idt magazine 11-2008

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  • 1. Published ByFree monthly technical magazineIndustrial Development Team - IDT second issueFaculty of Engineering Ain Shams University11/2008

2. ." "" "// . 3. IDT MAGAZINE Second Issue IDT Page 2 Dear my friend, I hope you are in excellent health and you are doing best in your daily life. I am writing my letter telling you a surprise I found In the Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. Do you remember the last time we spoke about our dreams in powerful and competitive Egyptian industry? I never forget this day. We thought what if the industry here in Egypt is developed and how this development can change the face of life in Egypt. Do you remember? Our dream in more jobs for Egyptian citizens Do you remember? Our dream in strong economy leads Egypt to higher position between nations. The surprise, my friend, is that I found a group of engineering students who started this dream. I found the hope and the first steps towards tomorrows dream. I found youths enthusiasm, youths who are called Industrial Development Team- IDT. This was a letter from an Egyptian citizen love his country and wants it to be the top. Mohammad GhareebIDT 09 president 4. IDT MAGAZINE Second Issue Page 3 The importance of plastic industry comes from it is considered as the main complementary industry for many others Imagine no pens, no TVs, no PCs, no mobile thats all plastic complete it So in this issue we will explore the history of this industry then in other issue we will sail more in this important industry Plastics Historypale yellow when heated, was It was the game of billiards used to replace glass in the that provided the unlikely The history of plastics goes18th century. The original cause for its eventual back more than 100 years -breakthrough for the first commercial success. The however, compared to othersemi-synthetic plasticsAmerican Hyatt brothers materials, plastics are material - cellulose nitrate - were attempting to develop a relatively modern. Theiroccurred in the late 1850s substitute for the ivory usage over the past century and involved the modificationbilliard ball and in so doing has enabled society to make of cellulose fibers with nitriccame up with a process for huge technological advances acid. Cellulose nitrate hadmanufacturers using a to take us towards the newmany false starts andnitrate cellulose composition. Millennium. Pre-20th Centuryfinancial failures following its Celluloid was thus born and Although we think of plasticinvention by a Briton, was patented in 1870 - its as a modern invention, thereAlexander Parkes, whoearly commercial success lay have always been "natural exhibited it as the worldsin dental plates for false polymers" such as amber,first plastic in 1862. Firstly teeth. tortoiseshell and horn. These known as Parke sine, then materials behaved very much1900s Xylonite, it began to find like manufactured plastics However, the flammability of success in the production of and were often put to similarcellulose nitrate prevented objects such as ornaments, uses to todays materials -its use in mass production knife handles, boxes and for example, horn, which rapid molding techniques. The more flexible products such becomes transparent andearly 1900s saw the as cuffs and collars. 5. IDT MAGAZINE Second Issue Page 4 development of cellulose hairdryers, radio cabinets,1922 - First spectacles acetate to get around this ashtrays and cameras.molded in cellulose acetate problem. This was widely Bakelite also had the benefit(in France) used as safety film to stiffen of looking similar to wood, so The 20s saw the production and waterproof the fabricwas a popular choice for car of the first moldable light- wings and fuselage of earlydashboards and knobs. colored plastic, made by airplanes. CaseinIt was also used tocombining carbon dioxide and formaldehyde was alsoimpregnate paper or fabric ammonia with formaldehyde. developed at this time. Basedto make high pressureThe resulting product, urea on fat-free milk and rennin,laminates for the emerging formaldehyde, could be used this could be hardened andtelecommunications industry. to great visual effect and was shaped to make buttons, highly popular in making buckles and knitting needles.The first patent for PVC was tableware. By adding coloredregistered in 1914. Cellophane Bakelite - a hard, dark plastic powder to the white mixture,was also discovered during - was discovered by Leo it was possible to producethis period. Baekeland, a Belgian-born patterns which looked like chemist in 1907 and was theThe 1920smarble, alabaster or stone, first truly synthetic plastic to in 1922 a German chemist,so for the first time, plastics be patented. Made from Hermann Staudinger, made a were not just a functional carboxylic acid anddiscovery which wouldchoice, but also an aesthetic formaldehyde, Bakelite resin change the whole