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www.csimagazine.commay/june 2013Here comes DOCSIS 3.1OTT QoSCDN roundtableMPEG-DASH & HEVC2nd screen synchronisationhttp://www.csimagazine.comhttp://www.csimagazine.comStill wishing for CCAP?Release the power with Harmonic NSG ProCCAP is real with NSG Pro from Harmonic Harmonic NSG Pro is a Converged Cable Access Platform that enables you to easily move towards all-IP at the cable edge. With the high density of NSG Pro you can minimize costs by converging platforms and dramatically reduce both power and space requirements. NSG Pro fits seamlessly into your environment, and provides the easiest, most cost-effective path to CCAP. Learn more at NSGPro.com2013 Harmonic Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.Harmonic_NSG_CSI Magazine_Genie.indd 1 5/2/13 3:59 PM 12 Analyst cornerAs pay TV channels look to go to advertising support-ed models, Guy Bisson gives his verdict on the best potential markets14 COVER STORY - DOCSIS 3.1Get ready for the new Docsis standard - coming to a network near you sooner rather than later16 Cable Congress reviewBroadband continues to displace TV as cables focus 18 Second screen synchronisationSynchronisation technology will see a boom, but what it needs is a killer app. And how do companies choose between the ACR techniques out there?22 OTT QoSManaging service quality over unmanaged networks and devices requires a radically different approach to traditional TV distribution. How can this be guaran-teed in light of all the variables?24 Guest column The DTG on the importance of the Future Innovation in Television Technology (FITT) Taskforce27 CDN roundtableCSI assembled a diverse panel to look at the current and future market for content delivery networks34 TeleportsWe examine the future prospects of teleport services, which are evolving in new and different directions42 MPEG-DASHThe streaming standard aims to unify but it faces a struggle. Dolby gives its view on page 38EditorGoran Nastic Commercial managerTiro Bestonso Design and productionMatt Mills (Manager)Jason TuckerMatleena Lilja-PellingKeem ChungRegular contributorsAdrian Pennington, Philip Hunter, David Adams, Stephen CousinsCirculationJoel Whitefoot (Manager) AccountsMarilou Tait, Lynta KamarayEditorialtel +44(0)20 7562 2401fax +44(0)20 7374 2701goran.nastic@csimagazine.comAdvertisingtel +44(0)20 7562 2427fax +44(0)20 7374 2701tiro.bestonso@csimagazine.comSubscriptionstel +44 (0)20 7562 2420fax +44 (0)20 7374 2701joel.whitefoot@perspectivepublishing.comWebsite www.csimagazine.comSubscription ratesPer year: Europe 88; UK 68; Rest of World 98. Cheques payable to Perspective Publishing Limited and addressed to the Circulation Department Printed by Buxton PressManaging DirectorJohn WoodsPublishing DirectorMark EvansISSN 1467-5935Perspective Publishing3 London Wall BuildingsLondonEC2M 5PDwww.perspectivepublishing.comEditors report:Spectrum, what is it good for (to paraphrase Springsteen)? However, rather than being good for absolutely nothing as The Boss sang, the battle lines are being increasingly drawn over this scarce and precious commodity between existing terrestrial TV services and emerging wireless broadband technologies who see it as very useful indeed. The dispute is not a new one but has recently reared its head again, albeit for different reasons, in the UK and Germany. In any case, these discussions ask profound questions about the long-term future of the DTT platform (see pages 24 and 27). Cable, meanwhile, realising that the future is IP-based, is to even greater degrees boosting the efficiency of its networks and plants to be ready for Gigabit speeds as more and more video is pushed down broadband pipes (see pages 14 and 16). Goran Nastic, Awards 20131. Best outside broadcast or playout technology or service2. Best digital video processing technology3. Best cable or fibre contribution/distribution/ transmission solution4. Best satellite contribution/distribution/transmission solution5. Best monitoring or network management solution6. Best customer premise technology7. Best workflow/asset management/automation solution8. Best content protection technology9. Best content-on-demand solution10. Best interactive TV technology or application11. Best IPTV technology or service12. Best mobile TV technology or service13. Best HDTV technology or project14. Best Web TV technology or service15. Best Ultra HD TV Technology or project - NEW 16. Best TV Everywhere/multi-screen video 17. Best Social