islam the faith. 1. what is this & what does it mean?

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  • Slide 1
  • ISLAM The Faith
  • Slide 2
  • 1. WHAT IS THIS & WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
  • Slide 3
  • 2. WHAT IS THIS & WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
  • Slide 4
  • 3. WHAT IS THIS AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
  • Slide 5
  • ANSWERS 1. A cross, a symbol of Christianity and of Jesuss crucifixion. 2. A Star of David, a symbol of Judaism and of the Jewish people. 3. Allah, the word God written in Arabic and a symbol of Islam.
  • Slide 6
  • QUESTION 4 Why do we easily recognize symbols of Judaism and Christianity, while we do not so easily recognize symbols of Islam?
  • Slide 7
  • ISLAM-BACKGROUND The Arabian Peninsula was sandwiched between the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires Inhabited by Bedouins, nomadic herders who traversed the Arabian Desert The Bedouins were mainly polytheistic, but were aware of monotheists like Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
  • Slide 8
  • ISLAM-BACKGROUND Each year, Bedouins made a pilgrimage to the city of Mecca, home of the Black Stone-a shrine to their gods in the Kaaba (cube) The Quraysh tribe, descendants of Ishmael, were wealthy merchants who controlled the pilgrimage trade
  • Slide 9
  • MUHAMMAD Muhammad ibn Abdallah, born 570 BCE in Mecca Father died before he was born, his mother shortly after, his grandfather when he was a young child-raised by an uncle Born into the Quraysh tribe, met Jews, Christians, and Hanifs-another monotheistic group
  • Slide 10
  • REVELATION Muhammad would spend time praying in a cave in Mt. Hira The angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad Revealed that there is one God, the God of Abraham, and Muhammad was to be his greatest and final prophet
  • Slide 11
  • MUHAMMAD AS PROPHET Muslims see Muhammad as the last in a line of reformers of Abrahamic religion Moses Jesus (not God or son of God) Muhammad
  • Slide 12
  • ISLAM Muhammads new religion would be called Islam-submission to God Followers of Islam would be called Muslims-servants of God The first Muslim was Khadija, Muhammads wife
  • Slide 13
  • THE HIJRA Muhammads revelation angered the leaders of Mecca, including his own family members He left Mecca in 622-The Hijra, or journey Muhammad was welcomed in the city of Yathrib, which was renamed Medina-the city of the prophet
  • Slide 14
  • BATTLE OF BADR Muslims began attacking the caravans of Mecca In the ensuing battle, the Muslims were victorious and many of Meccas leaders were killed Legitimized Muhammad as both a spiritual and political leader An attack by Mecca on Medina called the Battle of the Trench was unsuccessful
  • Slide 15
  • RETURN TO MECCA In 629, Muhammad returns to Mecca with 10,000 followers, peacefully takes over the city Removes the idols from the Kaaba and prays there Islam begins to spread, Muhammad is looked at as a leader
  • Slide 16
  • THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM To become a Muslim, one must accept the Five Pillars of Islam Shahada-The Testimony Salat-Prayer Sawm-Fasting Zakat-Almsgiving Hajj-Pilgramage
  • Slide 17
  • SHAHADA A declaration of the faith of Islam There is no God but God (Allah) and Muhammad is His prophet.
  • Slide 18
  • SALAT Muslims perform five prayers daily They face Mecca while they pray
  • Slide 19
  • SAWM Muslims fast during daylight hours during the holy month of Ramadan
  • Slide 20
  • ZAKAT Muslims are expected to give 2.5% of their income to the needy
  • Slide 21
  • HAJJ If possible, Muslims are expected to visit the Kaaba in Mecca once during their lifetimes
  • Slide 22
  • DIVISIONS IN ISLAM After Muhammads death, controversy arose over who should become caliph (successor) The caliph was both a political and religious leader Shiites (10-15% of Muslims) believe only descendants of Muhammads cousin Ali can be caliph Sunnis (85-90% of Muslims) believe any devout Muslim can become caliph
  • Slide 23
  • HOLY TEXTS The Quran-The sacred text of Islam, contains the revelations God made to Muhammad The Quran is written in Arabic The Hadith-The reports of the teachings, beliefs, and actions of Muhammad-some more reliable than others
  • Slide 24
  • WORSHIP A Muslim house of worship is called a mosque Muezzin-a mosque official who leads prayers Many mosques are led by imams- community/religious leaders
  • Slide 25
  • OTHER KEY BELIEFS There is one God. His wishes are carried out by angels All are equal within the ummah, or community of believers God has spoken through prophets and handed down holy books-Muhammad and the Quran are the last A day of judgment will come Many Muslims do not drink alcohol, use drugs, or eat pork Sharia-A body of religious law used to govern Jihad-Struggle
  • Slide 26
  • HOLY PLACES IN ISLAM 1. Mecca-Home of Masjid al-Haram (the sacred mosque) and the Kaaba 2. Medina-Where Muhammad took refuge 3. Jerusalem-Where Muhammad ascended to heaven

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