (1998).

    Cultural Meaning of Words Larson (1998) indicates that the most difficult problem in translation is the differences between cultures. People of different cultures may look at things from their own perspective. Pig may be good and valuable in Papua New Guinea, but may be bad and nonfood in the Jewish culture. When translating pig from a Papua New Guinea context into a Jewish context, the cultural meaning must be sent across either by making the culture explicit, or if appropriate and possible, by using a cultural substitute with similar form or function. In Thai, a water buffalo may be a good substitute for a turkey in English, indicating hateful stupidity. Moreover, different cultures usually have different focuses in life. Americans focus on working, money, sports, schooling, and marriage; while in Papua New Guinea, people concentrate on gardening, fishing, foods, and ceremonies. As a result, the amount of

    vocabulary which is available to discuss a particular topic can reflect the

    different focuses and culture and is a challenge for the translator to select the exact word from the many available choices to create a natural translation.

    Cultural Substitution in Translation Larson (1998) states that there will be some lexical items which neither a generic term nor a loan word with modification will be possible as a translation equivalence. In some incidents, the source language lexical items can only be best translated by using the thing, the image, or the event which is not exactly the same but does occur in the receptor language.

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    For example, when the form is not in focus, coyotes may be substituted for wolf and bury may be substituted for place in the tomb because these substitution have the same function in both languages. Larson does caution against the use of anachronistic substitution such as a car for a chariot because of the time difference and the fact that the translator must be true to the facts of a narrative. Cultural substitutes would work better in a text written to create a certain effect rather than to indicate facts or concrete information. Moreover, according to Larson, cultural substitutes always result in some distortion of meaning and should not be used unless the other possible techniques have proven inappropriate. In other words, translators should try other ways to reach the meaning equivalence first before settling

    down on a culturally substituted item. However, considering all the difficult

    and complicated tasks of translating, Larson stresses that a cultural substitute does work well and can produce dynamic equivalence without which the source language might not be understood.

    Methodology This is a qualitative and descriptive analysis. There are two parts to this study; the language documentation, and the questionnaires and in-depth interviews.

    Data Collection The data consists of randomly selected 1000 pages of English source language and their Thai translated version. It covers 10 areas of interest, with 100 pages from each area. The areas covered are: 1. Business 2. Idiom and proverb 3. Science and technology 4. Traveling and entertainment 5. News and information 6. Novels and literature 7. History 8. Arts and culture

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    9. Religion and belief 10. Academic textbooks

    Data Documenting By comparing the English source language to the Thai translated receptor language, the documenting processes are: 1. The Thai version is compared to the English source language, carefully looking for culturally substituted items. 2. Each culturally substituted item is listed once with a cultural note from the context. 3. All the listed items are grouped according to their generic types and their forms and functions. 4. The classified types are shown in tables with the English and Thai

    versions side by side together with the cultural notes when required. 5. Discussion on each type of cultural substitute found is given concerning the techniques and the cultural points. Examples of cultural substitutes

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaningunderworld world of God of Death hell

    mile kilometer measurement

    rotted in hell fried in copper pan punished in hell

    cornerstone supreme pole indispensable and fundamental basis

    a turkey a water buffalo stupid and hateful

    Helen of Troy Queen Siida of Ramayana

    beautiful and fought over by men

    to use a sledge hammer to crack a nut

    to ride on elephant to capture a grass hopper

    excessive use

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    Results of Data Analysis Nine types of cultural substitution are found. Some examples of each types are: 1.Religion, belief

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    potion holy water from a novice not effective

    holy day Buddhist lent day Buddhist culture

    God the Lord Buddha Supreme god

    Vampires ghost bats blood sucking evils

    Thou shall not kill the first Buddhist restriction goodness

    Turned religious turned toward the temple righteousness

    Finding: Most religious beliefs are substituted by Buddhist culture and folk beliefs of the Thais who are mostly Buddhists and have long traditions and ingrained folklore.

    2. People

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    Mary Poppins a priestess kind, innocent

    Helen of Troy Kaakii infidelity

    Casanova Khun Phaen famous lover

    A Jurassic person King Hao old-fashioned

    A beauty queen Miss Apatsara Thai Miss Universe

    A hot rod a ghost foot reckless as a ghost

    A sucker a young chick easily taken, Thai idiom

    A bimboo a sexy Mae Khong calendar girl unacceptable but sexy

    Finding: Most substitutes for people or idioms referring to people are from well-known Thais either from history, literature, folk, or legends. Substitutions are more effective and easier than trying to explain the people in the source language.

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    3. Objects

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    An elevator a lift British loan words came first

    Melted butter coconut cream similar function

    A fig leaf tamlung leaf similar shape

    A beach ball a bamboo container big and round

    Volk Beetle Volk Turtle similar shape

    Lily lotus flower same function

    A pudding bowl a half coconut shell shape and function

    A U-bend a goose neck similar shape

    A tornado A monsoon preferred name

    Finding: Most substitutes are chosen because of their matching familiar form and/or function. Loan cultural substitutes are mostly borrowed British English words commonly used in Thai before American English arrived. 4. Time, measurement

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning700 feet 210 metersA half dozen five or sixDozens many tensIn 1998 in 2541At 16.00 at 4 oclock247,000 acre 617,500 rai360 degrees around all directionA dime two baht5 miles 8 kiloAn arm length About two elbows

    Finding: Substitutes are to facilitate easy understanding of the commonly used time and measurement systems. Some substitutes are required according to the field of communication such as business and engineering.

    Translators need to do the calculations for the readers.

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    5. Places

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    Utopia Phra Siaraya Metrai Thai perfect state

    Tennessee Roi-ed up-country, remote

    Slum rats holes metaphor for slum

    Alabama Nong Maa Woe Hill Billy, uneducated

    A park Lumpini Park familiar place

    T-junction three-way intersection use number for T shape

    Red light district Green lantern district code name

    heaven chimplee Thai heaven

    Finding: Most place names are translated as loan words. Thai cultural substitutes are used as metaphor to reflect the form and function of such places, and to create a similar image.

    6. Foods

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    Crepes yellow bean sweet

    Fruits banana, sugar cane local fruits

    Lunch box rice-pack box rice means a whole meal

    Salt fish sauce salty taste

    Peanut butter and jelly (sandwich)

    rice with fish sauce almost nothing to eat, to survive

    Breakfast morning rice morning meal

    Fast food curry rice Thai typical fast food

    Pancakes Chinese pie salapao, typical Thai

    Dumplings Thai sweet bua-loy, Typical Thai

    Cereal rice cereal khao-mao, Typical Thai

    Finding: Most substitutes can present only the function of such food being translated. Loan words with modification of form and/or function would work better than most of the substitution. The translators try to preserve the Thai atmosphere at the expense of the accuracy of form and taste.

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    7. Concept and idiom

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    Married name husbands last name more emphasis on male

    Mr. and Mrs. Baker Baker and wife male dominance

    The mamas-trains-and pick-up trucks style of country music

    up-country music of lower market

    market reflects socio-

    economic class

    Grand ma and grand pa Grand pa and grand ma males come first

    affairs of the state royal affairs Thailand is a kingdom, royal can mean government

    final admonition proverb to teach women women need to be taught

    Soap opera filthy-water drama a waste of time to watch

    A black eye a bruised green eye different interpretation of colors

    Ladies and gentlemen Gentlemen and ladies cultural crash

    Finding: Thailand is a kingdom and a male dominated society. The substitutes work to prevent cultural clashes when culture is not in focus. This type of cultural substation works well in sending the meaning to Thais. 8. Animal

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    A tadpole not a shark a cat not a tiger Thai metaphor

    Worker bees working ants Thai metaphor

    A horse out of the barn a cow out of the pen Thai metaphor

    A heifer a suckling baby buffalo a crying loser, Thai metaphor

    Finding: When animals are used in metaphor, substitutes are required to reach equivalence and can work well. Cultural substitutes for real animals are rare because of globalization and acculturation.

