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Housing policies for future Dhaka

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>HOUSING &amp; NEIGHBOURHOODCity Region Development Planning ProjectRajdhani Unnayan Katripakkha (RAJUK)</p> <p>Housing for all at least by 2030..1. Backdrop: Housing in DhakaMegacity being the least livable city15 million population (2011) over an area of 1528 sq.km.High rate of internal migrationLarge number of poor citizen compared with other megacitiesWider gap between housing demand and supplyConsistent housing pressure on limited land resource</p> <p>To plan and develop capacity as well as incentives to meet housing demand by 2035To encourage transit oriented multi-family housing development within high activity areaTo conserve scale and character of residential neighborhoods.To reduce regulatory and procedural barriers to increase housing production and capacity2. Objectives of Housing Study3. Existing Inventory AnalysisPopulation density: 34000/ km2</p> <p>Average HH size: 4.9</p> <p>Estimated housing demand: 120,000 units</p> <p>3. 1 Population and Housing demand projection</p> <p>Source: Dewan and Yamaguchi (2009)1975199220033. 2 Spatial growth trend in DMDP areaRegion Area ()Growth Rate Population and (Growth Rate in % per annum)2001-20112011201520202025203020351. CENTRAL REGION757403.15%8841105 (3.15)9803389(2.62)10832758(2.02)11752801(1.64)12516292(1.27)13036340(0.82)Density117129143155165172a. Core Area335112.53%6943380 (2.53)7509845(1.98)8062377(1.43)8486231(1.03)8756937(0.63)8814005(0.13)Density207224241253261263b. Fringe Area422295.85%1897725 (5.85)2293544(4.85)2770381(3.85)3266570(3.35)3759356(2.85)4222335(2.35)Density45546677891002. NORTHERN REGION (Gazipur)897767.43%1625768 (7.43)2086002(6.43)2717289(5.43)3374910(4.43)4092294(3.93)4843948(3.43)Density1823303846543. EASTERN REGION587702.72%610799 (2.72)669533(2.32)735543(1.9)799343(1.68)859195(1.45)913348(1.23)Density101113141516a. Rupganj Upazila393523.04%500860 (3.04)553719(2.54)612550(2.04)669372(1.79)722526(1.54)770346(1.29)Density131416171820b. Kaliganj Upazila194181.41%109939 (1.41)115814(1.31)122992(1.21)129972(1.11)136669(1.01)143002(0.091)Density6667774. SOUTHERN REGION687213.63%1965425 (3.63)2230821(3.22)2559446(2.79)2825817(2.0)3052130(1.55)3224348(1.1)Density293237414447a. Narayanganj Upazila248944.13%1323600 (4.13)1526507(3.63)1780836(3.13)1978748(2.13)2145360(1.63)2269343(1.13)Density536172798691b. Bandar Upazila134412.26%312841 (2.26)338762(2.01)369641(1.76)398405(1.51)424145(1.26)446001(1.01)Density232528303233c. Sonargaon Upazila303863.07%328984 (3.07)365552(2.67)408969(2.27)448665(1.87)482625(1.47)509004(1.07)Density1112131516175. SOUTH-WESTERN REGION (Keraniganj)410912.79%794360 (2.79)878194(2.54)983460(2.29)1087950(2.04)1188870(1.79)1283276(1.54)Density1921242629316. WESTERN REGION (Savar)606619.26%1285836 (9.26)1639324(6.26)2068437(4.76)2428303(3.26)2715388(2.26)2890823(1.26)Density212734404548Total3947593.96%15123293 (3.96)17307263(3.43)19896932(2.83)22269124(2.28)24424169(1.86)26192083(1.41)Density3844505662663. 3 Population Projection</p> <p>Density in 2011Density in 2035Very LowLowMediumHighVery HighVery LowXGazipur Paurashava, Pathalia, Mura , Golakandail, Kanchpur, Madanpur, Musapur, Mugrapur, Bandar, Kalagachhia, Baktaboli, AminbazarBasan, Kashimpur, Yearpur, XXLowXXAshulia, Tarabo PaurashavaCentral Region outside DCC, Tetuljhora, Dhamsona, Konabari, Gachha, Siddhirganj PaurashavaKalindiMediumXXXSubhadya, Enayetnagar, Narayanganj Paurashava, Kashipur, Gognagar, Kadam Rasul PaurashavaSavar, FatullaHighXXXXXVery HighXXXXXSource: Consultant Team, RDP3. 4 Distribution of Future Projected Population4. Existing Housing ScenarioPredominant private land ownershipHigh land valueAreaLand price (Tk./katha*)1975199020002010Baridhara250006,00,00025,00,000400,00,000Gulshan250006,00,00022,00,000250,00,000Banani250006,00,00020,00,000150,00,000Mohakhali250006,00,00018,00,000120,00,000Dhanmondi250006,00,00022,00,000200,00,000Lalmatia200006,00,00018,00,000150,00,000Azimpur175006,00,00016,00,00055,00,000Mohammadpur250005,00,00012,00,00070,00,000Shantinagar200005,00,00015,00,000100,00,000Shamoli175003,00,00010,00,00045,00,000Uttara200003,00,00010,00,00075,00,000Cantonment200004,00,00010,00,00075,00,000Kamlapur175004,00,0008,00,00040,00,000Gandaria100004,00,0007,00,00035,00,000Bashabo20003,00,0008,00,00035,00,000Kalyanpur175003,00,0008,00,00032,00,000Mirpur100002,00,0007,00,00040,00,000Badda40002,00,0006,00,00030,00,000Goran40002,00,0006,00,00026,00,000Demra40002,00,0006,00,000180,00,000Motijheel5000012,00,00035,00,000200,00,000Karwan bazar4150010,00,00025,00,000150,00,000Average193414,81,81814,27,273111,72,7274. Existing scenario(contd..)Imbalanced distribution of housingSource: Nazrul, 1998. 