face of the one. These urea resins also was normally reinforced with plastics industry. Through found important industrial fillers (either fibers or wood working with synthesized applications in varnishes, flour).rubber, he found that plastics laminates and adhesives.are made from chains of Bakelite brought plastics intoIn 1921 the first injectionthousands of molecules linked consumers lives in a variety molding machine wastogether, known as "super of ways. Its excellentdesigned.polymers" - a find which insulating properties made itprompted the invention ofThe 1930s an ideal material formany new plastics. Two developments during the 6. IDT MAGAZINE Second Issue Page 5 30s swept the plastics polymerization during also invented at this time, and industry into mass storage was found.by 1935 it was starting to be production. Firstly, used in aircraft cockpit manufacturers learnt how manufacture and in other to produce plastics from protective screens. petroleum - polystyrene, The first epoxy resins were acrylic polymers and : developed in Switzerland in polyvinyl chloride were all 1938. Main applications at made in this way. Secondly, . : that time were in dentistry injection molding, which had and medicine, and, due to always been problematical, . their adhesive qualities as a became much improved and constituent of glue, plastics fully automated in 1937. . became an increasingly Both developments were common sight in the home as good news for the . . urea formaldehyde became consumer as they brought more widespread. This was down the price of the end- : an era when, for the first product and put plastics time, consumers were within easy grasp of . . demanding convenience, everyone. Development of . mainly because fewer people PVC continued apace with : were employing domestic the first use in insulating . staff. As a result, hygienic, electric cables in 1930. easy-to-clean surfaces and Polyamide was also . labor saving devices were developed at this time, and . becoming popular. An polystyrene was first attractive, light-colored, produced commercially inhard-wearing plastic, urea 1937 when an economic formaldehyde suited modern way of preventingPolymethyl methacrylatelifestyles perfectly and was(acrylic or "Perspex") wasused to make items such as 7. IDT MAGAZINE Second IssuePage 6 molded egg cups, cruet sets,discovered at the end of thelaminates such as Formica, light fittings, cream makers20s, but was not put to great first popular in the United and picnic sets.use until the 40s. Consisting States where they were used of long filaments which could widely in espresso bars and The 1940s be spun and woven or knitted, dinettes. At the same time, World War II meant a huge the new plastic was used to molded melamine boost for plastics. as a make everything fromformaldehyde resin was domestically generated parachutes to upholstery. becoming widely used as a resource which had by this component in tableware and time become relatively cheap,PVC really took off during became a popular alternative plastic was able to take overthis decade and into the to china - so much so that by from imported materials. In1950s. It could be used, the late 1950s, as much as terms of design technology,among other things, to make 50% of all dinnerware sold consumer products was molded using this benefited from the new material. A first for the techniques which had car industry: 1956 saw the been developed out of major use of plastics in necessity during the car body design when the war. The production of(Evertek) roof of a Citroen DS was plastics which are still made from unsaturated used widely today - such polyester reinforced with as polyethylene, . 981 fiberglass. The polystyrene, polyester, . combination of polyester PET and silicones - all 1 and fiberglass became a grew during thepopular choice thereafter wartime period. Silicones, for records. This discovery wasin the production of body example, became widely used particularly well-timedparts for cars and boats. as water repellants and inconsidering the boom of the heat resistant paints.popular music industry in this Polyethylene was first era. The 1950s The 50s saw discovered in 1933, but it was Nylon, the first totally man- the growth of decorative in the 50s that the material made fiber, had been 8. IDT MAGAZINE Second Issue Page 7 really took off thanks to a was a huge advantage. This lemon squeezers and bottle new, safer production led to the introduction of a stoppers. method. The new materialrange of innovative newThe so called "Space Race" which had a high meltingproducts in the fashion world,began in the late 60s. point and could be used including soft and hard foamsPlastics played an important where other plastics hadwith a protective skin, wet-part in the production of failed, was used for dustbins,look polyurethane andspacecraft components and baby baths and chemical transparent acrylic. Homeequipment: its lightness an