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    9. Proverb

    English Literal Thai Notes on meaning

    Talking to a brick wall pour water on a stump useless, wasteful

    The wisest man may fall

    even four-legged animals can miss

    be cautious in what you do

    To put ones foot in it to wiggle your foot for a sliver

    to ask for troubles

    To turn a blind eye to put your ears to the paddy fields and eyes to

    the farm

    not to care

    Still water runs deep sharp in the sheath real Thai proverb, not the translated version

    Out of sight out of mind

    three days away and a woman turns towards others

    Thai bias towards women

    Too many cooks spoil the broth

    Too many lawyers, too many cases

    different choice of profession in Thai

    Finding: Cultural substitution works best on a proverb treated as a unit of meaning. Proverbs reflect culture, ways of thinking, and the many

    facets of life in a community. The substitutes provide image and flavor of

    the language. Some Thai proverbs are originally translated from English, e.g. Still water runs deep, therefore are not counted as cultural substitutes.

    Findings and Discussion 1. The grammatical forms of the source language are mostly kept in the receptor language, e.g., a noun is translated as a noun, adjective as adjective. This is also true in the phrase level, e.g., a noun phrase is mostly translated as a noun phrase. 2. Idioms and proverbs are treated as units of meaning and substi-tuted by whole units of idioms and proverbs, in Thai, e.g., the idiom He became red in the face is translated as he turned bloodshot in the face; and the proverb One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel is translated as One

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    rotten fish makes the whole catch stink.

    3. Cultural substitutes are chosen because of their matching form and/or function between the source and receptor language, e.g., a turkey in English and a water buffalo in Thai are both animal (form) and are both considered stupid (function). 4. A cultural substitute sends across the meaning and image comparable in the two cultures being translated. On the part of the translator, the source and the cultural substitute are compared as in the case of metaphor or simile. The translator looks for and selects a matching metaphor in the receptor culture. The readers easily understand the meaning and the emotional effect attached to the item because it is from their own familiar culture. For example, Helen of Troy is understood in English with all her famous history in a similar way as Queen Siida is known in Thai. Queen Siida is then a suitable cultural substitute for Helen of Troy when translating metaphor, expressing the meaning of a great beauty who is fought over by men. 5. Some types of cultural substitutes are more required than others. Substitution of time and measurement is sometimes a requirement in business translation while substitution of idioms and proverbs create more pleasure in the entertainment translation but are not required. Translation by cultural substitution is then, can be counted as an artistic side of translation.

    Results of In-depth Interview and Questionnaires The sampling group consists of 12 translators who have had their work published during 1997-2007. The interviews were done in Thai and the interviewees were told about the technical terms used, e.g., one to one equivalent, implicit and explicit, form and function, generic and specific, loan and cultural substitute. The translators were asked to fill in questionnaires followed by in-depth interviews on their opinions of cultural substitution and other translation techniques. Results of the questionnaires 1. Some translators have checked whether readers appreciate their culturally substituted translation. (5)

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    2. Some translators believe that translating will be easier and more accurate because of acculturation. (5) 3. Most translators consider cultural substitution their last choice. (8) 4. Most translators feel that cultural substitution is effective. (8) 5. Most translators believe that there will be less use of cultural substitutes because of the continuing acculturation. (8) 6. Most translators appreciate cultural substitutes when they read others translation. (9) 7. Most translators avoid cultural substitution when translating facts. (9) 8. Most translators consider loan translation the best alternative for cultural substitution. (10) 9. Most translators have encountered difficult cultural differences

    in their work. (10) 10. Most translators think that cultural substitution is best for translating proverbs and idiom. (10) 11. Most translators usually keep the grammatical forms of the source language when translating. (10) 12. Most translators have used cultural substitution technique. (11) 13. Most translators feel that they should try their best to translate culture accurately. (11) 14. All translators consider one to one equivalence the best technique. (12) 15. All translators believe that cultural substitution is the most difficult

    technique. (12)

    Recommendations 1. Documented data should be used in translation teaching and discussed in terms of meaning clarification and translation techniques.

    2. Records of Thai usage and Thai language change in the fields of

    Thai Study and Sociolinguistics should include culturally substituted items in translation, reflecting English and Thai culture and world view.

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    3. Further research in translation should go beyond the language accuracy level to relate to other relevant social science fields involving

    communication, entertainment, and business.

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    ReferencesBarnwell, K. G. L. (1980) Introduction to Semantics and Translation.

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    Fromkin, V. and Rodman, R. (1993) An Introduction to Language. Texas : Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

    Goedde, B. (2007) The New York Times; Nonfiction in Translation. [Online URL: http://www.creativenonfiction.org/brevity/craft_goedde.htm.] accessed on January 15, 2009.

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    Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1990) Discourse and the Translator. New York : Longman Inc.

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    Kempson, R. M. (1996) Semantic Theory. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

    Kreidler, C. W. (1998) Introducing English Semantics, London : Routledge.Kurland, J. D. (2000) Fiction vs Nonfiction. [Online URL: http://

    www.criticalrcading.com/fictionvnonfiction.htm.] accessed on January 19, 2009.

    Larson, M. (1998) Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence. Oxford : University Press of America.

    Larson, R and Segal, G. (1995) Knowledge and Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Theory. USA : Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Lyons, J. (ed) (1997) Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Munday, J. (2001) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and

    Applications. London : Routledge.Newmark, P. (1992) Approaches to Translation. Cambridge : Cambridge

    University Press.Newmark, P. (1995) Approaches to Translation. London : Phoenix ELT.Nida, E. A. and Taber, C. R. (1982) The Theory and Practice of Translation.

    Leiden : E. J. Brill.Nida, E. A. (2001) Contexts in Translating. Amsterdam : John Benjamins.Oxford Advance Lemers Dictionary (2000) International Students Edition

    (6th ed.). England : Oxford University Press.Parkinson, G. (1982) The Theory of Meaning. Oxford : Oxford University

    Press.Pokasamrit, P. (1999, December 7) Translate it. Bangkok Post, Classified. Pokasamrit, P. (2005) An Analysis of Linguistic, Functional, and Socio-

    cultural Characteristics of Loan Translation: A Case Study of English-Thai Translation. Paper Presented at the International Conference on Language, Communication, and Culture: Dialogues and Contexts in Focus.

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  • Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsVol.13 (1) : 231-252, 2013

    Salt-making in Northeast Thailand An Ethnoarchaeological Study in Tambon

    Phan Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima Province, Northeast Thailand

    Andrea Yankowski 1* and Puangthip Kerdsap 2

    1San Francisco State University, USA2Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand and James Cook University,

    Townsville, Australia*Corresponding author: a.yankowski@yahoo.com

    Introduction The Mun River Valley of Northeast Thailand has been the focus of numerous archaeological excavation projects over the last two decades as part of the Origins of Ankgor project, a multi-disciplinary, cooperative project between the Thai Fine Arts Department, the University of Otaga, New Zealand, and James Cook University, Australia (Higham & Thosarat 2005; Higham, Kijngam & Talbot 2007; Higham & Kijngam 2009, 2010, 2012). Since 2002, the project has conducted excavations in the village of Ban Non Wat, a small rural community with cultural remains dating back over 4,000 years, exposing numerous archaeological features, burials and artifacts, and greatly contributing to our understanding of the development of the local society and economy over time. Over the last few seasons, under the direction of Dr. Nigel Chang, Dr. Kate Dommett, Dr. Bill Boyd, Dr. Warrachai Wiriyaromp and Dr. Amphan Kijngam, the project has expanded its scope to study the broader cultural landscape of the region and the changing interrelationship of humans with their natural resources and environment. This new direction has included ethnoarchaeological research on local salt resources and salt-making, in order to gain a greater understanding of the diachronic importance of this natural resource and commodity in the region.

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    This paper presents the results of a 2010 ethnoarchaeological study in Tambon Phan Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima Province, Northeast Thailand. It is a small sample study of the local technology of salt making and the use and trade of salt in Northeast Thailand, as part of a broader on-going study on the history of salt production in Southeast Asia.

