History Gastronomy Famous People Traditions Architecture Geography

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> History Gastronomy Famous People Traditions Architecture Geography </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Peru The Incas The Incas of Cusco (Cuzco) originally represented one of these small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-71). Historian John Hemming describes Pachacuti as "one of those protean figures, like Alexander or Napoleon, who combine a mania for conquest with the ability to impose his will on every facet of government." Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui (1471-93), the Incas came to control upwards of a third of South America, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, called Tawantinsuyu, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Between 1200 and 1535 AD, the Inca population lived in the part of South America extending from the Equator to the Pacific coast of Chile. The beginning of the Inca rule started with the conquest of the Moche Culture in Peru. The Inca were warriors with a strong and powerful army. Because of the fierceness of their army and their hierarchical organization, they became the largest Native American society. The height of their reign in the 15th century came to a brutal end in 1535 when the Spanish conquistadors took over their territory. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Inca Son plays music from the Andes of Peru, and all Latin America. The group performs traditional songs, which the musicians arrange to create a unique style, as well as original compositions. Several of the songs from their last three recordings including : "Ascope Tierra del Amanecer", "Cholita Tania", "El Abuelito", and "Inti Libertad" - by Cesar Villalobos -- are hits in Peru. The instruments that are used, with the exception of the stringed instruments, are made by the musicians themselves. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The defeat of the last bastion of royal power on the continent, however, proved a slow and arduous task. Although a number of other coastal cities quickly embraced the liberating army, San Martn was able to take Lima in July 1821 only when the viceroy decided to withdraw his considerable force to the Sierra, where he believed he could better make a stand. Shortly thereafter, on July 28, 1821, San Martn proclaimed Peru independent and then was named protector by an assembly of notables. However, a number of problems, not the least of which was a growing Peruvian resentment over the heavy-handed rule of the foreigner they dubbed "King Jos," stalled the campaign to defeat the royalists. As a result, San Martn decided to seek aid from Simn Bolvar Palacios, who had liberated much of northern South America from Spanish power. The two liberators met in a historic meeting in Guayaquil in mid-1822 to arrange the terms of a joint effort to complete the liberation of Peru. Bolvar refused to agree to a shared partnership in the Peruvian campaign, however, so a frustrated San Martn chose to resign his command and leave Peru for Chile and eventual exile in France. With significant help from San Martn's forces, Bolvar then proceeded to invade Peru, where he won the Battle of Junn in August 1824. But it remained for his trusted lieutenant, thirty-one-year-old General Antonio Jos de Sucre Alcal, to complete the task of Peruvian independence by defeating royalist forces at the hacienda of Ayacucho near Huamanga (a city later renamed Ayacucho) on December 9, 1824. This battle in the remote southern highlands effectively ended the long era of Spanish colonial rule in South America </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> , Peru was a conservative, royalist stronghold where the potentially restless creole elites maintained a relatively privileged, if dependent, position in the old colonial system. At the same time, the "anti-white" manifestations of the Despite the Tpac Amaru revolts, independence was slow to develop in the Viceroyalty of Peru. For one thing Tpac Amaru revolt demonstrated that the indigenous masses could not easily be mobilized without posing a threat to the creole caste itself. Thus, when independence finally did come in 1824, it was largely a foreign imposition rather than a truly popular, indigenous, and nationalist movement. As historian David P. Werlich has aptly put it, "Peru's role in the drama of Latin American independence was largely that of an interested spectator until the final act." </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS Government: On April 5, 1992, democratically elected President Fujimori staged military-backed self-coup, closing legislative and judicial branches and suspending 1979 constitution. Under 1979 constitution, executive power vested in president of the Republic, elected for a four-year term in elections held every five years. If no one presidential candidate received an absolute majority, the first- and second-place candidates ran in a runoff election. President could not serve two consecutive terms. Governed with a Council of Ministers that included a prime minister. Bicameral Congress had a 60-member Senate, elected on a district basis; and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies directly elected by proportional representation. Both houses elected for terms of five years coinciding with those of president and vice president. Needed two-thirds vote to override presidential veto. Supreme Court of Justice highest judicial authority; twelve members nominated by president for life terms. At regional level, 1979 constitution mandated establishment of regional governments. Regionalization initiated in 1988 but stalled in 1992. Direct elections for municipalities held every three years and for regions, every five years. Under international pressure, Fujimori began transition to his reformed version of democracy with the establishment of the Democratic Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente Democrtico--CCD) to serve as autonomous, single-chamber legislative body. Its eighty members were elected on November 22, 1992 in free and fair elections. Nationwide municipal elections held on January 29, 1993. Politics: Peru's multiparty system traditionally has had numerous political parties. Virtually unknown, Fujimori ran for president in 1990 as "outsider" candidate of Peru's newest party, Cambio '90 (Change '90). With help from business and informal sectors and Evangelical grassroots organizers, Fujimori elected overwhelmingly by electorate that had lost faith in established political system. Succeeded populist Alan Garca Prez, controversial head of left-of-center American Popular Revolutionary Party (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana-- APRA), Peru's oldest party. Impatient with legislative and judicial hindrance of free-market reforms, Fujimori staged selfcoup on April 5, 1992, with full backing of armed forces, dissolving Congress, suspending 1979 constitution, and moving against political opposition led by Garca, who, accused of stockpiling weapons, fled into exile. