History Fair Annotated Bibliography Final

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PrimaryColton, Gardner Quincy. Anaesthesia. Who made and developed this great discovery? A Statement"Delivered upon the mellowing of occasion." New York, A. G. Sherwood & Co., Publishers,1886 Primary account of Mortons acquaintance and his support of Morton as a pioneer of anesthesia

"Computer-Controlled Anesthesia Simulation." Gale U.S. History in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2012. U.S. History in Context. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.The photo was used as an example of the progression of the use of anesthesia

"The Discovery Of The Ansthetic Properties Of Sulphuric Ether." The British Medical Journal 2.1189 (1883): 738. JSTOR. Web. 04 Jan. 2015.The article detailed the discovery of sulphuric ethers effects as an anesthetic.

Letters by Crawford W. Long and addressed to him cited in Frank Bolands book The FirstAnesthetic: The Story of Crawford Long. Athens, GA: U Of Georgia, 2009. Web.These letters record Longs requesting ether which he would use in his first experiment successfully.

Long, Crawford W. "Account of the First Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations." Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 5 (1849): n. pag. Web.Information on how Dr. Long documented his experiments with sulphuric ether was gathered by using this resource.

Southern Medical and Surgical journal. Vol 5 No.12. December, 1849Southern Medical journal contains the first recorded information of Longs experiments with ether, the discovery is supported by witnesses accounts.

Taylor, Frances (Long). Crawford W. Long & the Discovery of Ether Anesthesia. New York: P.B. Hoeber, 1928. Print.Primary account from Longs daughter, which analyzes reasons for Longs late publication

Thomas, Charles, and Joseph Jacobs. "Some Personal Recollections and Private Correspondence ofDr. Crawford Williamson Long." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2015.This source was useful in finding personal recollection from individuals that knew Crawford W. Long personally and provides a valuable point of view on his character and his insolvent in the civil war.

Wells, Horace. A History of the Discovery of the Application of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, and Other Vapors, to Surgical Operations. Hartford: J. Gaylord Wells, 1847. Print.Wells claim to discovering anesthesia aided the tab on the controversy of who discovered anesthesia first.


Acupuncture Needles. Digital image. Wood-Library Museum, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2015. Illustration of acupuncture needles used to lower the pain during surgeries

Albin, Maurice S. "The Use of Anesthetics during the Civil War, 1861-1865." Pharmacy in History 42.3/4, Civil War Pharmacy (2000): 99-114. JSTOR. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.Information and pictures of what surgery was like during the Civil War was found here. This helped me gain knowledge of what medical treatment was like on the field.The Association. The Journal of the Association of Military Dental Surgeons of the United States. Vol. 2. N.p.: n.p., 1918. Print.We found and quoted some information about anesthesia in the Civil War from this source.Bakalar, Nicholas. "Anesthesia, Without a Knockout Punch." The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 July 2004. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.More information about ether anesthesias role in the Civil War was gathered here. The images of tools and several quotes from Dr. Albin were used.

Boland, Frank K. The First Anesthetic: The Story of Crawford Long. Athens, GA: U Of Georgia, 1950.Web.Bolands book provides information on the development of anesthesia before Long and his experimentation and impact in the medical and surgical world. The book also has a section discussing the contradiction about who was first to discover anesthesia.

"Carbon Dioxide Absorption." Anesthesia Gas Machine. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.The carbon dioxide absorption machine was an invention of the 20th century, and we learned about how this was a result of the development of anesthesiology.

Davy Medal. Digital image. Wood-Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2015. A medal made in the honor of Humphry Davy

The Discovery of Anesthesia." The British Medical Journal 2.1919 (1897): 1017. Print.The British Medical Journal reports the news of the discovery of ether by an American surgeon.

"Dr. Crawford Long's Painless Operation." Georgia Public Broadcasting. Georgia Public Radio, n.d.Web. 08 Jan. 2015Longs first operation on a patient using anesthesia is presented in an education video-documentary in which actors re-enact Longs discovery."During Surgery | Anesthesia Drugs, Breathing Tubes, Machines Florida." During Surgery | Anesthesia Drugs, Breathing Tubes, Machines Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.Information on the tools that are used today during the administration of anesthesia were gathered from this website.