    Background Tambon Phan Song Khran is located on the Khorat Plateau, a large drainage basin for the Mun and Chi Rivers (see Map 1). This region is situated upon a Mesozoic sequence of rocks known as the Maha Sarakham Formation that consists primarily of sandstones, siltstones and thick beds of rock salts (Mongkosawat and Paiboonsak 2006). During the rainy season, much of the low-lying areas of this basin are flooded. Then, during the

    dry months, the water table drops and salt permeates up through the soil, crystallizing on the surface in exposed areas where there is little or no vegetation. Rural households subsequently collect these sediments and leach out the salt. This is an old tradition but little is known about the historical, social, technological, or economic significance of this resource in the region

    throughout time.

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    Over the years, local archaeologists have noted the prevalence of salt making activities on a seasonal basis during the dry season, from January through April. Moreover, possible salt-making features have been noted in excavations, and numerous mound sites formed from the discarded soil from salt-making activities have been identified, some which are still in

    use today. Preliminary archaeological research suggests that some of these salt-making sites date back to the Iron Age, circa 500 BC, or even earlier (Rivett & Higham 2007; Nitta 1997; Cawte & Bongsasip 2009). It has also been suggested that salt was traded along the extensive Angkorian road system in the late first millennium and early second millennium AD

    (McNeill & Welch 1991; Welch 1998; Hendrickson 2007:224-226). If so, early salt production may have impacted land use and settlement patterns and played a role in the political and economic development of the region. The suggested importance of this commodity to the development of the region warrants greater research on this topic.

    Map 1 The location of Tambon Phan Song Khram and the Mun River Valley Basin, Thailand.

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    Study Area & Methodology Most of the population of the study area are rice farmers who supplement their income with traditional crafts and/or seasonal employment in urban areas. This area was selected because many people in these communities continue to make salt using traditional methods for personal use and subsistence, or occasionally as a trade good or an additional source of income. This region is also part of the Origins of Angkor study area, where field excavations are currently taking place, providing an opportunity

    to undertake a socio-environmental study within the research area, as well as collect ethnoarchaeological data that may be directly relevant to the ongoing excavations. During the month of January 2010, the authors visited 15 villages in Tambon Phan Song Khram. See Table 1 and Map 2. In each village, we arranged to speak to the local headman/woman, when available, as well as interview some of the salt makers. The main objectives of the research project were to 1) learn about present day methods of salt-making and the extent of salt production and trade in the region; 2) identify changes in technologies of salt production and/or the location of salt resources within recent memory (i.e., last couple generations); 3) Identify archaeological salt sites; and, 4) identify environmental, social and historical factors that have impacted salt production and trade in the region, past and present. Additionally, during our study we became aware of some local health issues related to the consumption of locally made salt, which is not enriched with iodine. Subsequently, we reached out to the local health clinic to obtain more information on potential health problems and briefly addressed this in

    our research as well.

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    Table 1 Villages visited in Tambon Phan Song Khram

    Village Population* Households*

    1) Ban Sapeng () 453/457 126

    2) Ban Phon Song Khram () 439/460 162

    3) Ban Khok Pro Hom () 375/341 89

    4) Ban Salao () 334/312 115

    5) Ban Yakha () 464/451 146

    6) Ban Nong Hua Raet () 191/184 67

    7) Ban Ma Rum () 270/253 92

    8) Ban Don Faek () 322/366 127

    9) Ban Nong Na () 353/395 152

    10) Ban Don Mam Kha Chak () 189/193 48

    11) Ban Non Wat () 117/129 48

    12) Ban Nong Soung () 202/168 71

    13) Ban Don Malueam () 172/170 52

    14) Ban Don Bu Ta Pho () 144/126 46

    15) Ban Don Faek Pattana () 311/311 111

    Methods of Salt Production There are two basic steps to making salt in the study area. The first

    is to immerse the saline sediments in water to dissolve the soluble salts and create brine. Then, when the salinity of the water is highly concentrated, this brine is drained and slowly boiled to evaporate the water and recrystallize the NaCl. One of the most common and traditional methods for preparing the brine is to dig a small square or circular basin to contain the sediment and water, approximately a meter to a meter and a half in diameter, in the ground or along a small mound or embankment. A second deeper hole is dug adjacent to this for draining off the brine. Traditionally, these are clay lined to make them impermeable, but nowadays, plastic sheeting is sometimes used, or a small ceramic pot is set in the hole to collect the brine. A small

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    Map 2 Map of Study Area (Tambon Phan Song Khram)

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    Figure 1 Piles of soil collected for processing

    Figure 2 Empty salt processing basins

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    bamboo feeder tube is inserted between the two pits for draining the brine. This remains sealed up until the salt has had ample time to dissolve in the water. Some bundled grasses are also placed in the bottom of the basin overlaid with a burlap bag and sometimes rice husks to help aid with draining the brine. The resulting product is a clear brine solution. Once the brine is prepared, the next step is to boil the brine to evaporate the water and recrystallize the salt. Presently, all the salt makers in this area use metal sheeting to make a shallow tray for boiling the brine. This tray is placed over an outdoor hearth and the brine is boiled in multiple batches. It is then collected and put in baskets to further drain, and eventually stored in large stoneware jars. We suspect that in the past, earthenware jars, pans or basins were used, as has been noted in historical records (Aymonier 2000 [1895]) and was commonly done elsewhere in premodern contexts (Brown 1980; Bushnell 1907; Cassen et al. 2008; Chen 2004; Chen 2008; Flad 2009; Gouletquer 1975; Kondo 1975; MacKinnon et al. 1989; McKilllop 2002; Yankowski 2008).

    Figure 3 Basin filled with soil & water

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    Figure 4 Boiling the brine

    Figure 5 Basket of Salt

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    There is another method of making brine that is used in some of the villages. Instead of digging a basin, a burlap bag is stretched over a wooden frame suspended over a bucket. The soil is placed in the burlap bag and water is added and allowed to drain through to the bucket. Several individuals we spoke to said they only recently began using this method after seeing others use it. For some of the older individuals, this is easier because it allows them to work standing up or seated, rather than having to kneel down. Within the research area, we also learned about one couple (husband and wife) who collect brine water from evaporation ponds at a nearby industrial salt factory and boil this brine water to make salt, skipping the brine making process. However, their situation is unique, as they maintain a special arrangement with the factory due to a real estate transaction that involved the purchase of some of their land for the salt factory. Lastly, the above-mentioned salt factory in the town of Ban Salao produces industrial grade salt (e.g., for detergents) that is sold throughout Thailand. The factory pumps brine from deep beneath the surface into a

    Figure 6 Processing soil using a burlap bag

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    series of evaporation ponds. The factory has become an important employer for the immediate region, but this has impacted the production of locally made salt.

    Economics & Distribution of Salt Our surveys revealed that only six of the fifteen villages within

    Tambon Phan Song Khram have households that continue to regularly make salt; however, salt was made in all of the villages within recent memory, i.e., the last couple generations. See Map 2. The biggest factor that has impacted the number of households making salt is the construction of the Ban Salow Salt Factory, particularly in the towns immediately surrounding the factory. The salt factory was built on the land that was formerly used for traditional salt-making, providing an alternative source of employment and income for the people in the local communities during the dry season. The headman of Ban Khok Pro Hom, Mr. Kleanklai Dokpikut, told us that when he was young approximately twenty people from his village made salt on the lands where the factory is now located. At that time, many of these households were trading salt for rice. After the factory was built, many people instead chose to work at the factory, which provides cash wages, and they abandoned their traditional salt making activities. Today, the majority of salt makers make salt primarily for personal use and consumption; however, some individuals also sell their salt, or trade it for rice. For example, salt makers in the village of Ban Nong Hua Raet regularly sell their salt in neighboring towns, delivering it by truck. Traditionally, salt was distributed via handcarts, but in our surveys we learned of only one woman who continues to sell salt using this labor-intensive method. There are standard prices and trade equivalents for salt, most of which are based on the size of locally available stoneware jars or baskets. On average, the price equates to 10-20 baht/kilo. Often times salt is traded for rice, with equal trade equivalents. We were informed that in the past, bamboo baskets were used, and late 19th century historical records indicate that salt was sold in small earthenware pots (Aymonier 1895).

