histoire de l’univers infinite, finite, infinite,

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  • Slide 1
  • Histoire de lunivers infinite, finite, infinite,
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  • c
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  • Early universe: photons + ultra-relativistic particles radiation era
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  • Grand and super unification of all interactions
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  • Thermal equilibrium: interaction rate> volume expansion interaction rate per unit time (one particle): (n=density) volume expansion: relative expansion per unit time: relativistic particles loose energy between interactions because of expansion
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  • if as soon as
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  • When kt
  • t 10 s: primordial nucleosynthesis remain photons, and a few electrons and non relativistic p, n in thermal equilibrium Deuterium 2 H is then the start of other fusion reactions, leading to light nuclei ends when
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  • Nucleosynthesis No stable nuclei with A=5, 8, primordial nucleosynthesis ends here!
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  • After that the universe is filled with photons, electrons and light nuclei in thermal equilibrium e - +p H(atom)+ slows down when ends for kT 0.3 eV, t=10 5 yr t>10 5 yr matter (neutral atoms) and radiation decouple no more Compton interaction with charged particles: Universe becomes transparent to radiation (photons) relic photons now cooled down to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
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  • BIG BANG 10 -43 sec 10 -32 sec 10 -11 sec 10 -4 sec 100 sec 300000 yr 10 9 yr 15x10 9 yr gravity separates EW Weak+Elec inflation ends quarks p, n p, n He formation of atoms galaxy formation today normal expansion
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  • COBE
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  • T=2.735 K waves/cm intensity, 10 -4 erg/cm 2 sr sec cm -1 black body, Planck Relic of the early universe
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  • WMAP (NASA)
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  • WMAP CMB