jasmin refaat bushra

Download Jasmin refaat bushra

Post on 06-May-2015

4.676 views

Category:

Business

6 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Communication Skills

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1.Doc 9835 AN/453Manual on theImplementation of ICAOLanguage ProficiencyRequirements Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority Second Edition 2010 International Civil Aviation Organization

2. Doc 9835 AN/453Manual on theImplementation of ICAOLanguage ProficiencyRequirements________________________________ Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority Second Edition 2010 International Civil Aviation Organization 3. Published in separate English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russianand Spanish editions by theINTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION999 University Street, Montral, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agentsand booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.intDoc 9835, Manual on the Implementation of ICAOLanguage Proficiency RequirementsOrder Number: 9835ISBN 978-92-9231-549-8 ICAO 2010All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without priorpermission in writing from the International Civil Aviation Organization. 4. AMENDMENTSAmendments are announced in the supplements to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications; the Catalogue and itssupplements are available on the ICAO website at www.icao.int. The space below is provided to keep a record of suchamendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDAAMENDMENTS CORRIGENDANo.Date Entered byNo.Date Entered by(iii) 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSPageForeword ............................................................................................................................................................ (vii)Glossary of Language Proficiency and Language Testing Terms ...................................................................(ix)Acronyms and Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................. (xii)Publications .......................................................................................................................................................... (xiii)Chapter 1. The Safety Case for Introducing International Aviation LanguageProficiency Requirements ................................................................................................................................... 1-11.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................1-11.2 Background to strengthened ICAO language proficiency requirements .............................................. 1-11.3 Review of provisions prior to adoption of amendments containinglanguage proficiency requirements ...................................................................................................... 1-21.4 Action taken by ICAO ..........................................................................................................................1-3Chapter 2.General Introduction to Language Proficiency and Language Acquisition ...............................2-12.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................2-12.2 Communication ...................................................................................................................................2-12.3 Language proficiency ..........................................................................................................................2-12.4 Language user status and levels of proficiency ................................................................................... 2-42.5 The case of English as a lingua franca ................................................................................................2-62.6 Acquiring language proficiency ............................................................................................................2-7Chapter 3.Aeronautical Radiotelephony Communications ..........................................................................3-13.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................3-13.2 General language and special purpose language ...............................................................................3-13.3 General features of the language of aeronautical radiotelephony communications ............................3-23.4 Specific features of the language of aeronautical radiotelephony communications .............................3-7Chapter 4. ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) ConcerningLanguage Proficiency Requirements .................................................................................................................4-14.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................4-14.2 Overview of ICAO language proficiency SARPS .................................................................................4-14.3 Annex 10 SARPs related to language use ..........................................................................................4-24.4 Annex 1 SARPs related to language proficiency .................................................................................4-34.5 Annex 1 Descriptors of the ICAO language proficiency requirements .................................................4-54.6 Explanation of Rating Scale descriptors (level 3 and above)............................................................... 4-94.7 Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444) .............4-14 (v) 6. Manual on the Implementation of(vi) ICAO Language Proficiency RequirementsChapter 5. Implementation ...............................................................................................................................5-1 5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 5-1 5.2 Guidelines for the development of a language proficiency implementation plan .................................5-1 5.3 Operational implementation .................................................................................................................5-4Chapter 6. Language Testing Criteria for Global Harmonization .................................................................. 6-1 6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 6-1 6.2 Background .........................................................................................................................................6-2 6.3 Recommended criteria for aviation language testing ...........................................................................6-8Chapter 7. Language Proficiency Training ......................................................................................................7-1 7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 7-1 7.2 Overview .............................................................................................................................................7-1 7.3 Common misconceptions about language learning and language training.......................................... 7-2 7.4 Training course content: General and aviation-specific language training........................................... 7-3 7.5 Content-based language training ........................................................................................................7-5 7.6 Training course delivery ...................................................................................................................... 7-6 7.7 Training trainers ..................................................................................................................................7-7 7.8 Expected learner progress ..................................................................................................................7-7 7.9 Training programme best practices ..................................................................................................... 7-9Appendix A. ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) ......................................................... A-1Appendix B. Language of Aeronautical Radiotelephony Communications ................................................. B-1Appendix C. Checklist for Aviation Language Testing .................................................................................. C-1Appendix D. Aviation Language Qualifications ..............................................................................................D-1Appendix E. Modern Language Training Methods Historical Background.............................................. E-1Appendix F. Additional Resources ..................................................................................................................F-1 ______________________ 7. FOREWORDSafety experts are constantly seeking to identify means of improving safety in order to reduce the already low accidentrates. With mechanical failures featuring less prominently in aircraft accidents, more attention has been focused inrecent years on human factors that contribute to accidents. Communication is one human element that is receivingrenewed attention.In 1998, the ICAO Assembly, taking note of several accidents and incidents where the language proficiency of pilots and airtraffic controllers were causal or contributory factors, formulated Assembly Resolution A32-16 in which the ICAO Councilwas urged to direct the Air Navigation Commission to co