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    Today, the most common use of locally made salt is for making pla-ra, fermented fish, which is a staple part of the local diet. To make pla-ra, fresh water fish is cleaned and put in a large jar with a generous amount of salt.

    The amount of salt varies based on the size of the fish and preferred taste.

    Three weeks later pounded roasted rice is added to the fish and salt mixture

    and is allowed to ferment for a minimum of six weeks up to six months. We were consistently told that local salt is preferred over commercial salt for pla-ra. We believe this may be due the specific minerals present in the local salt and the lack of iodine, which can inhibit fermentation. Local salt is also cheaper, so is often preferred for economic reasons. Consequently, the combination of these factors has helped preserve this local tradition.

    Landscape & Environment Today, salt is a relatively minor industry, but oral and historical records, as well as preliminary archaeological data, indicate it was an important economic activity in the past. If salt was one of the primary economic activities of the region, the availability of salt resources may have contributed to where people chose to settle, work (farm) and live. To investigate these questions, we examined the spatial distribution of salt sites and activities, mapping out current and past salt collection areas. We also inquired about how or why these areas may have been used in the past, or changed over time. Only a limited number of areas are maintained for salt collection within Tambon Phan Song Khram. This is due to the limited availability of suitable lands and sediments as well as personal choices about land use. Geological, environmental and cultural factors that impact the high salinity levels within specific areas of the basin includes the relatively shallow depth

    of underlying salt bearing rocks combined with the low topography, poorly draining soils and relatively shallow water table, and the lack of vegetation cover, which encourages the upward movement of soluble salts following the wet season (Mongkolsawat and Paiboonsak 2006). These conditions often exist at the edges of the floodplains in areas that have not been developed for

    agricultural purposes, or on public lands, such as along the railroad tracks.

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    Some private lands are also made openly accessible for salt making, but changes in land ownership often results in the development of the land for other purposes. Subsequent surveys by the authors within the greater administrative district have noted numerous areas with the distinct saline sediments that are characteristic of salt-making areas within the immediate region. Many of these areas continue to be used for salt making. Local farmers are readily aware of the debilitating effects of salt on rice agriculture and actively maintain these areas as environmental zones segregated from agricultural activities. Future archaeological research will need to investigate if these environmental zones existed in the past and how human modifications to

    the landscape impacted local land use for agricultural practices and salt exploitation. Furthermore, nowadays, the region experiences distinct wet and dry seasons, which greatly impacts the types of agricultural, industrial and craft activities that occur throughout the year. Rice agriculture is the primary activity during the wet season, while salt production and many craft activities take place during the dry season. Research has demonstrated that the climate was wetter in the past and that the dryer conditions that are characteristic of the region today, developed by the Late Bronze Age circa 3000 2500 BP (Boyd 2008; Boyd and McGrath 2001). There is also some evidence of geomorphological changes around this time, including salt dome upwelling (Boyd 2008; Utha-Aroon 1993). It is likely that this increased aridity would have impacted agricultural cycles and other seasonal activities and created environmental, climatic and landscape conditions favorable for salt-production activities. Further research on these topics as well as the age of the salt sites should help clarify these questions.

    Archaeological Sites Previous archaeological surveys have identified numerous small mound sites generally ranging from 50 to 150 meters in diameter throughout Nakhon Rachassima Province believed to have been formed from salt-making activities. Archaeological deposits at these sites include large scatters of

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    earthenware sherds, which may have been used directly or indirectly for salt production. During our study, we were interested in identifying potential archaeological sites within the more immediate study area and inquired in each village about known salt collection areas and visited these areas that were not on private lands. Among the villages we visited, large salt mound sites were lacking. Instead, people were collecting soils from large exposed salt flats, and

    bringing the soils back to their homes to process. As a result, discarded soils were not being accumulated into mound sites as is seen elsewhere in the region. However, we were told that in Ban Don Man Kha Chak there used to be a small hill site about 3 meters high where people made salt, but the new owner plowed the site. We suspect that this may be the case elsewhere, as well. However, just outside the immediate study area in the neighboring district of Kharm Thao is an area known as Nong Song Pi Nong where people from Phan Song Khram, as well as some other neighboring towns, make salt. The site has two large mounds that are surrounded by saline soils as well as a local water source. There are also dense accumulations of potsherds eroding along the edges of parts of the mounds, likely the remnants of salt making activities. Families from Ban Don Faek and Bang Nong Na visit Nong Song Pi Nong each year to make brine, and transport the brine back to their homes to boil. Other families from the local communities make salt at the site. When we visited, a family was taking up temporary residence at the site to make salt for the season. We were told that this practice was common in the past before the availability of modern transport. Other areas we surveyed included the public lands near the Ban Salao salt factory, salt flats near the village of Ban Hua Raet, Ban Marum and Ban

    Non Wat, as well as an area just outside the study area between Ban Makaa and Ban Maklua. Artifacts, including earthenware sherds, were found on the lands near the Ban Salao salt factory, and the large exposed areas in Ban Hua Raet are still used by many families. Both areas need further investigation.

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    Health Issues Although not an initial focus of this study, it became apparent that many people in this region do not consume iodized salt. Only a handful of individuals we spoke to acknowledged the importance of iodine or regularly used commercial (iodized) salt. When acknowledged, it was generally noted that local salt is preferred for fermenting fish, while commercial salt is

    sometimes used for general cooking. But overall, there did not seem to be a concern for iodine deficiency in the community, even among those

    consuming strictly local salt. The national rate of iodine deficiency in Thailand is 4.3% (Pandav et

    al. 1997). Statistics were not available for our local study area, but we did note some evidence of goiter among older members of the communities. As a result, we spoke to the Primary Care Unit for the region, located in the village of Ban Marum. We were informed that the government has an outreach program to provide free iodized salt in the villages once per year, and free testing of salt for iodine. Iodized salt is also used in the childrens school lunches in order to reduce the prevalence of IDD (iodine deficiency

    disorder) throughout the province. However, at the clinic and in government outreach policies, there seems to be a lack of knowledge about the prevalence of local non-iodized salt production in the region, which is likely to be hampering outreach efforts, especially among the older members of the communities.

    Summary/Further Research The immediate objectives of this research were modest, i.e., to provide some preliminary information on salt production within these fifteen villages.

    From this research, we hope to be able to formulate more in-depth questions about the history of salt production and the long-term impact of this activity on the local environment and social landscape over time. One important fact this study confirmed was that salt production was

    widespread in the region 20-30 years ago and that the widespread reduction in this activity is primarily due to changes in accessibility of resources. The most drastic example of this was the opening of the Ban Salow salt factory,

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    but there were other examples of changes in land ownership and land use for agricultural purposes that affected availability of resources. Yet, in areas that have remained public and accessible, the lands are generally maintained for salt collection and processing. These results suggest that in order to learn more about the extent of salt production in the past, we need to gain a better understanding of the changes in the local environment and landscape throughout time. Was land set aside and maintained for salt-making in the past and/or were landscapes purposefully changed and modified over time for agricultural versus salt

    making activities? Some interviewees informed us that sediments are sometimes fertilized with rice husks to impede the upward movement of salts in the soils, thus improving the rice growing conditions. It is possible that the landscape has been historically shaped by this dichotomous use of land for rice agriculture versus salt making activities. We also need to consider if salt may have been used for other secondary purposes, such as for tanning or dying (Cawte & Bonsasip 2009). The 2010 excavation of a bone tool assemblage in the village of Ban Salao, a salt-rich area, may be evidence of such a complimentary industry. One of the other primary aims of this research was to document the technologies of salt production and understand the range of material evidence and archaeological sites one would expect to find if similar technologies

    were used in the past. We found that there were many similarities in the methods across the region. Some people experimented with using modern materials, e.g., plastic lining and metal sheeting, or suspended filters, but

    these are all very recent modifications. The core method has been consistent

    for some time using clay-lined reservoirs. Interestingly, we see similar clay lined features in the excavations at Ban Non Wat and other neighboring sites, which are filled with pinkish sandy sediments (Duke et al. 2010).

