# Heredity,Punnett Squares, & Probability Power Point Presentation

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• 1. Heredity, Genetics Punnett Squares & Probability Mr. Miller

2. Lets find out if the two pigeons on the left produce offspring that have the traits of the pigeon on the right 3. To do this we must understand how to use a Punnet Square

• What is a Punnet Square?
• A chart that allows us to determine the different genotypes that offspring can inherit from their parents

4. Lets see how to use it

• First we must get the genotype of each parent
• Example:
• T: allele for tallness
• t: allele for shortness
• tt mothers genotype
• Tt fathers genotype

5. Now lets set up the Punnet Square T t t t T T t t t t t t 6. What are the number of genotypes for the traits the offspring can inherit? T t t t

• The offspring caninherit two sets of genes that will produce a tall phenotype
• The offspring can inherit two sets of genes that will produce a short phenotype

Tt tt Tt tt 7. Now lets talk about probability

• What is probability?
• Probability is the chance that an event will occur
• How do you find the probability of an event?
• You must know:
• the number of specific events
• the number of possible events

8. Lets find the probability the child will be tall

• How many genotypes will produce a tall offspring?

2 What are number of possible genotypes? 4 T t t t Tt tt Tt tt 9. Now lets find the probability!

• Probability =
• Number of specific event21
• Number of possible events42
• The probability of having a tall offspring is , 1:2, or 50%

10. Now try this one

• Determine the types of genes an offspring can inherit from parents that have the following genotypes:
• Zz - fathers genotype
• Zz - mothers genotype
• Z: gene for gray feathers
• z: allele for white feathers

Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z 11. Now lets look at the possible genotypes and the phenotypes that will be expressed Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z There is a single possibility of inheriting a homozygous (pure) dominant genotype which will produce a phenotype with grey feathers There are two possibilities of inheriting heterozygous (hybrid) genotypes which will produce a phenotype with grey feathers 12. Now lets look at the possible genotypes and the phenotypes that will be expressed Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z There is a single possibility of inheriting a homozygous (pure) recessive genotype which will produce a phenotype with white feathers So two grey birds can produce a pigeon with white feathers! 13. Now lets find the probability

• Lets find the probability the offspring will have grey feathers.

= Z Z z z ZZ Zz Zz zz 14. Now lets find the probability

• Lets find the probability the offspring will have white feathers.

= Z Z z z ZZ Zz Zz zz