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$20.6 billion in 1991, or US$920 per capita. Real GDP per capita in 1990 US$2,622. GDP in 1991 in new sols (see Exchange Rate, this section) lower than recorded in 1980. Economic growth has declined markedly since 1950-65 period; estimated at 2.4 percent in 1991, minus 2.7 percent in 1992. Forecast for 1993: 2.5 percent real GDP growth. In 1990-91 symptoms of 1980s' crisis continued, with sharply declining per capita output, worsening poverty, accelerating political violence, high levels of unemployment (15 percent) and underemployment (65 percent) and mounting external debt (US$19.4 billion in 1991). Foreign debt rose to US$21.6 billion in 1992. Labor force increased to 7.6 million by 1990. After Alberto K. Fujimori took office as president (1990-), inflation declined significantly to only 139 percent per year by the end of 1991, as compared with 7,650 percent in 1990, and 56.6 percent in 1992. Infation forecast for 1993: 47 percent. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The coastal valleys from colonial times to the present have been dominated by extensive systems of plantation agriculture, with powerful elite families in control of the land and water rights. The principal crops harvested under these regimes are sugarcane and cotton, with a mixture of other crops, such as grapes and citrus, also being planted. Before the Agrarian Reform Law of 1969, about 80 percent of the arable coastal land was owned by 1.7 percent of the property owners. Despite the dominance of the great coastal estates, there were, and still are, thousands of smaller farms surrounding them, producing a wide variety of food crops for the urban markets and for subsistence. Since land reform, ownership of the great plantations has been transferred to the employees and workers, who operate them as a type of cooperative. The coastal farmland is extremely valuable because of the generous climate, flat lands, and usually reliable irrigation waters, without which nothing would succeed. These advantageous conditions are supplemented by the use of excellent guano and fish-meal fertilizers. As a result, the productive coastal land, amounting to only 3.8 percent of the national total, including pasture and forest, yields a reported 50 percent of the gross agricultural product. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Population: 22,767,543 in July 1992 with 2.0 percent growth rate; density, 17.8 persons per square kilometer. Projected population growth to 28 million by 2000 with annual growth rate of at least 2.1 percent. Population 70 percent urban in 1991. Official language: Spanish. Ethnic Groups: Unofficial estimates: Native American, 45 percent; mestizo (mixed native American and European ancestry), 37 percent; white, 15 percent; black, Asian, and other, 3 percent. Other estimates put native Americans as high as 52.5 percent (Quechua, 47.1 percent; Aymara, 5.4 percent). </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> A Smorgasbord of Weather Peru is located in the tropics near the equator, Peru's weather is not what you'd expect. On Earthyou can find a total of 32 kinds of climate and Peru has 28 of them. On a trip through Peru you might find hot deserts, dry forests, humid savannas, plain rainforests, cold plateaus, cool steppes and icy mountains. It's tough to pack! </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> PERUVIAN CHICKEN SOUP WITH SWEET POTATOES AND PEANUTS 1/2 cup dry-roasted peanuts 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 1 1/2 cups thinly sliced onion 6 cups water 1/2 cup yellow cornmeal 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon ground cumin 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice 4 cups julienne-cut peeled sweet potato (about 1 pound) 1 1/2 pounds skinless, boneless chicken breasts, cut into bite-size pieces 1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 6 Ounce Albacore Tuna Steak 2 T Cajun Spice 6 Ounces Lettuce, rough chop 2T Cilantro, chopped 2 Ounces Cheddar Cheese, grated 2 Ounces Salsa2 Ounces Mayonaise 3 Ounces Tortilla Chips, crushed 1/4 Each Avocado, fanned 1 Each Red Chill, for garnish 1 Ounce Salsa, for garnish 1 Sprig Cilantro, for garnish </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Pisco is a type of clear brandy produced in the Ica region of Peru. A quality pisco should be smooth and have a perfume-like aroma. 1 egg white 1 tbs sugar 1 glass of pisco juice from 6 limes chipped ice angostura bitters (optional) Beat the egg white and sugar in a blender. Add pisco, lime juice, ice, and angostura bitters if desired. Mix well and pour into shot glasses. Pisco Sour </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Isabel Allende (Peru 1942) Isabel Allende is one of Latin America's most celebrated literary figuresThe niece of the slain Chilean President Salvador Allende, she writes with an acute sensitivity to social and political conditions as well as the heart of a true romantic. Allende is considered to be part of Latin American fiminist literary awakening.She be writing about her experiences that she had in her life and other things. Biography:: "The House of the Spirits", "Of Love and Shadows", "Eva Luna", "The Infinite Plan", "Paula and Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses"... </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> </ul>