    These resemble what we would expect from household scale production. Landscape modifications one would expect as a result of large scale salt-

    making would include the formation of mounds from discarded soils; larger or more numerous clay lined salt processing basins as are known from other salt production sites in the region and around the world (Flad 2011;

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    Cassen 2008); and, the maintenance of large parcels of vegetation free land to encourage saline soil conditions. While earthenware pottery is no longer used in salt production today, 19th century historical records indicate it was traditionally used for boiling brine and transporting salt in areas of Northeast Thailand (Aymonier 200o [1895]). Earthenware sherds are commonly found scattered around the mound sites, and may represent remnants of salt making activities. If we can identify particular pottery types or forms that were used for salt making, as has been done elsewhere in Asia (Chen 2004; Flad 2011; Flad 2007; Yankowski 2008, 2010), it could provide us with an additional line of evidence for studying the scale of salt production and extent of salt trade In the region. Lastly, the question remains as to whether salt was a commodity traded along the ancient Angkorian road system. A 245 km road provided a direct transportation link from Phimai to the Angkorian Empire from at least the 12th century, and probably earlier. It has been suggested that salt was one of the commodities traded along this route (Welch 1998; Hendrickson 2007, 224-227). Historically, there has been a strong trade relationship maintained between Phimai and the Tonle Sap region of Cambodia, with the exchange of metal bowls from Bangkok, silk and cotton cloth from Khon Kaen and salt from Korat traded along this route in exchange for Tonle Sap fish (McNeill & Welch 1991). Indications of large-scale production during

    the prehistoric and protohistoric period, more than would be needed to supply the local population, would provide additional evidence that Phimai was an early regional salt production center. By studying the salt industry in Northeast Thailand, we have a unique opportunity to learn more about how this natural resource may have shaped the cultural and natural landscape of the region, as well as gain a better understanding of the inter-relationship of human societies with their environment throughout time. More in-depth archaeological and socio-environmental research should help us to further address these questions.

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    Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank many individuals and institutions for the support of our research including the Royal Fine Arts Department of Thailand, the National Research Council of Thailand, the Earthwatch Institute and their volunteers, and the directors the Origins of Angkor project Dr. Nigel Chang, Dr. Kate Domett, Dr. Amphan Kijngam, Dr. Warrachai Wiriyaromp, and Dr. Bill Boyd. We also wish to thank a couple individuals who directly participated in our field research our local guide

    Mrs Chumpi Jongpingkang from Ban Non Wat, and Earthwatch volunteer Vicky Jarvis. We are also grateful to all the salt-makers who took the time to share their knowledge, experiences and stories with us making this research possible.

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    ReferencesAymonier, Etienne. (2000) [1895]. Isan Travels: Northeast Thailands

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    Cassen, Serge, Pierre-Arnaud de Labriffe and Loic Menanteau. (2008) Washing and heating on the Neolithic shores of Western Europe. An archaeological hypothesis on the production of sea salt. In Sel, eau et fort, dhier a aujourdhui, edited by O. Weller, A. Dufraisse and P. Ptreguin, pp. 143-161. Paris : Presses universitaires de Franche-Comt.

    Cawte, Hayden and Bhadravarma Bongsasip. (2009) Ethnoarchaeological investigations of household salt making in Northeast Thailand: A scaler hypothesis for prehistoric production. Paper presented at the 19th Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Congress, December 3, 2009, Hanoi.

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    Chen, Pochan. (2008) Technical Changes in the Salt Production from the Neolithic Period to the Han Dynasty at Zhongba. In Sel, eau et fort Dhier aujourdhui. O. Weller, A. Dufraisse and P. Ptrequin, editors, pp. 143-161. Paris : Presses universitaires de Franche-Comt.

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    Duke, Belinda J, Alison K. Carter, and Nigel J. Chang. (2010) The Excavation of Iron Age Working Floors and Small Scale Industry at Ban Non Wat, Thailand. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology [Online], 20-22 December 2010.

    Flad, Rowan W. (2011) Salt Production and the Social Hierarchy in Ancient China: An Archaeological Investigation of Specialization in Chinas Three Gorges. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

    Flad, Rowan W. (2007) Rethinking the Context of Production through an Archaeological Study of Ancient Salt Production in the Sichuan Basin, China. In Rethinking Craft Specialization in Complex Societies: Archaeological Analyses of the Social Meaning of Production, edited by Z.X. Hruby and R.K. Flad, pp. 108-128. Berkeley : American Anthropological Association and the University of California Press.

    Flad, Rowan, X. Wu, L. von Falkenhausen, S. Li, Z. Sun and P. Chen. (2009) Radiocarbon dates and technological change in salt production at the site of Zhongba in the Three Gorges, China. Asian Perspectives, 48(1): 149-182.

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    Hendrickson, Mitch. (2007) Arteries of Empire. An operation study of transport and communication in Angkorian Southeast Asia (9th to 15th centuries CE). PhD. Dissertation, University of Sydney, Australia.

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    Higham, C. F. W and A. Kijngam, editors. (2012) The Origins of the Civilization of Angkor, Volume 5: The Excavation of Ban Non Wat. Part 3: The Bronze Age. Bangkok : The Fine Arts Department.

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    Higham, C. F.W., A. Kijngam, and S. Talbot, editors. (2007) The Origins of the Civilization of Angkor, Volume 2: Excavation of Non U-Loke and Non Muang Kao Wat. Bangkok : The Fine Arts Department.

    Higham, C. F. W. and Thosarat, R., editors. (2005) The Origins of the Civilization of Angkor, Volume 1: The Excavation of Ban Lum Khao. Bangkok : The Fine Arts Department.

    Kondo, Yoshiro. (1975) The Ancient Salt Industry in Japan. In Salt: The Study of an Ancient Industry, edited by K. W. deBrisay and K. A. Evans, pp. 61-65. England : Colchester Archaeological Group.

    MacKinnon, J. Jefferson and Susan M. Kepecs. (1989) Prehispanic Salt Making in Belize: New Evidence. American Antiquity, 54(3): 522-533.

    McKillop, Heather. (2002) Salt: White Gold of the Ancient Maya. Gainsville: University Press of Florida.

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    Pandav, C. S., N. K. Arora, L. Pocatello-Rossi, M. G. Karmarkar, and B. S. Hazel. (1997) Report coordinated by The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency

    Disorders and UNICEF, Thailand.Rivett, P. and C. F. W. Higham. (2007) The Archaeology of Salt Production.

    In The Excavation of Noen U-Loke and Non Muang Kao, edited by C.F.W. Higham, A. Kijngam and S. Talbot, pp. 589-609. Bangkok : The Fine Arts Department of Thailand.

    Welch, D. J. (1998) Archaeology of Northeast Thailand in Relation to the Pre-Khmer and Khmer Historical Record. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 2: 205-233.

    Yankowski, A. (2010) Traditional Technologies and Ancient Commodities: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Salt Manufacturing and Pottery Production in Bohol, Central Philippines. In Salt Archaeology in Chiana volume 2: Comparative Perspectives, edited by Shuicheng Li and Lothar von Falkenhausen, editors. Beijing : Kexue chubanshe (Science Press).

    Yankowski, A. (2008) Salt and Salt Pots: A study of premodern salt production in Southeast Asia. Paper presented at the 4th Worldwide Conference of the Society for East Asian Archaeology, June 2-5, 2008, Beijing.

