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  • Parliamentary Research Digest J U L Y , 2 0 1 6 V O L U M E 3 , I S S U E 0 7 I N SI DE THI S

    I SSU E:

    Editorial Hope this finds our readers in best of spirits. The PIPS Parliamentary Research Digest July 2016 issue has discussed imperative topics such as population, integrative legisla-tive model, forest policy . We are confident that the digest assists honorable MPs to develop insights regarding key current issues at hand and help them seek solutions and make informed decisions. For any specific areas of importance that you want PIPS to send you research or brief-ing papers, dont hesitate to contact us at research@pips.gov.pk. Profound Regards and happy reading.

    Muhammad Rashid Mafzool Zaka

    Director (Research and I.T)

    ANALYSIS

    National Forest

    Policy 2015:

    An Appraisal

    Page 01

    OPINION

    Engaging Civil Soci-

    ety for a Construc-

    tive Dialogue on

    Population and

    Fundamental Rights

    Page 09

    CONCEPT &

    OPINION

    Integrated/Hybrid

    Model of Legislative

    Drafting: Impact of

    Policy Research on

    Legislative Drafting

    Page 14

    ANALYSIS

    Pakistan: Friend or

    Foe in the Fight

    against Terrorism?

    Page 19

    Editorial Board

    Editor: Muhammad

    Rashid Mafzool

    Zaka

    Sub Editor: Ms.

    Tehseen Khalid

    Members:

    M.Rizwan Manzoor

    Ms.Fakiha

    Mehmood

    ISSN# 2414-8040

    mailto:research@pips.gov.pk

  • Father of the Nation, Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said:

    Duty of the Government:

    You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a government is to maintain law and

    order, so that the life, property, and religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the

    State.

    if we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly

    and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the

    poor.

    Address, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Karachi, 11 August 1947

  • Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services 2016

    PIPS Parliamentary Research Digest- Volume: 3, Issue: 7 Page 1

    ANALYSIS

    National Forest Policy 2015: An Appraisal

    Fakiha Mahmood

    (Research Officer, PIPS)

    Sustainable forest management makes an important component in the international efforts to

    tackle the threat posed by climate change. Owing to their capacity for curbing carbon dioxide

    level in the atmosphere, forests play important an role in reducing climate change. Conversely,

    they get affected by the adverse impacts of the climate change once it brings about unexpected

    variations in climatic conditions. From ecological point of view, forests are important in land

    conservation, regulation of flow of water, reduction of sedimentation in water channels and

    reservoirs, and providing shelter to biodiversity. At national level, forests contribute to the

    economy by providing timber for construction and furniture, living space and food, fuelwood

    for energy. Also they provide income as well as recreation opportunities to families and

    individuals. All this necessitates the formulation and implementation of an overarching legal and

    institutional framework for the utilization of such an important natural resource. The draft

    National Policy 2015 is an effort in this direction.

    The World Bank definition considers forest area to be land under natural or planted stands of at

    least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural

    production systems and trees in urban parks and gardens.1According to Food and Agriculture

    Organization of the United Nations guide national forest policy is:

    considered to be negotiated agreement between government and stakeholders

    (i.e. all those who depend on or benefit from forests or who decide on, control or

    regulate access to these resources) on the orientations and principles of actions they

    adopt, in harmony with national socioeconomic and environmental policies, to guide

    and determine decisions on the sustainable use and conservation of forest and tree

    resources for the benefit of society.

    In an ideal situation, forest policy is a bond between all the major stakeholders in the area of

    forestry adopted by the government. Hence the selection of stakeholders has direct bearing for

    the policy. In other words, determining who is a stakeholder in the whole process remains highly

    important. Furthermore, although officially espoused by the government, national forest policy

    needs to be in line with:

