IP Routing Static Route vs. Dynamic Route

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IP Routing Static Route vs. Dynamic Route - Static Route : Routing Table . . Interface IP Network Number route static route default route routing table . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • IP Routing

    Static Route vs. Dynamic Route

    - Static Route : Routing Table . . Interface IP Network Number route static route default route routing table .

    - Default Route : . IGP(Interior Gateway Protocol) EGP(Exterior Gateway Protocol) .

    Dymanic RoutingInterior Gateway ProtocllRIP, IGRP(cisco), OSPF, EIGRP(cisco)Exterior Gateway ProtocolBGP- IP Routing Protocol CISCO Routing Protocol IGRP, EIGRP, Routing Information RIP, OSPF .

  • Static Route

    ip route [destination_network ][mask ][next_hop_address orexitinterface ] [administrative_distance ][permanent ]

    ip route The command used to create the static route.destination network The network you are placing in the routingtable.mask Indicates the subnet mask being used on the network.next hop address The address of the next hop router that will receivethe packet and forward it to the remote network. This is a router interfacethat is on a directly connected network. You must be able to ping therouter interface before you add the route.exit interface Used in place of the next hop address if desired. Mustbe on a point-to-point link, such as a WAN. This command does not workon a LAN; for example, Ethernet.administrative distance By default, static routes have an adminis-trativedistance of 1. You can change the default value by adding anadministrative weight at the end of the command.permanent If the interface is shut down or the router cannot communi-cateto the next hop router, the route is automatically discarded from therouting table. Choosing the permanent option keeps the entry in the rout-ingtable no matter what happens.

  • Default Routing

    Default Route

    default route IP Network Address route IP Packet route . default route route IP Address IP Packet IP Packet routing . default route dynamic routing protocol

    Router02#config termRouter02(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 203.255.246.33

    IP ClasslessDefault Route Enable . global configuration mode command .

    2501C(Config)#ip classless

  • Stub Network and Static Routing

    Stub Network Static Routing , Dynamic Routing OverHead .

    Stub Network Static Route Default Route Dynamic Routing OverHead .

  • Stub Network and Static Routing

    Current configuration:version 11.2

    hostname Router1enable secret 5 $1$4oSM$A9KN76HjzUM0HoIBtBDNJ0enable password router

    interface Ethernet0 ip address 203.227.110.126 255.255.255.128

    interface Serial0ip address 210.116.118.94 255.255.255.252 encapsulation ppp bandwidth 256

    ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Serial0

    Dynamic Route Default-Route HDLC PPP

  • ()

    Default RouteDefualt NetworkDefault Gateway

    Default Route Load Balancinf. Static Route Interface (serial 0) Distance 0 Next Hop Address(IP Address) Distance 1 . Broadcast Network Interface . ip default-network Default Route . . default-gateway #no ip route Default Gateway .

  • Dynamic Routing

  • RIP(Routing Information Protocol)

    interior gateway protocol. RIP BSD UNIX routed . distance vector routing protocol. metric factor hopcount 15. RIP 6 Equal Cost Path .(Default 4.) maximum path 1 Loadbalancing Disable.- 30 routing information . routing information full update . - administrative distance 120. - Class-Full routing .VLSM, CIDR(summarization) . AS Number . Version 2 VLSM , Multicast Update . Serial ip-unnumbered .IP Unnumbered RIP,IGRP,EIGRP,OSPF . VLSM RIP v1. IGRP Serial . IP IP Unnumbered .RouterA#config termEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.RouterA(config)#router ripRouterA(config-router)#version 2

  • Configuring RIP Routing

    RouterA#config termEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.RouterA(config)#router ripRouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0

    RIP subnetwork number . Class-Full .

    .

  • Verifying the RIP Routing Tables

    2621A#sh ip routeCodes:C -connected,S -static,I -IGRP,R -RIP,M [output cut ]Gateway of last resort is not set172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted,5 subnetsR 172.16.50.0 [120/3 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0R 172.16.40.0 [120/2 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0R 172.16.30.0 [120/2 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0R 172.16.20.0 [120/1 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0C 172.16.10.0 is directly connected,FastEthernet0/0

    ( )#clear ip route * .