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    Book ReviewThai Capitalism and Political Economy Post 1997 Crisis

    Reviewed by William J. Jones

    Social Science Division, Mahidol University International CollegeCorresponding author: william.jon@mahidol.ac.th

    Thailands CrisisPasuk Phongpaichit and Chris BakerChiang Mai, Silkworm Books, 2000, 283 pages.

    The Thaksinization of ThailandDuncan McCargo and Ukrist PathmanandNIAS Press, 2005, 286 pages.

    Thai Capital After the 1997 CrisisPasuk Phongpaichit and Chris Baker (eds.)Chiang Mai, Silkworm Books, 2008, 326 pages.

    Thaksin 2nd EditionPasuk Phongpaichit and Chris BakerChiang Mai, Silkworm Books, 2009, 424 pages. Scholarly analysis concerning the 1997 Asian economic crisis and associated fallout is volumous but can be generally classed into three distinct strains; neoliberal (Krugman 1998, Rubin 1998), Marxist (Bello 1999, Glassman 2001, Hewison 2000) and neoclassical (Ammar and Orapin 1998) perspectives. Each perspective offers readers a theoretical framework and narrative imbued with the authors training, perspectives and biases. These four volumes are indicative of the various authors training in economics, history, political economy and development economics and

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    attempt to track the political and social changes of Thailand in the aftermath of the 1997 economic crisis. While the reasons for the rise and crash of the Thai economy are still debated over a decade after the events, the fallout effects are generally indisputable. The Thai economic crisis without doubt spurred massive economic dislocation, social upheaval, financial destruction,

    resurgent nationalist consciousness and stimulated Thaksin Shinawatras political ascendency which is still being felt today. Put together these volumes provide a perceptive glance into the nature of Thailands political economy from both macro and micro perspectives giving readers insight into the highly contested spheres of economy and politics in Thailand in the post economic crisis period. It is the economic and political impacts of the 1997 crisis which will be highlighted in this review. In particular the social upheaval which displaced a rural migratory population that led to the discrediting of the Democrat Party, subsequent rise of Thaksin Shinawatra and economic displacements associated with the crisis of Thai Capitalism. In particular how the crisis created losers and winners in a dramatic example of Joseph Schumpeters axiom where he defined capitalism as creative destruction.

    The strength of these books lay in the divergent approaches undertaken and styles in which each of the authors present their arguments. All volumes are easily accessible to scholars as well as readers who are generally interested in Thai political economy. The historical narrative approach taken by Phongpaichit and Baker in their books lends itself to a highly readable historian/journalistic style of Baker which intermixes with hard factual basis derived from Phongpaichits training as an economist. McCargo and Pathmanand allow readers an accessible reading which does not compromise academic integrity. In The Thaksinization of Thailand the authors track the business dealings of former Prime Minister Thaksin from prior to the crisis, thru the crisis and up to his pinnacle just prior to being displaced via the 2006 coup. There argument centers on his foray from the civil service as a police captain and into high stakes Bangkok business. They find that throughout his

    career political connections were essential to his success, especially during

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    the period where he secured his telecom license and just prior to the Bahts float whereby he hedged his dollar denominated loans and put himself in

    an advantageous position against industry competitors. In fact the nature of personal politics and which stretched from the civil bureaucracy to security forces were essential in not only his rise, reaching the pinnacle of power and securing his business and political empire. In Thailands Crisis the authors treat the economic crisis and the state of the Thai economy as a dynamic phenomenon which occurred in a static framework of a unitary nation-state analyzing macro-economic statistics. They focus on the economic factors leading to Thailands economic boom period from the mid-1980s up to economic stagnation in mid-1990s whereby the real Thai economy dislocated itself from the financial and

    speculative economy. The authors move towards a contextual understanding of why the crisis took place by delving into a political economy analysis and then moving towards the social and political impacts. In Thai Capital After the 1997 Crisis a highly nuanced perspective is deployed by utilizing case studies which provide the reader with a detailed and highly insightful glance into the nature of the Thai economy, giving readers the opportunity to understand the Thai economy not as a unitary static nation-state but rather an aggregate of competing and colluding forces often of a sectoral, industrial conglomerate persuasion and many times of a familial nature. Taken together these volumes present an interesting and compelling view of post-crisis Thailand, in particular by allowing for a retrospective view of what Thailands political economy was and how much it has either changed or remained static. In Thaksin Phongpaichit and Baker draw on their previous work Thaksin: The Business of Politics in Thailand and provide additional chapters which highlight the fall of Thaksin and color coded street battles up to the first red shirt protest of 2009 during the Songkran holidays. The

    strength of this 2nd edition is in the authors ability to provide a historically centered biographical sketch of the former Prime Minister and how he leveraged political connections throughout his civil service career into building not only an enormously profitable monopolistic business empire but

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    extended this via acute political acumen into the political realm to become a hegemonic power not seen prior. Phongpaichit and Baker do a commendable job at trying to make sense out of the chaotic period of politics during the post coup period by chronologically placing events, actors, institutions and a multiplicity of arguments into a coherent framework that is easily accessible to readers who have a general interest Thai politics and the effects which politics have on the Thai economy and vise versa (see Jones 2012 for more in depth review). Sixteen authors are brought together in Thai Capital After the 1997 Crisis with an underlying theme of how domestic capital has been displaced, transformed and reconfigured in the decade since the economic crisis. The

    editors were able to bring together scholars which analyze the fallout effects on local/provincial level political families, industrial sectors, major Thai corporations and larger views towards rent-seeking behavior. Porphant Ouyyannonts analysis of the Crown Property Bureaus role in the formulation and practice of Thai capitalism is far overdue and severely understudied. Due to the nature of secrecy and deference associated with this institution there is a deficit of knowledge concerning the business

    practices and rationales connected to this major Thai holding company. Only recently has the CPB begun to release data concerning its holdings and to many peoples surprise in 2008, Thailands monarch was ranked as the richest in the world. Ouyyannont finds the crisis made the CPB reorganize

    and rationalize business operations in order to survive. The unique role and relation of the CPB and its investment strategy is shown to be one of a dualistic nature that provides discount public goods while exercising profit

    motivations. The opaque nature of the CPB and its special status within the greater Thai political and business environment is given distinct mention with reference to its legal standing and intangible power due to its standing as an investment vehicle of the Monarchy. Nualnoi Treerats study of Mr. Charoen and Thai Beverage is highly prescient as it highlights the dual role of informal/personalized politics intermingling with the corporate sector and these come together to foster social recognition, deference, awe and social capital. Nualnoi distinctly

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    shows how political connections combined with business acumen allowed Charoen to benefit and expand his business during the crisis and emerge from

    the ruins of the Thai economy in an advantageous and privileged position. Original research of local politics in Rayong was undertaken by Chaiyon Praditsit and Olarn Thinbangtieo which demonstrates the nature of economic change along Thailands Eastern seaboard and fashion in which three dominant political clans have competed for political influence in

    local, provincial and national politics in order to secure their local business interests. Viengrat Netipho takes the same case study position and illustrates how business, politics and immigrant Chinese have come to dominate the political scene in the northern city of Chiang Mai. Individual economic sectors of the automobile, services and telecommunications are analyzed within the framework of crisis politics. The telecommunications sectoral analysis undertaken by Pathmanand and Baker is of particular importance as this directly relates to Thailands current political situation and former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatras rise and use of political connections and power to enrich and protect his business empire from liberalization, regulation and ultimately by being able to set the rules of the game to favor his own personal interests.

    The automobile sector analyzed by Sakkarin Niyomsilpa shows the dramatic change associated with this vital sector of the Thai economy. Sakkarin demonstrates how the crisis damaged domestic entrepreneurs positions and flung open the door for foreign capital and ownership to fully

    engulf Thailands automobile industry. Veerayooth Kanchoochat undertakes a comparative study of the retail and hypermarket industry to show how the crisis allowed for full foreign penetration in this sector which has had dramatic social and cultural effects within Thailands consumer behavior as well as logistics infrastructure. The crisis is shown to have set an agenda within the Thai government at the time that saw foreign investment as essential and due to the lack of a strong regulatory environment foreign retail giants were able to penetrate the Thai market and continue to expand their operations.