4. Existing scenario (contd..)High rate of rules violationLocations of BuildingsViolation of RulesBuilding Height Road encroachmentSetback RulesKhilgaonKhilgaon &amp; Taltola48%84%96%MohammadpurLalmatia &amp; Samoli60%88%92%MirpurMirpur &amp; Kollanpur68%92%100%KotowaliBangsal &amp; Tantibazar68%96%100%SabujbagMugdapara78%96%100%RamnaKalabagan &amp; Kathalbagan78%96%100%BaddaNikunja52%92%96%GulshanGulshan &amp; Banani16%44%78%UttaraUttara24%56%84%Source: TIB Report, 2006Illegal housing developmentStatus of Housing ProjectsNo. of Housing ProjectsApproved by RAJUK30Without Approval from RAJUK79Illegally developed18Most of the city dwellers do not own any land4. Existing scenario (contd..)RegionTotal HouseholdHousing TenancyOwnedRentedRent FreeCore Area 142825919.576.73.8Fringe Area44785330.462.17.5Northern region, Gazipur38668837.3602.7Eastern Region(Rupganj &amp; Kaliganj)13598578.518.53Southern Region, Narayanganj, Bandar &amp; Sonargaon45221356.440.33.3South-Western Region, Keraniganj17296761.535.53Western Region, Savar32943333.364.52.2Total3353398316.9357.625.5House rent differs with income levelsTypeLow income groupMiddle income groupHigh income groupAv. Rent (Tk./sft)13.816.722.54. Existing scenario (contd..)Increasing rate of pucca construction within city coreMore semi pucca buildings are at the outskirt of the cityJhupri and kutcha houses are diminishing</p> <p>RegionHousing PatternPucca-2011Pucca-2001Semi-pucca-2011Semi-pucca-2001Kutcha-2011Kutcha-2001Jhupri-2011Jhupri-2001160.643.522729.399.919.262.47.83238.539.316.95.3Northern Region Gazipur17.712.4650.128.9830.252.7725.79Eastern Region-Rupganj, Kaliganj10.63.5131.29.7756.883.261.53.46South-Western Region, Keraniganj2719.735.122.2836.552.131.45.89Western Region, Savar24.813.145631.4618.349.850.95.55Southern Region21.913.1530.819.9346.262.851.14.07Total28.7317.5838.5023.6430.6953.352.095.43Source: Population Census 2001 and 2011Lack of proper infrastructural facilities in outskirt areas4. Existing scenario (contd..)RegionSource of drinking waterElectricity ConnectionToilet Facilities %TapTube-wellOtherSanitary (water sealed)Sanitary(non water-sealed)Non-SanitaryNoneCore Area 84.112.33.698.959.935.24.70.2Fringe Area77.528.44.193.346.739.810.13.4Northern region, Gazipur56.641.22.294.537.150.411.90.6Eastern Region(Rupganj &amp; Kaliganj)3.792.83.591.410.458.828.82Southern Region, Narayanganj, Bandar &amp; Sonargaon23.373.33.497.627.655.216.50.7South-Western Region, Keraniganj23.373.82.995.522.5697.70.8Western Region, Savar4553.91.196.553.340.75.60.4Source: Population Census 2011Inadequate waste disposal system 4. Existing scenario (contd..)Disposal place (%)Non SlumSlumThrown into the drains4.835.1Thrown on the roadside4.114.6Thrown on the vacant space3.417.7Door to door collection by municipalities50.814.2Door to door collection by private agencies35.419.7Household compost pit0.11.1Dustbin4.23.7Others0.13.3Source: Liaquat Ali Choudhury, Quality of Urban Life: Service Realities, PPRC, 2012High Value of Construction Materials YearBrick(Tk. perpiece)Sand (Tk. per cft.)Cement(Tk. perbag)Rod, 60Grade (Tk.Per Ton)LocalSylhet19901.104.736.7011511,50019951.507.008.5016213,50020002.507.8010.5019321,30020053.158.0022.0028339,70020107.0010.5029.0036554,40020128.5013.5030.5038567,000Source: Sheltech (Pvt.) Ltd 2012Unplanned and spontaneous housing development</p> <p>Haphazard development in the fringe areas</p> <p>Lack of timely Implementation of Development Plan4. Existing scenario (contd..)</p> <p>For planned housing, public sector supplies 7% and rest 93% is supplied by private sector</p> <p>4. Existing scenario (contd..)</p> <p>5. Poor (low-income) HousingHousing is the most immediate need of the huge poor migrant population Low income settlements or neighborhoods are not normally recognized by RAJUKLower income households comprises of about 70 percent of the urban householdsMajor types of lower income houses are: bastees, conventional tenement slums, government provided squatter resettlement camps, employee houses by government, illegal squatters </p> <p>Highly congested livingUnsanitary and unhygienic livingLacking of basic services and amenitiesHigh rate of illiteracyUnemploymentEnvironemental and psychological degradation, etc. </p> <p>5.1 Major Problems of Slums and Squatters6. Rural