Ether Controversy. Perf. Susan A. Vassallo, M.D. William T.G. Morton and the Demonstration of Ether Anaesthesia. Wood Library Museum of Anesthesiology, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2015. A video presenting primary source documents on the ether Controvesry

Ether. Digital image. Wood-Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. A Grand Exebition of The Effects Produced By The Laughing Gas. Digital image. PLQHQ. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. Picture illustrates common effects of the laughing gas, such as laughing and relaxation

Finger, Stanley. "Origins of Neuroscience." Google Books. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 08 Jan.2015.This source describes the attempted experimentations with ether before Long by Paracelsus and William W. Clarke and describes the debate over the discovery of ether.

Fulton, John F., and Madeline E. Stanton. The Centennial of Surgical Anesthesia; an AnnotatedCatalogue. New York: Henry Schuman, 1946. The Centennial of Surgical Anesthesia; anAnnotated Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets Bearing on the Early History of Surgical Anesthesia, Exhibited at the Yale Medical Library, October 1946. Yale Medical Library. Web. 10 Jan. 2015. Information about Mortons use of letheon and the ether controversy.

Goss, J. H. "Atlanta Journal-record of Medicine." Journal-Record of Medicine 10.8 (1908): 401+. Web.5 Jan. 2015The account gives information about Longs personality, his family and life. It also talks about his experience with Nitrous oxide before he started experimenting with ether.

Hua Tuo. Digital image. Wood-Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. Portrait of Hua Tuo, Chinese surgeon who attempted making anesthesia

Hua Tuo- Famous Doctor in Ancient China. Digital image. Orichinese. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2015. Portrait of Hua Tuo

Humphry Davy Administering a Dose of Laughing Gas to a Woman. Digital image. The PublicDomain Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. Demonstration of Davys trials

Madden, Leslie. "Crawford Long (1815-1878)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Institute of Technology, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015.Basic information about Longs early life, education and source of inspiration provided by the Georgia institute of technology.Novak, Rick, M.D. "Dr. Rick Novak." E-mail interview. 21 Feb. 2015.This interview gave us insight on what anesthesiology is like today.Novak, Rick. "Menu." Theanesthesiaconsultant Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.We found a picture of Dr. Novak as well as information about him from his website.

Pennsylvania University. Memorial to Dr.Crawford Long, of the class of 1839. An account of theceremonies of the ceremonies of the unveiling of a bronze medallion in the musical building onMarch 30,1812. Philadelphia. Published by the University of Pennsylvania.1912 Emphasizes the role of University of Pennsylvania in Longs discovery of anesthesia.

"Remembering Dr. Crawford Long." Capitol Words. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.Quotes from Paul Broun about remembering Dr. Long were used from this website.

Reporter, Daily Mail. "Hooks, Handsaws and Forceps: The Grisly Photos That Show How Soldiers Gritted Their Teeth for Surgery in the American Civil War." Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.Many of the pictures featured on this article were used in the Civil War tabs on the website.

Shepard, Bob. "School of Medicine - News - Anesthesia Came of Age during Civil War." UAB. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.More information on ether anesthesia and the Civil War was found on this website.

Smith, Allen J. "Documentary Evidence Bearing Upon Dr. Crawford W. Long's Discovery of Ether Anesthesia." Google Books. University of Pennsylvania, n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2015.The resource gives supporting evidence which confirms Long as a pioneer in ether anesthesia. The source provides handwritten papers of Longs writings and letters.

Sokoll, Martin, M.D. "Dr. Martin Sokoll." Telephone interview. 21 Feb. 2015.This interview with Dr. Sokoll created an interesting conversation about Dr. Long and his discovery, he talked about the new developments that are imperative to preventing patient deaths from anesthesia today.

"Structures and Monuments in Which Georgia Stone Was Used." Structures and Monuments in Which Georgia Stone Was Used. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.We learned about Dr. Longs statue from this source.

"UAB News - Modern Anesthesia Traces Roots to the American Civil War." UAB -. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.The impact of anesthesia on the Civil War was investigated on this website.

Use of Opium Sponges. Digital image. Too Many Spiders. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.An image illustrating prehistoric attempts to use opiates as an anesthetic. The impact of anesthesia on the Civil War was investigated on this website.

"The Wood Library Museum." Ether. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.Information on ether anesthesia and the image from this page was used.