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    Thanee Chaiwat and Pasuk Phongpaichit demonstrate the changing nature of Thai political economy in their examination of the changing dynamics of rents and rent seeking behavior under the premiership of ex Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Their study sheds light on the role which the former PM played in delegating political rents within economic circles while changing the entire nature of how political power is deployed in the post 1997 constitution era.

    In retrospect the foreboding and dire predictions of Thailand being sold off to opportunistic foreigners and collapse of Thai domestic capital and industry was a product of the extreme times, instability and attendant fear that closed the end of the last millennium in Thailand (Ramstetter 2004). Recitation and recalibration of the Thai economy was well on its way by the early 2000s under the first Thaksin administration which introduced a

    broad policy platform to indirectly alleviate rural poverty and agricultural troubles such as commodity price stabilization, debt relief, universal health care and marketing support (Montesano 2002, Rado 2008, Warr 2005), a reorientation and expansion of export led growth via trade liberalization and FTA accessions (Chirathivat, & Mallikamas 2004, Mutebi 2003, 2004, Nagai 2002, Sally 2007, Thanapan 2007, Pholphirul 2010, Vincent 2007), industrial structural support and reform (Lauridsen, 2009, Intarakumnerd 2011), urbanized spatial growth and decentralization in centers with public sectors inputs to stimulate economic growth and activity (Glassman 2007, Webster 2005) and support for SMEs and in particular protection for large-scale domestic business (Baker 2005, McCargo and Pathmanand 2005, Phongpaichit and Baker 2009). Realities of the post-crisis Thai economy have been intertwined with Thailands turbulent political winds and inextricably linked to policies implemented by former Prime Minister Thaksin. In terms of broad contours and macroeconomic stability scholarly commentary centers on the neoliberal vs. populist debate concerning the supposed Thaksin allied new elite and traditional old elite. Generally, this debate is innocuous and misplaced as the differences between Democrat led neoliberals and Thaksinite reformers is simply a matter of degrees (Phongpaichit and Baker 2008, 2009) and detracts from hard-hitting debates of where Thai income/

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    wealth/asset inequality emerge from and the resultant social conflict which

    may very well be born out of such disequilibrium (Phongpaichit 2009). The overt nature of socio-economic inequality and its attendant political effects is best exemplified by focusing on metropolitan Bangkok and the

    ostentatious nature of wealth flaunting but provincial Thailand offers a

    multiplicity of microcosms and a more open reflection of the other side

    of the Thai economy. Most studies of the Thai economy focus on the macro environment and

    general status of the whole Thai economy (Siriprachai 2009, Pholphirul 2009) or are centered towards the under belly and grey economy (Phongpaichit et. al. 1998). Only recently have Thai studies scholars began to combine meta, meso and micro level interactions of politico-economic actors and their effects on the local to national level political space (McCargo and Pathmanand 2005, Nishizaki 2011, Ouyyanont 2007, Pathmanand 1998, Shatkin 2004). What these volumes illuminate for readers is the highly nuanced dimensions of economic relationships and the delicate intertwining of familial, corporate, individual and group level phenomena which characterizes Thailands murky economic and political relations. From a macro perspective the Thai economy and its political system appear to mirror, at least in form, western liberal systems. But lying directly underneath the macro statistics and parliamentary politics one encounters a myriad of Thai socio-cultural relations and an economic history that is hardly either liberal or western in orientation. The role of corporate concerns is highly pronounced in the Thai economy and upon greater reflection one is struck by the disproportionate role that

    traditional kong sri or modern corporate versions of the family business incorporated plays. In essence the greatest Thai conglomerates which drive domestic finance, capital, exports, imports, manufacturing, tourism, retail

    and influence disproportionately the Thai stock market and political arena

    are despite securitization, family enterprises. Some of the highest profile of

    these are Central Group, Chareon Pokphand, Manager Group, Thai Summit, Bangkok Bank, Thai Farmers Bank, Bank of Ayutthaya, Siam Commercial Bank, Siam Cement Group, TPI Petrochemicals, Advanced Information Service (until it was sold to Temasek), Land & House Group are only a

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    fraction of the numerous other large family combines. Thai Capital After the 1997 Crisis allows readers a glimpse into the nature of large-scale conglomerates and how they survive and are indeed dependent on political connections to secure their profits and privileged positions. The authors

    also provide crucial insight into provincial political elites and the displacing effects which the crisis had on their operations in terms of creating an absolute imperative to enter and control a decentralizing political structure and how politics helps secure families economic positions.

    The crisis itself dislocated many Thai entrepreneurs and opened the Thai economy significantly to foreign capital penetration but it also

    stimulated consolidation and strengthening of domestic businesses which survived. The biggest winners to emerge from the ruins of the Thai economy were inherently those which allied and attached their businesses to politicians and eventually under the premiership of Thaksin, to the state itself. In fact, the crisis itself stimulated awareness among domestic business elites that in order to stabilize their businesses and provide protection from the forces of globalization a dramatic direct takeover of state power and resources was needed. If anything the economic crisis served to aggravate inequalities by the policy prescriptions imposed and consented to by the Democrat led government, the cost of which disproportionately fell upon the poor, rural and middle class.

    The economic and constitutional events of 1997 served as point of understanding whereby political and business interests of varying character have found common ground in the need for support of domestic capital and had to enter a steep learning curve in order to survive. At best the 2006 coup and deeply conservative forces which pushed themselves back to the fore served to completely alienate Thailands conservative elites from the larger rural population and has created a worrying sense of disillusionment among the urban middle class. The coup and its aftermath has deeply divided Thai political society in general and created an environment ripe for violent confrontation by attempts to turn back the clock to a bygone era and recreate the fractured parliamentary politics of the pre-Thaksin period, roll back the power of provincial elites by cooptation and curtail the emerging

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    consciousness of a hitherto disempowered rural and poor majority. These texts put forth a clear understanding that Thailands participation in the global economy when combined with money politics derived from increased wealth and a proclivity for opportunism by businessmen and politicians seeking to utilize the power of the Thai state for their personal ends can lead to phenomenal profits, social acceptance and conflict. When understood

    in tandem the nature of high stakes business and politics in Thailand tend to feed off one another in various forms of symbiotic relations and are far more integrated than meets the eye when simply taken at a glance.

    With the economic crisis fast fading in the collective memory of those who experienced it, an emerging generation not familiar with the hardships endured during 1997-2000, economic recession in the west, large and sustained socio-political conflict and monarchial succession looming

    the lessons learned from that turbulent period may very well resurface once again. Tough decisions requiring political strength and capital are going to be required in the near future with the ASEAN Economic Community coming online, rising wages, high inflation and economic stagnation in

    traditional dominant export countries for the Thai economy and a rising political consciousness among the rural electorate for benefits of the state

    budget and government policy. Whether or not current political leaders can make these hard decisions without dragging Thailand and its people through another crisis or economy and/or politics remains to be seen. But the festering underbelly of rampant industrialization and highly disproportionate distribution of wealth appears to be a problem that will not go away and is increasingly being addressed in various forms of political side payments. Whether this practice can continue and fill the expectations/credibility gap

    without resort to violence and crisis politics also remains to be seen. Either way one can be assured that when these issues are to be addressed, regards of whether its economic or political issues the other will be impacted in a very strong fashion.

  • Book Review

    262

    William J. Jones

    ReferencesBaker, C. (2005) Pluto-populism: Thaksin and Popular Politics in Warr, Peter

    (ed.). Thailand Beyond the Crisis. New York : Routledge.Chirathivat, S. and Sothitorn, M. (2004) Thailands FTA Strategy Current

    Development and Future Challenges. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 21(1): 37-53.

    Glassman, J. (2007) Recovering from Crisis: The Case of Thailands Spatial Fix, Economic Geography, 83(4): 349-370.

