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  • InclusionandeducationinEuropeancountries

    INTMEASReportforcontract20072094/001TRATRSPO

    Final report: 14. Experts and PLA

    George Muskens Lepelstraat August 2009

  • This is an independent report commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Education and Culture. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Commission. Drafts of this report benefited from comments and advice from the consortiums reference group members and from other experts in this field. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The electronic version of this report is available at: http://www.docabureaus.nl/INTMEAS.html Available INTMEAS-reports: 1. Summary/sommaire/Zusamenfassung 2. Comparative conclusions 3. Discussion and recommendations 4. France 5. Germany 6. Hungary 7. Italy 8. The Netherlands 9. Poland 10. Slovenia 11. Spain 12. Sweden 13. UK 14. Experts and PLA INTMEAS Reference Group George Muskens, project leader Jaap Dronkers, expert adviser Jos Ramn Flecha, expert adviser Jill Bourne, expert adviser Danielle Zay, leader French research team Ingrid Gogolin, leader German research team Pl Tams, leader Hungarian research team Francesca Gobbo, leader Italian research team Micha Federowicz, leader Polish research team Albina Neak Lk, Sonja Novak Lukanovic, leaders Slovenian research team Mariano Fernndes Enguita, leader Spanish research team Elena Dingu Kyrklund, leader Swedish research team Rae Condie, leader UK research team

  • Inclusion measures in further European countries and educational

    regions

    INTMEAS Report for contract 2007-2094/001 TRA-TRSPO

    Report of the expert survey and national examples as presented at Peer Learning Activities

    George Muskens

    Lepelstraat, May 2009

  • I

    TABLEOFCONTENTS

    1 AIMS .............................................................................................................................................12 RESPONSETOTHEEXPERTSURVEY .................................................................................23 REPORTSOFTHEPEERLEARNINGACTIVITIESPLAS .................................................34 MEASURESFORKEEPINGEARLYSCHOOLLEAVERSABOARD..................................45 PRIORITYMEASURES .............................................................................................................66 INCLUSIVEEDUCATIONMEASURES ...................................................................................87 SAFEEDUCATIONMEASURES,MEASURESAGAINSTBULLYINGANDHARASSMENT ................................................................................................................................ 108 CONCLUSIONS,SUMMARY.................................................................................................. 118.1 MEASURESTOREDUCEEARLYSCHOOLLEAVING:......................................................................... 128.2 PRIORITYMEASURES .......................................................................................................................... 128.3 INCLUSIVEEDUCATIONMEASURES .................................................................................................. 138.4 SAFEEDUCATIONMEASURES ............................................................................................................ 14

  • 1

    1 Aims

    IntheEUMemberStatesthatwerenotcoveredbyourtennationalresearchteamswehavecarriedoutanexpertsurveyoninclusionmeasuresineducation,andwehaveaddedexamplesaspresentedatPeerLearningActivities.Therefore,thematerialsinthepresentreportareadditionaltothemaincomparativeassessmentofinclusionmeasuresintenMemberStates.Additionalinformationwaswelcomefortwomajorreasons,being:

    Mostreliableknowledgeoninclusionmeasuresregardsqualitativeknowledge,certainlyasfarasimplementation,effectsandwiderapplicabilityisconcerned.Nothingoronlyafewthingsarereallysureandevidencebasedpoliciesandpractice.Inthisrespect,thewiderandricherourknowledgebasewouldbethebetter.Itwouldmean:morecasesandenrichedassessment.Therefore,wewantedtoextendthescopeoftheprojectbyexpertreportsoncasesandcountriesthatwerenotrepresentedamongthetencountries.

    ThetencountriesshouldnotbeseenasarepresentativesampleofallEUMemberStates.Theyareacollectionoftencountries,withdifferenteducationalarrangementsandpolicies.ForthewiderinterpretationoftheoutcomesadditionalinformationfromtheotherMemberStateswouldbewelcomeandneeded.

    Afterthefirstphaseoftheprojectwehaveconcludedthatalltermsofreferenceoftheprojectweretobefocussedonsixmajorframesofinclusionmeasuresinmainstreameducation.Theseframeswere:

    Howtokeepearlyschoolleaversaboardorhowtoreintegratethemafterleavingtheschooltooearly?

    Whatprioritymeasuresaresetoutandappliedinschoolsfortargetgroupsofpupilsatrisk?

    Whatinclusivemeasuresaresetoutandappliedforpupilswithhandicaps,disabilitiesandspecialneeds?

    Whatmeasuresshouldensuresafeeducationforallpupils,andparticularlyforpupilsatriskofbullyingandharassment?