  • RIP

    2501B#sh ip protocolRouting Protocol is "rip"Sending updates every 30 seconds,next due in 6 secondsInvalid after 180 seconds,hold down 180,flushed after240Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces isIncoming update filter list for all interfaces isRedistributing:ripDefault version control:send version 1,receive any versionInterface Send Recv Key-chainEthernet0 1 1 2Serial0 1 1 2Serial1 1 1 2Routing for Networks:172.16.0.0Routing Information Sources:Gateway Distance Last Update172.16.40.2 120 00:00:21172.16.20.1 120 00:00:23Distance:(default is 120)

  • RIP Timers

    Route update timer Sets the interval (typically 30 seconds) betweenperiodic routing updates, in which the router sends a complete copy of itsrouting table out to all neighbors.Route invalid timer Determines the length of time that must expire (180seconds) before a router determines that a route has become invalid. Itwill come to this conclusion if it hasnt heard any updates about a partic-ularroute for that period. When that happens, the router will send outupdates to all its neighbors letting them know that the route is invalid.Route flush timer Sets the time between a route becoming invalid andits removal from the routing table (240 seconds). Before it is removedfrom the table, the router notifies its neighbors of that routes impendingdoom. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of theroute flush timer. This is to provide the router with enough time to tell itsneighbors about the invalid route before the routing table is updated.

    - 30 . 180 Update Invalid . Invalid 60 .( 240) . 60ch Invalid .

  • Routing Loops Solution

    Maximum Hop Count : Maximum Hop Count 15 Route . 15 Route Update .Split Horizon : A Network 1 B B , B Network1 A .Triggered Update : Infinity Route (Route Poisoning .) Update Time 30 Update, Triggered Update .Holddown : Infinity Route( 16.) Update Route Hold Down Timer 180 Route () . . Poison Reverse : Infinity Route Triggered update Infinity Route Infinity Route .

  • IGRP(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) interior gateway protocol. cisco . distance vector routing protocol. metric factorbandwidth, delay, reliability, load, mtu . Hop Count 255 .(Default 100 .) multi path routing protocol. 4 Equal Metric Path . 90 routing information . routing information full update . administrative distance 100. - Class-Full routing .VLSM, CIDR(summarization) . - AS Number . AS Number IGRP routing information .

  • IGRP Timers

    Update timers These specify how frequently routing-update messagesshould be sent. The default is 90 seconds.Invalid timers These specify how long a router should wait beforedeclaring a route invalid if it doesnt receive a specific update about it. Thedefault is three times the update period.(270 sec)Holddown timers These specify the holddown period. The default isthree times the update timer period plus 10 seconds.(280 sec)Flush timers These indicate how much time should pass before a routeshould be flushed from the routing table. The default is seven times therouting update period.(630 sec)

  • Configuring IGRP Routing

    RouterA#config tRouterA(config)#router igrp 10RouterA(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0

    Router(config-router)#variance ?Metric variance multiplier

    Router(config-router)#traffic-share ?balanced Share inversely proportional to metricmin All traffic shared among min metric paths

    - Traffic-Share Balanced Metric 6 Load Balancing .- Variance Traffic-Share Balanced Best Metric Metric .

  • IGRP costCost = [ K1 * Bandwidth + (K2 * Bandwidth) / (256 - Load) + K3 * Delay] * [K5 / (Reliability + K4) ]

    (K1, K2, K3, K4, K5 ) cisco K1 == K3 ==1, K2 == K4 == K ==0 cost . Cost = K1 * Bandwidth + K3 * Delaycisco (LAN , WAN) Bandwidth Delay .

    DelayBandwidth (Bandwidth = 10,000,000 / ? Kbps) 220 (500Mbps) Ethernet 100 1,000 1.5Mbps 2,000 (20msec) 6,476 64Kbps2,000 156,250 56Kbps2,000 178,571 10Kbps2,000 1,000,000 1Kbps 2,00010,000,000 interface serial default bandwidth 1.5Mbps cost bandwidth .Router(config-if)# bandwidth 56

  • Verifying the IGRP Routing Tables

    2621A#sh ip routeCodes:C -connected,S -static,I -IGRP,R -RIP,M [output cut ]T -traffic engineered routeGateway of last resort is not set172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted,5 subnetsI 172.16.50.0 [100/160360 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0I 172.16.40.0 [100/160260 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0I 172.16.30.0 [100/158360 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0I 172.16.20.0 [100/158260 ] via 172.16.10.2,,FastEthernet0/0C 172.16.10.0 is directly connected,FastEthernet0/0

  • Verifying Configuration

    RouterB#sh protocolsGlobal values: Internet Protocol routing is enabledEthernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 192.168.2.254/24Serial0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 192.168.1.253/24Serial1 is administratively down, line protocol is down

    - The show protocols command is useful because it shows you the Networklayer addresses configured on each interface.

  • Debug Command

    debug ip rip . Monitoring #termianl monitor command .

    2501B#debug ip rip2501B#undebug all2501B#terminal monitor

    debug ip igrp events IGRP .2501B#debug ip igrp events

    Debug IP IGRP Transactions Update ..2501B#debug ip igrp transactions

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