    Intarakumnerd, P. (2011) Thaksins Legacy: Thaksinomics and Its Impact on Thailands National Innovation System and Industrial Upgrading. International Journal of Institutions and Economies, 3(1): 31-60.

    Jones, W. J. (2012) Review of Thaksin 2nd edition. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 42(2): 328-331.

    Lauridsen, L. S. (2009) The Policies and Politics of Industrial Upgrading in Thailand During the Thaksin Era (2001-2006). Asian Politics and Policy, 1(3): 409-434.

    McCargo, D. and Ukrist, P. (2005) The Thaksinization of Thailand. Copenhagen : NIAS.

    Montesano, M. J. (2002) Thailand in 2001: Learning to Live with Thaksin?. Asian Survey, 42(1): 90-99.

    Mutebi, A. M. (2003) Thailand in 2002: Political Consolidation amid Economic Uncertainties. Asian Survey, 43(1): 101-112.

    Mutebi, A. M. (2004). Thailand in 2003: Riding High Again. Asian Survey, 44(1): 78-86.

    Nagai, F. (2002) Thailands Trade Policy: WTO Plus FTA?, Institute of Developing Economies APEC Study Center Working Paper 01/02 No. 6. JETRO.

    Nishizaki, Y. (2011) Political Authority and Provincial Identity in Thailand: The Making of Banharn-buri. Ithica : Cornell UP.

    Ouyyanont, P. (2008) The Crown Property Bureau in Thailand and the Crisis of 1997. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 38(1): 166-189.

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    Pathmanand, U. (1998) The Thaksin Shinawatra Group: A Study of the Relationship between Money and Politics in Thailand. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 13: 60-81.

    Pholphirul, P. (2009) Macro Volatility and Financial Crisis in Thailand Some Historical Evidence. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 26(3): 278-292.

    Pholphirul, P. (2010) Does AFTA Create More Trade for Thailand? An Investigation of Some Key Trade Indicators. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 29(1): 51-78.

    Phongpaichit, P. (2009) Towards an Acceptable Fair Society, Keynote Speech Delivered at King Prajadhipok Institute Congress XI November 5-7, Bangkok.

    Phongpaichit, P. and Baker, C. (2008) Thaksins Populism. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 38(1): 62-83.

    Phongpaichit, P. and Baker, C. (2009) Thaksin, 2nd Edition. Chiang Mai : Silkworm.

    Phongpaichit P., Piriyarangsan, S., and Treerat, N. (1998) Guns, Girls, Gambling, Ganja: Thailands Illegal Economy and Public Policy. Chiang Mai : Silkworm.

    Rado, I. (2008). Thaksinomics in Light of the Heterodox View on Economic Development. Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia, 7(1): 19-37.

    Ramstetter, E. D. (2004) Labor productivity, Wages, Nationality, and Foreign Ownership Shares in Thai Manufacturing, 1996-2000. Journal of Asian Economics, 14(6): 861-884.

    Sally, R. (2007) Thai Trade Policy From Non-discriminatory Liberalisation to FTAs, The World Economy, 30(10): 1594-1620.

    Shatkin, G. (2004) Globalization and Local Leadership: Growth, Power and Politics in Thailands Eastern Seaboard, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1): 11-26.

    Siriprachaim, S. (2009) The Thai Economy: Structural Changes and Challenges Ahead, Thammasat Economic Journal, 27(1): 148-229.

    Thanapan, R. (2007) Trade Policy Review of Thailand Thai Government Reports, 1995-2007. WTO Watch Report, #17.

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    William J. Jones

    Vincent, A. (June 2007) Political Uncertainties Still Weighing on Thailand. Conjoncture.

    Warr, P. (2005) Boom, Bust and Beyond. In Thailand Beyond the Crisis, edited by Peter Warr. New York : Routledge.

    Webster, D. (2005) Urbanization: New Drivers, New Outcomes. In Thailand Beyond the Crisis, edited by Peter Warr. New York : Routledge.

  • Instructions to Authors(Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences,

    Humanities, and Arts)

    Aims and ScopeSilpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts is an international journal aiming to promote and distribute knowledge in the areas of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities.

    Types of contributions1. Research articles2. Review articles3. Short communications4. Case studies

    Preparation of manuscripts1. The text should be double-spaced on A4 and a font Times New Roman size 11 should be used. When using MS Word, insert all symbols by selecting Insert-Symbol from the menu and use the Symbol font.2. Manuscripts should be organized in the following order: Cover page with title and authors names and affiliations

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    Examples:BookCohenn, A. D. (1998) Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. London: Longman.

    Journal articleHerron, C. A. and Seay, I. (1991) The Effect of Authentic Aural Texts on Student Listening Comprehension in the Foreign Language Classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 24(6): 487-495.

  • Ariticle in pressHammerschlag, F. A., Bauchan, G., and Scorza, R. Regeneration of Peach Plants from Callus Derived from Immature Embryos. Journal of Natural Products (in press).

    Book chapterCornell, Sarah. (1990) Helene Cixous and Les Etudes Feminines. In The Body and the Texts Helene Cixous, Reading and Teaching (Helen Wilcox et al., eds), pp. 31-40. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

    On-line Conference articleLaviosa, F. (1991) An Investigation of the Listhening Strategies of Advanced Learners of Italian as a Second Language. Paper Presented at the Conference on Bridsing Theory and Practice in the Foreign Language Classroom, Baltimore, MD. October 18-20. Retrived on July 27, 2001, ERIC database ED 345553.

    On-line Journal articleLee, K. (1999) Appraising Adaptaive Management. Conservation Ecology 3(2). [Online URL: www.consecolo.org/Journal/vol3/iss2/index.html] accessed on April 13, 2001.

    PatentYoshikawa, T. and Kawai, M. (2006) Security Robot. U.S. Patent No. 2006079998

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  • Volume 13 N

    umber 1 (January-June) 2013

    Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    www.surdi.su.ac.th, www.journal.su.ac.th,www.tci-thaijo.org /index.php/sujsha/index

    Silpakorn UniversityJournal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

    Volume 13 Number 1 (January-June) 2013

    A Curriculum Development Utilizing TPACK as Content Framework to Enhance Digital

    Courseware Production Competency for Teachers

    Santhawee Niyomsap, Sumlee Thongthew and Sugree Rodpothong

    ISSN 1513-4717

    Research for Development and Changing in Cultural Tourism toward Creative Economy through

    Participation Process of Sustainable Network Alliances in Ratchaburi Province

    Narin Sangragsa and Somchai Lukhananuluk

    Corporate Governance and Company Survival

    Surachai Chancharat and Nongnit Chancharat

    Does Social Capital Work in Thai Politics?

    Wanlapat Suksawas and Peter Mayer

    The Cave of Healing: The Physical /Spiritual Detoxi cation and The Distinctive Healing

    Program for Drug Rehabilitation at Thamkrabok Monastery, Thailand

    Pataraporn Sangkapreecha and Taweesak Sangkapreecha

    Teaching Foreign Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Kesinee Chaisri

    The Use of the Hybridity Theory and the Third Space Concept to Develop a Teaching

    Identities Enhancement Program for Student Teachers

    Chuleeporn Phompun, Sumlee Thongthew and Kenneth M. Zeichner

    An Analysis of Cultural Substitution in English to Thai Translation

    Patcharee Pokasamrit

    Salt-making in Northeast Thailand An Ethnoarchaeological Study in Tambon Phan

    Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima Province, Northeast Thailand

    Andrea Yankowski and Puangthip Kerdsap

    Book Review

    William J. Jones

    A Comparative Study of the Tourism Industry Development of Suratthani and Nakhonsrithammarat

    Province in a View of Develop the Innovative of Communications to Promote Tourism

    Archarin Pansuk

    Scenario of Exercise, Fundamental Sports and Mass Sports in Thailand

    Pot Chaisena

    Impression and Satisfaction of Color Perception of Painting Art Figures Utilizing Sound Pitches

    Through Touch-Screen Device for The Congenital Totally Blind

    Sanchai Santiwes

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