    Whatmeasuresshouldsupportschoolsandstaff?FortheexpertsurveyandPLAanalysisthelastfocuswasdropped,asitmightcoveratoowiderangeofpossiblemeasuresorregardtheimpliciteffectsofmeasuresthatarenotdirectlyaimingattheinclusionofpupilsatriskinmainstreameducation.Therefore,wehaveaskedtheexpertsandcheckedthePLAreportsformeasuresasundertaken,ontheimportanceofthemeasuresandonevaluationresearchasavailableconcerningfourissues,namely:

    Measurestoreduceearlyschoolleaving. Measurestoimprovethechancesofdisadvantagedpupils, Measurestoincludepupilswithahandicap,withrestrictionsand/orspecialneedsinmainstreameducation,

    Measuresagainstbullyingandharassment.Thequestionswereformulatedasopenquestionsinafourquestionquestionnaire.Furthertothequestionsshortexplanationshavebeenincludedinthequestionnaire,namely:

    Earlyschoolleavingthisregardsthefullorpartialdropoutofpupils,notbeingintheinterestofthepupilsthemselvesnorinthatofsociety.FortheEuropeansocieties,thepupilsshouldatleastreachadecentlabourmarketqualificationatthe

  • 2

    levelofISCED3C,i.e.alevelthatincludessomeuppersecondaryeducation.Pupilsmaynotbeinterestedinreachingthatlevelbecauseoflostmotivationandamultitudeoftroubles,orbecausetheyobviouslyareunabletopasstestsandexaminationsatthelevelofISCED3C,orbecausetheyfindtheirwayonthelabourmarketandinsocietywithoutpassingISCEDlevel3C.AccordingtotheLisbonDeclarationthenumberofearlyschoolleaversistoohighinallormostmemberStatesoftheEU;in2010thenumbershouldbehalvedcomparedtothenumbersin2001.

    ImprovedchancesfordisadvantagedminoritiesmostEuropeancountrieshavesetoutprioritypoliciesandmeasurestoimprovethechancesofpupilsbelongingtodisadvantagedminorities.Itregardsdisadvantagesthatfollowfrominequitiesinsocietyandthatareindependentoftheindividualcapacitiesofthepupils.Asaresult,thepupilsareatriskofexclusionfromeducationandsociety,whereastalentsmaygetlost.Sourcesofsuchinequitiesmaybegender,ethnicityimmigrantand/orindigenous,class,andhandicaps.Asfarasmeasuresareundertakeninyourcountry:forwhichdisadvantagedgroups?

    Inclusiveeducationforpupilswithhandicaps,specialneeds,etc.invaryingdegreestheEuropeancountrieshaveimplementedinclusivepoliciesandmeasuresinmainstreameducationforpupilswithhandicaps,specialneeds,etc.Inthiswaytheexclusionanddiscriminationofchildrenandyoungpeoplewithhandicapsandspecialneedsistobecounteracted,whileatthesametimehighesteffortistobemadetoassureappropriateandtailormadeeducationinrelationtothehandicaps,specialneeds,etc.Invaryingdegrees,thelatterissuehasbeenanargumentinfavouroragainsteducationinspecialschoolsandinstitutions.Pleaserevealthepositionofyourcountryinthisrespect.

    Bullyingandharassmentinpracticebulliedandharassedpupilsareatriskofmarginalisationandexclusionfromschoolsandclasses,whilebulliesandpupilsorstaffthathasharassedpupilsareatriskofseveredisciplinarymeasures,includingforcedexpulsionfromschoolandeducation.Inawiderframe,safeeducationalconditionsforallpupilsweretobesafeguarded.Weshouldassessthemeasuresthatenhancesuchconditionsandthatshoulddiminishbullyingandharassmentineducation.Wewouldbehelpedbyyourinformationconcerningmeasuresinyourcountry.

    2 Responsetotheexpertsurvey

    Withinthetightconditionsoftimeandbudgetwehaveapproached27selectedexpertsintheseventeencountries.Throughtheongoingsnowballmethod5furtherexpertswereaddedtoourgroup,onrecommendationoftheircolleagues.AllexpertsrepresentthefullEUlevel1orlevel2expertiseinthefiledofprimaryandsecondaryeducation,and/orrelatedfieldssuchaseducationalpoliciesoryouthatriskofexclusionandearlyschoolleaving.

    Notallwereeffectivelycontactedorwereabletorespondtothequestionnaire.Wehavereceivedvaluableresponsefrom:

    Belgium(FlemishCommunity),Dr.PetervanPuyenbroeck,Antwerp, Belgium(FrenchCommunity),Dr.DraganaAvramow,CSPCBrussels, Bulgaria,Prof.KrassimiraDaskalova,St. Kliment Ohridski University Sofia CzechRepublic,Prof.JanJirak,CharlesUniversityPrague;Prof.MilanPol,MasarykUniversityBrno,

    Cyprus,Dr.ChristosPanayotopoulos,IntercollegeNicosia, Denmark,Prof.NielsEgelund,Universityofrhus, Finland,Prof.MaritaMkinen,UniversityofTampere,

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    Greece,Dr.RomanGerodimos,UniversityofBournemouth Latvia,Prof.BrigittaZepa,BalticInstituteofSocialSciencesRiga Malta,Dr.MaryAnneLauri,UniversityofMalta Portugal,Prof.CandidaFerreira,TechnicalUniversityofLisbon;Prof.OlgaPombo,UniversityofLisbon,Prof.CristinaMariaCoimbraVieira,UniversityofCoimbra,LuisaMarroni,UniversityofCoimbra

    SlovakRepublic,Dr.GabrielBianchi,SlovakAcademyofSciencesBratislava

    Thepresentreportisbasedupontheirresponsetothequestionnaire.

    3 ReportsofthePeerLearningActivitiesPLAs

    EUeducationandtrainingpolicyhasbeengivenaddedimpetussincetheadoptionoftheLisbonStrategyin2000,theEU'soverarchingprogrammefocusingongrowthandjobs(PresidencyoftheEuropeanCouncil,2000March).EUMemberS

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