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2. CHANGING POINT IN WORLD HISTORY The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Other changing points you may be familiar with: The Neolithic revolution, moving from the nomadic world to more agrarian settlements. The Enlightenment, another scientific 3. WHEN DID IT BEGIN? Unlike other revolutions theres no exact date. Historians sometimes refer to it as two parts: The First Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) Fundamental changes in agriculture, the development of factories and rural-to-urban migration. Took place primarily in Great Britain, Belgium, France, and the US The Second Industrial Revolution (1850-1950s) Electricity becomes the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes. Rise of mass production, particularly consumer goods. Spreads to places like Germany, Japan, and Russia. 4. BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Most people lived a rural lifestyle that had remained largely unchanged for centuries. More innovations were created during the 250+ years of the Industrial Revolution than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history before. 5. BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION In 1750 most people are still living a somewhat isolated, agrarian lifestyle: Theyre self-sufficient, living on farms, growing their own food, making their own clothes, engaging in simple barteringetc However, the life of someone living in Great Britain around 1750 is going to be much different than someone living in 1850. 6. FROM FARMS TO FACTORIES The Industrial Revolution is essentially the urbanization of the world. People begin moving to cities for jobs as a result of factory production. This has major effects on economies, consumer goods, types of jobs being created, and the overall lifestyle of people around the world. People start living with complex machinery built largely on steam power rather than man or horse power as things were before. 7. BIRTHPLACE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. Historians sometimes break down the causes into three main categories: Land, Labor, and Capitol 8. HOW THE BRITISH GOT A HEAD START Beginning in the 1750s, Great Britain experienced an unprecedented increase in agricultural production due to new technological improvements in farming. This became known as the Agricultural Revolution. During this time, the Enclosure Movement began in Great Britain. This was a push to take land that had formerly been owned in common by members of a family or village, and change it to privately owned land, usually with hedges around it. This created a system where small farms were consolidated into larger farms and it turned out to 9. THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT This marked the industrialization of the farming complex itself and lead to large numbers of small family farmers become displaced. In need of work, many of these farmers moved to big cities like London. So now Great Britain has two things going on: Availability of food Availability of workers 10. GEOGRAPHY OF GREAT BRITAIN Abundant natural resources and lots of land. Plenty of coal and iron ore deposits, this helps the growth of factories, steam powered machines, and steel production. Damp climate benefitted growth of textile industry (thread didnt dry out). Excellent harbors and ports. Navigable river systems eased transportation of raw materials and natural resources across the country for efficient trade and commerce. 11. CAPITOL AND ITS ROLE IN INDUSTRIALIZATION Great Britain had grown its empire and its wealth to a point far beyond what any other nation had been able to achieve. With the worlds largest merchant fleet, Great Britain was able to bring raw materials and finished goods to and from Englands colonies and possessions, as well as to and from other countries. Remember, capitol isnt just money, its all human creations that help produce wealth. 12. OTHER REASONS WHY BRITAIN WAS FIRST Politically stable society with a government that allowed business to flourish with laissez-faire policies while encouraging improvements in transportation, using the navy to protect trade. A high demand for British goods made merchants come up with more cost-effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system. Dozens of remarkable innovations were created first by British inventors. 13. INVENTIONS AND TEXTILES 14. INVENTIONS AND TEXTILES 15. INVENTIONS AND IRON In the early 18th century, Englishman Abraham Darby discovered a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a coke-fueled (as opposed to charcoal-fired) furnace. In the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer developed the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel. Both iron and steel became essential materials, used to make everything from appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and infrastructure. 16. STEAM POWER In 1712, Englishman Thomas Newcomen developed the first practical steam engine (which was used primarily to pump water out of mines). By the 1770s, Scottish inventor James Watt had improved on Newcomens work, and the steam engine went on to power machinery, locomotives and ships during the Industrial Revolution. 17. TRANSFORMATION OF TRANSPORTATION Before the advent of the steam engine, raw materials and finished goods were transported by horse-drawn wagons, or boats along canals and rivers. 18. TRANSFORMATION OF TRANSPORTATION In the early 1800s, American Robert Fulton built the first commercially successful steamboat, and by the mid-19th century, steamships were carrying goods all the way across the Atlantic. Around the same time, British engineer Richard Trevithick constructed the first railway steam locomotive. 19. RAILWAY SYSTEMS In 1830, Englands Liverpool and Manchester Railway became the first to offer regular passenger services. By 1850, Great Britain had more than 6,000 miles of railroad track. 20. ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION In 1820, Scottish engineer John McAdam developed a new process for road construction. His technique, known as macadam, resulted in roads that were smoother, more durable and less muddy. 21. INNOVATIONS IN COMMUNICATION Communication became easier during the Industrial Revolution with the telegraph. Originally invited by Samuel Morse in 1837, but later patented for commercial used by two Brits, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone. In 1866, a telegraph cable was successfully laid all the way across the Atlantic. For the first time in human history, people could now quickly send messages across 22. THE WORLD CATCHES UP TO GREAT BRITAIN For a while, the government of Great Britain tried their best to prohibit the export of all the cool ideas and technology that had been invented there. But that simply didnt work. Soon enough, ideas were stolen, copied, and used in other nations. By the mid-19th century, industrialization was well-established throughout western Europe and the United states. By the early 20th century, the U.S. had become the worlds leading industrial nation. 23. BANKING IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION In the late 18th century, the world witnessed the rise of big banks and industrial financiers, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. In the 1770s, a stock exchange was established in London. In the 1790s, the New York Stock Exchange was founded. Stock broking allowed people to buy and sell shares of enterprises and commodities. 24. CAPITALISM TAKES OVER In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations. In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference (laissez-faire). Adam smith is widely regarded as the founder of Capitalism, and his ideas greatly influenced the movers and shakers of the Industrial Revolution. 25. INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM: POSITIVE EFFECTS Industrial tycoons began to amass huge amounts of wealth. They built more factories that required more labor while also producing more goods for more people to purchase. Many of these new entrepreneurs found themselves making more money than the old nobles and aristocratic families who had been on top for centuries. For the first time in history, common people could have hopes of becoming wealthy without being born into it. Mass production made manufactured goods less expensive, so more people could afford them. 26. INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM: POSITIVE EFFECTS Capitalism became the first system to benefit all levels of society rather than just the noble classes. For the most part, wages increased and the standard of living also increased with help from the formation of unions, and the abundance of affordable products being mass-produced. The emergence of capitalism led to the formation of a middle class. Over time, this began to lift more and more people from the lower classes out of poverty and even made room for more leisure time. The financial investments required to run large industries during the Industrial Revolution brought about modern capitalism. 27. INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM: POSITIVE EFFECTS The emergence of capitalism led to the formation of a middle class. Over time, this began to lift more and more people from the lower classes out of poverty and even made room for more leisure time. The financial investments required to run large industries during the Industrial Revolution brought about modern capitalism. 28. INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM: NEGATIVE EFFECTS Although new technological achievements and an abundance of goods were enjoyed by almost everyone, the actual standard of living for the average worker wasnt necessarily any better. Factories paid low wages, and many immigrants and rural-to-urban migrants lived poorer lives than their parents and grandpare