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  • 3/7/2010

    1

    Theoretical Perspectives

    Chapter 4

    Humanistic Existential

    Humanistic Existential Approaches

    Person Centered

    Humanistic

    Existential

    Gestalt

    Humanistic- Existential Approaches

    Person Centered

    Humanistic

    Existential

    Gestalt

  • 3/7/2010

    2

    PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY

    Person - Centered

    Carl Rogers

    Based on 3 Personality Characteristics

    1. Congruence

    2. Unconditional Positive Regard

    3. Empathy

    Empathic Understanding

    Demonstrated in

    many ways:

    Reflective

    responding: ability

    to be empathetic

    Accurately

    reflecting clients

    meaning & affect

    Metaphors

    Analogy

    Visual image

    Nodding

    Touch on shoulder

    Being with the client

    Hearing the client

    Understands the

    client fully

    Able to

    demonstrate that

    understanding to

    the client

  • 3/7/2010

    3

    Congruence

    People are real, genuine, transparent with others feelings, thoughts, &

    behaviors

    Important for the therapist to express

    negative feelings to avoid falseness

    Falseness =Incongruence

    Unconditional Positive Regard

    Ability to provide the client w/ acceptance

    regardless of what they are presenting

    Individuals are born w/ the need to be

    loved

    Allows people to feel safe & to be able to

    delve into deeper issues

    Children who do not experience UPR from

    parents will try to live as they believe others

    want them to be.

    False self

    HUMANISTIC APPROACHES

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    4

    Humanistic Psychology

    Focus on the entirety of life rather than

    its individual components

    Human dignity

    Individual choice

    Self worth

    Self actualization

    Self - Actualization

    One of the highest levels of psychological development.

    Trying to achieve everything one is

    capable of.

    3 Theoretical Assumptions

    People strive for self- actualization

    People possess inner resources for self -

    healing

    Healing and self actualization are

    facilitated by respect, warmth, acceptance genuineness, and

    empathy

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    5

    Concept of Self

    The self is not a permanent structure

    The self is fluid, changes

    Every person must be understood in

    the here and now (present)

    Therapeutic Relationship

    Carl Rogers

    Non - authoritarian relationship

    Client seen as competent

    Clients sets therapeutic agenda

    Client experiences the therapist as:

    Authentic, respectful, accepting, caring

    Empathetic, warm, engaged

    EXISTENTIAL THERAPIES

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    6

    Existentialism

    Jean Paul Sarte

    Martin Buber

    Therapist believe that therapy is a shared

    journey that examines meaningfulness in

    life

    No specific techniques because it is

    based on a philosophy

    Philosophy is a technique in itself

    Underlying Assumptions

    The ability of self reflect and be self aware

    People often operate in denial

    Feelings as a message of our being in

    the world

    Anxiety, guilt, depression not always

    an indication of pathology

    Underlying Assumptions

    Choice

    We are capable of making positive

    choices

    Not choosing is making a choice

    existential death or existential vacuum

    Responsibility: we have the

    responsibility to make positive choices

    if not leads to chaos.

  • 3/7/2010

    7

    Underlying Assumptions

    Meaning through our own relationships w/ others.

    We are constantly re-defining ourselves

    through our relationships

    Therapy is a journey I which the therapist

    & client are equal partners in their search

    for meaning

    Underlying Assumptions

    The Importance of Authenticity:

    It is important that we are real w/ each

    other.

    Otherwise leads to lies, deceit, denial

    of thoughts and feelings

    Never ending search for completeness

    and wholeness

    As we become more authentic and

    aware healthy choices become more

    obvious and easy to make

    GESTALT THERAPY

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    8

    Gestalt Therapy

    Originated by Fritz Perls

    Gestalt- wholeness or complete

    Reality is clouded over Unfinished Business

    It is necessary for the clients experience

    to be in the now

    Awareness = Reality

    Experience = Emotion

    Gestalt Therapist

    Active, directive, use nonverbal behavior

    Point out clients intellectualizing and

    non verbal behaviors

    Push their clients to deepen their experiences as a mechanism to free

    their defenses

    Techniques

    Awareness Exercises: client is ask to close his

    or her eyes & experience all prevalent

    feelings, thoughts, & senses to quickly get in

    touch w/ their defenses.

    Playing the Projection: Used to discover

    projection onto other things

    I hate her because she doesnt love

    me. becomes

    I hate myself. Ive never learned how to

    love myself.

  • 3/7/2010

    9

    Techniques

    Exaggeration: used when the therapist wants the client to get in touch w/ the

    underlying meaning of the word,

    phrase, or behavior

    Tapping foot, tap foot harder, state the

    feeling

    Empty Chair Technique: Used to help

    the client dialogue w/ a part of self or

    to another person to uncover

    underlying issues and feelings

    Techniques

    Turning Questions into statements about self: all questions are about

    underlying feelings, issues, and values.

    Why dont people care about others?

    Becomes..

    I dont believe others care about me.

    Notice the use of I statement

    Gestalt Laws of Organization

    Gestalt psychologists suggest that conscious experience is more than the sum of its parts

    The mind organizes the elements of experience to create something unique

    The Law of Prgnanz Stimuli that can be grouped together

    as a whole will be seen that way

    We see the simplest shape possible

  • 3/7/2010

    10

    Gestalt Laws of Organization

    Principles of organization helps us perceive figures

    and contours

    They define the Figure Ground Relationship

    Figures (the object of attention) are perceived

    as distinct from the grounds (background)

    Illusions

    Why are our brains and eyes fooled?

    Recent theories account for illusions in terms of

    the backgrounds against which they are seen

    Assume previous experience with the particular

    stimulus

    Also assume well-developed perceptual

    constancies

    Figure Ground/ Ambiguous

    Figures

  • 3/7/2010

    11

    What do you see?

    What do you see?

  • 3/7/2010

    12

    Double vision

    et

    lart dArcimboldo

  • 3/7/2010

    13

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