Settlement ZoneIsland like isolated clusters of rural homesteadsThe purpose of this zone is to- protect the natural environment- maintain a balanced rural-urban environment- promote appropriate compact development- creative developments that provide a range of housing styles and pricesMainly farmhouse, single or multifamily housing are the focus of this areaOnly low density uses are permittedVulnerable to invaded by urban uses7. Policies, Rules and RegulationsNational Housing Policy, 1993Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (1995-2010)- DMDP structure plan- DMDP urban area plan- DMDP detailed area plan The Building Construction Act 1952Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC), 1993Dhaka Metropolitan Building Construction Rule, 2008Private Housing Project Land Development Rule, 2004Water Body and Open Space Conservation Act, 2000Real Estate Development and Management Act 2010 7.1 Major policies in DAPDAP provides more detailed planning proposals for specific sub-areasLow Cost Housing for industrial workersDensity control measures for private apartmentsPromoting private land developers for low income housingSlum and squatters up-gradationFlood flow zone, Retention pond should be preserved.Planned residential neighborhoods for middle and low income people.</p> <p>8. Institutional and Financial SystemsNumber of institutions with overlapping responsibilitiesSpecial agencies for the Metropolitan city is RAJUKHousing credit at affordable interest rate is very difficult.Financing for house happen through institutional or non-institutional channelsInstitutional: various public and private banks and finance companies9. Housing Goals in RDPAdequate supplySufficient ownership and rental housingIncentives to promote low-income housingReduction in barriersMaking accessible to every residentPromoting city neighborhoods, sense of community and conservationProximity to jobs and servicesEnergy efficient houses</p> <p>Estimation of Future Housing RegionArea coveragePop_11HH_2011Pop_35HH_2035Dwelling Unit*BacklogReplacementTotal Demand1) CENTRAL REGION: THE Old Dhaka, , Ramna, Mirpur, Cantonment, Gulshan and Eastern &amp; Western periphery.8841105187611213036340309470929295151651945859037510972) NORTHERN REGIONCorporation Area and its adjacent fringe area. The area includes 41 thanas of DMA Area16257683866884843948130764110885282191142177064368193) EASTERN REGIONGazipur Sadar Upazila (part)6107991359859133482288142052472356741049646164) SOUTHERN REGIONRupganj Upazila and Kaliganj Upazila (Part)196542545221332243488383127245731137401449152586545) SOUTH WESTERN REGIONNarayanganj Sadar Upazila, Bandar Upazila and Sonargaon Upazila(Part)79436017296712832763135642883772518757675828626) WESTERN REGIONSavar Upazila (Part)12858363294332890823849448649623199825129925329749Total15123293335339826192083653195058858616460891177172182326110. Housing Strategies for RDPIntroduction of Neighborhood concept</p> <p>. ..Neighbourhoods are the spatial units in which face-to-face social interactions occur the personal settings and situations where residents seek to realize common values, socialize youth, and maintain effective social control." </p> <p>10. Housing StrategiesHousing Promotion through Satellite Town Development 10. Housing Strategies</p> <p> Residential Area Development under Model Detailed Area Plan 10. RecommendationPlanned National Urban Development and Urban Housing Demand ManagementInfrastructure development Ensuring the Efficiency of Public AgenciesTimely Implementation of Previous Plan ProposalsHousing Area Development by PPPDevelop Standards for Housing ServicesInfrastructure supports for low income dwellersPopulation density mappingPromoting high density housing development Restrict lateral developmentPolicy support for easy supply of landEasy accessibility to housing creditPromoting Research and development on housingGathering experiences from global good practicesEstablishment of a Metro Development Authority. </p> <p>10. RecommendationImage sources:</p> <p>(1)http://virtualdatainfo.blogspot.com/2013/01/bangladesh-real-estates-companies-list.html (ii)http://www.mayfielddevelopment.com/conceptsStrategies.htm(iii) http://inhabitat.com/broadway-malyan-unveils-plan-for-convida-suape-a-sustainable-city-for-northeast-brazil/(iv) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_housing_in_Singapore(v) http://www.cleanbiz.asia/story/singapore-begins-pilot-public-housing-eco-homes#.Upo3T-KzKZo</p> <p>Thank you</p>

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