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  • Independent Reading P-12 Loddon Mallee Region

  • Session OutlineLiteracy Frameworks


    Reading Behaviours

    Text Selection

    Formative Assessment

    Home/school Partnerships

  • LITERACY ELEMENTSRead AloudShared Reading

    Guided Reading

    Independent Reading



    Write Aloud

    Shared Writing

    Guided Writing

    Independent Writing

  • *GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITYMODELLINGThe teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listeningThe student participates by actively attending to the demonstrationsSHARINGThe teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and informationStudents contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situationsGUIDINGThe teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedbackStudents work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focusAPPLYINGThe teacher offers support and encouragement when necessaryThe student works independently to apply the use of literacy focusRole of the teacherRole of the studentPearson & GallagherDEGREE OF CONTROL

  • KnowWant to KnowLearntIndividually brainstorm;

    What you know about Independent ReadingWhat you want to know about Independent Reading

  • INDEPENDENT READING DescriptionIndependent reading is central to successful reading development.

    Students select and read engaging and interesting material daily, independently and individually.

    Students need to be engaged by the text, discuss text and explain their understanding

  • INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Time must be scheduled daily for independent reading to occur. A structured take home reading program for all primary students is expected. For secondary students, a structured reading program is essential in addition to library borrowing.

    Students:promote books to otherspractise reading at home each night : home and school partnership is fosteredpractise what has been taught in whole class, small group and individual reading activitiesreflect on and articulate their reading goals

  • INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (continued) Teachers: select particular students to confer with, guide and teach at point of needsupport students to develop and monitor their own reading goalspromote reading of quality literature and textsdiscuss and enjoy texts with individual students, observing what they know and can do provide guidance with text choice - noticing when students choose texts beyond their control monitor choice to ensure a broad range of successful and enjoyable reading experiences

  • INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indication- ResourcesClassroom environments foster enjoyment, and appreciation of reading A range of high quality literature is accessible in classrooms, and central librariesWide range of interest and difficulty levelsSchool library is closely linked to classroom reading programsPartner reading arranged with peers and adultsWell organised take home and library programs



    Anderson.R,Wilson,P.,and Fielding, L. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol.3,1988. Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside school.

  • Skill instruction is not enough. In fact when reading takes a back seat to skill instruction, one has to ask the age old question about the cart and the horse.To develop the ability to read fluently requires the opportunity to read- a simple rule of thumb.

    R. Allington if they dont read much, how they ever gonna get good

  • The average higher-achieving students read three times as much each week as their lower-achieving classmates, not including out-of-school reading. (Allington, Richard. 2006)

  • DISCUSSIONWhat are the implications of this research for you?

  • What do you know about this reader?Where might you take this reader?


  • We need to knowWhat is the level of text complexity students can read independently and show competency with the above?

    What are the range of texts students can read independently and show competency with the above?

    What is the amount of reading students are engaged in (easy, instructional and challenging?)

  • Proficient ReadersKnow what they need to comprehend from a text

    Are aware of the purpose for their reading and direct attention to the parts of the text they most need to comprehend for that purpose.

    Are able to assume different stances toward a text. For example, a child can read a book from the point of view of different characters, of a book reviewer, or of a writer seeking new techniques for his or her own work.

    Identify difficulties they have in comprehending at the word, sentence and whole text levels. They are flexible in their use of tactics to revise their thinking and solve different types of comprehension problems.

    Can think aloud about their reading process. They are aware and articulate the surface and deep structure strategies they use to identify words, read fluently, and create solutions to reading problems.

    Can identify confusing ideas, themes, and/or surface elements (words, sentence or text structures, graphs, tables, etc.) and suggest a variety of means to solve the problems they encounter.

    Are independent, flexible and adaptive:They show independence by using surface and deep structure strategies to solve reading problems and enhance understanding on heir own.They demonstrate flexibility by using particular strategies such as determining importance to a greater or lesser degree depending on the demands of the text.They are adaptive in their ability to turn up(or turn down) the volume a particular strategy or use all the comprehension strategies in concert.

    Use text management strategies. They pause, reread, skim, scan, consider the meaning of the text, and reflect on their understanding with other readers of the text, and reflect on their understanding.

    Keene E and Zimmerman, S (2007: 64 - 65)

  • Di Snowball 2009

    Text Selection- Level, Forms, Environment, Engagement

    Formative Assessment- Conferences, Journals, Reflection

    Home Partnership

  • TEXT SELECTIONLevel, Forms, Environment, Engagement

  • Text Level Independent Reading

  • Forms

  • EnvironmentStudents in classrooms containing literature collections read 50% more than students in classroomswithout. However, to be enticing a classroom library must be well designed .

    Faye Bolton Classroom Libraries 2009Research by Bissett

  • Focal area in the classroom;Partitioned, private and quiet;Carpeted and have comfortable seating, such as bean bags, rocking chairs and couches;Five to six books per student;Stocked with books that provided a variety of genre and degrees of challengeRoom nearby for five or six students to read;Consists of two types of shelving (regular and open -faced book shelves); Literature oriented displays and props (to promote re-enactments and re-readings);Organised into categories, such as author, poet, text type and topic.

    Morrow and Weinstein Increasing children's use of literature through program and physical design changes. Elementary School Journal, 83, 131-137.

  • VIDEOWhat ideas can you take back to your school/classroom?

  • ENGAGEMENT- What takes readers off trackLack of interest or motivationInsufficient/inappropriate resourcesStandards/testingAbsence of supportInability to break the language barrierInsufficient background knowledgeLack of reading strategiesInsufficient reading experienceInappropriate teacher interventionInteraction

    Don Holdaway

  • BRAINSTORMIn table groups, choose one area that takes readers off track and brainstorm ways to support

  • How to promote Independent ReadingDon Holdaway

    EnvironmentTimeChoiceResponseGroupsSupportManagement RoutinesMotivation- incentives, talks, author visits, literature gossipsParental InvolvementStudent evaluation

  • FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTReading Conference, Reading Journals, Reflection Time

  • Reading Conference- ConversationsFocusedUsually follows a predictable structureReading goals developed and monitoredBoth teacher and student share responsibility for conversation but student has responsibility of readingTake place where students read their text (not teachers desk)Scheduled regularlyShift the learningGenerally recordedUsed to drive instructional teaching

  • OBSERVATION- VideoTeacher


  • Reading GoalsStudent friendly languageOften derive from reading conference and guided readingAchievableImmersion- students should be constantly sharing and reflecting on these goals in order to build language and metacognitionMeaningfulRelevantShort and sharpPersonalised

  • Reading JournalsA reading response journal is a notebook that students use expressly for talking, thinking and writing about what they read. In their journals, students share feelings, reactions, and ask questions about element, including characters, the setting, symbols, the plot, and themes of the books they are reading. Response journals can help teachers assess students' comprehension and critical thinking abilities.Should not take over the allocated time for reading.Evidence of the reading conference is often in the journal, including the students reading goals



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