    The broader aims of society

    National development or economic and poverty strategy

    Policies issued by other departments including environment, climate change, agriculture,

    industry and trade

    Countrys unique history, culture, resources and aspirations

    1 The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS, (accessed May 5, 2016).

  • Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services 2016

    PIPS Parliamentary Research Digest- Volume: 3, Issue: 7 Page 2

    Countrys forest related international commitments2

    Situation Analysis

    With only 5.3 % of the total land area covered with forests, Pakistan is among those countries

    with significantly low forest cover area.3 Within this 5.3% land area, almost 80% actually has tree

    cover while the rest is denuded. 4 Also there is great disparity in the country in terms of their

    distribution across the provinces as well as the type of the forests. Most of the forests

    concentrations are found in the northern parts of the country with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa owning

    40%, Northern Areas 15.7% and Azad Jammu & Kashmir 6.5%. Whereas, the share of forests in

    Balochistan is 14%, Punjab 14.4%, and Sindh 9.4%.5 Most of the Natural coniferous forests are

    located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Northern Areas, and Northern Punjab.6 And Balochistan hosts

    the worlds second largest Juniper forest resources.7

    However, it should be recognized that the primary reason for low forest cover in Pakistan is that

    70-80% of land in Pakistan lies in arid or semi-arid zones, due to low precipitation tree growth is

    weak is these areas.8 The weather or climatic characteristics prove to be detrimental even for

    those saplings planted with the intention to increase the forest cover area. Apart from the

    environmental conditions, massive deforestation and the lack of the concerned agencies to

    control the situation has significantly reduced the forest cover area in the country. The estimates

    show that the rate of deforestation was 2.1 percent or 47,000 hectares for the period 1990-2005.9

    Any effort at preserving the natural habitat existing in the form of forest cannot ignore the

    various benefits forests provide to the local community as well as the economy in general.

    Hence, the demand side of the forests should well be taken into consideration before looking at

    the forest policy. The ratio between the domestic demand for wood and annual increase of

    forests presents a dismal picture as the demand is three times higher, than that of the annual

    increase. Forests and the related small industries are a source of income for about 500 000

    2 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Developing effective forest policy: a guide,

    http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1679e/i1679e00.pdf, (accessed April 28, 2016). 3 Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Annual Plan 2014-15.

    4 Government of Pakistan, Planning Commission, Task Force on Climate Change: Final Report, (February

    2010), http://www.mocc.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L21vY2xjL3VzZXJmaWxlczEvZmlsZS9NT0MvUHVibGljYXRpb25zJTIwb24lMjBFbnYlMjBhbmQlMjBDQy9jbGltYXRlJTIwY2hhbmdlL1RGQ0MlMjBGaW5hbCUyMFJlcG9ydCUyMDE5JTIwRmViJTIwMjAxMC5wZGY%3D, (accessed April 20, 2016), 26. 5 Lubna Hassan, An anatomy of state failures in forest management in Pakistan, The Pakistan Development

    Review 46:4 Part-II (2007), 1190. 6 Javed Ahmed & Fawad Mahmood, Changing perspectives on forest policy, IUCN Pakistan and International

    Institute for Environment and Development, (1998), http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/7533IIED.pdf, (accessed May 2, 2016), 1. 7 WWF Pakistan, Juniper Forests Ziarat, http://www.wwfpak.org/ecoregions/JuniperForests.php, (accessed

    May 12, 2016). 8 Forest and Biodiversity information/data,

    http://www.undp.org/content/dam/pakistan/docs/Environment%20&%20Climate%20Change/UNDP-PK-ECC-Forests%20and%20Biodiversity.pdf, (accessed April 27, 2016). 9 Ministry of Climate Change, Government of Pakistan and United Nations Environment Program, The

    Environment and Climate Change Outlook of Pakistan, http://www.mocc.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L21vY2xjL3VzZXJmaWxlczEvZmlsZS9FQ0NPL2V4ZWN0aXYtc3VtZXJ5LnBkZg%3D%3D, (accessed May 11, 2016), 3.

  • Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services 2016

    PIPS Parliamentary Research Digest- Volume: 3, Issue: 7 Page 3

    people. They provide fodder for 90 million entities of livestock. 10 Forests are an important

    source of medicinal plants and non-timber forest products. All this generates huge pressure on

    the quickly disappearing forests.

    Legal types of forests in Pakista

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