TV technology, service or application18. Best Contribution to TV Accessibility - NEWFor Sponsorship opportunities contact: Tiro Bestonso, Commercial ManagerTel: +44 (0)20 7562 2427Email: tiro.bestonso@csimagazine.comFor judging or entry enquiries:Goran Nastic, EditorTel: +44 (0)20 7562 2416Email: goran.nastic@csimagazine.comCall for entriesENTER NOW: winners will be announced at an awards ceremony on the 13th September 2013, IBC, Amsterdam.There are 18 coveted Awards up for grabs this year and remember you are welcome to enter multiple in briefAmazon working on STBAmazon is developing its own set-top box to support its streaming video services. The device, due later this year, will connect to TVs and also provide access to Amazons expanding video services, including the companys VoD store, making use of its existing content and billing relationships to move even more into the living room. Amazon has introduced several original television pilots for customer feedback as it looks to expand its services. The STB is being developed by Amazons Lab126 division. The move would pit the retail giant against the likes of Apple TV, Roku, and Xbox, as well as Intel, which is launching its own OTT STB this year.Canadian television network Bulb Television has become the first channel in North America, and one of the first in the world, to announce plans of a 4k ultra HD feed, with launch as early as next month, and 8k also in the pipeline before the end of next year.Bulb TV has been transmitting a 4000 pixels feed for internal testing over the last several weeks and will be releasing the signal in 4k, 1080 HD and standard definition formats when it launches in May. The ultra HD format is four times the resolution of a typical 1080 high def.Content will begin to be produced in-house and acquired in the 4k, while content airing that was filmed in 1080p will be up converted. The 4000 pixel feed currently streams at around 50mbps.The company is also first broadcaster to announce plans to launch an 8k version of the channel when technology permits, namely once the H.265 codec and encoders become readily available, ideally as soon as fall 2014.According to its blurb, Bulb Television will be airing intellectual programming of conferences and shows with substance in a non-traditional format.The idea came up several months ago that if were building a new master control anyway, lets be the first to break ground with this new revolution technology as well, said founder Evan Kosiner.Bulb TV is set to launch in markets across Canada on cable, satellite and IPTV platforms in May and June. Operators who cannot immediately carry the new 4k format will have options to carry a 1080 signal or SD signal. SES has launched an Ultra HD Experience initiative to drive the development of the value chain. Content producers and broadcasters are invited to submit ultra HD footage via and will be given the opportunity to broadcast via an SES satellite.Bulb TV turns on 4kNews in briefSwisscom TV abroadSwisscom TV plus customers will be able to access and watch recorded programmes up to 30 days old while abroad using their smartphones, tablets, laptops and PCs. More than 80% of the operators TV plus customers regularly record programmes and they will be able to watch these outside of Switzerland as of 29 April. The company also said that iPhones and Android smartphones can now be used as TV remote controls. Forward EPG search functionality has also been added.DT caps monthly dataDeutsche Telekom will be introducing monthly data caps for new fixed broadband customers next month, in response to surging consumer demand for data. From 2 May, monthly data allowance will be based on specific packages. If the volume limit is exceeded, then the data rate will automatically drop to 384kbps for the rest of the month. On average DTs customers currently use between 15GB and 20GB of data per month.Twitter and viewer tune-inSocial TV analytics company SecondSync has integrated overnight TV ratings from BARB, the UKs audience measurement service, into its dashboard platform in order to gain an understanding of the relationship between social TV data and audience figures. The move means that for the first time broadcasters, programme-makers and advertisers can see the minute-by-minute relationship between social TV activity and audiences, and determine to what extent Twitter drives tune-in, according to the company.NewsTablets outstrip phone iPlayer requestsThe BBCs iPlayer catch-up service has for the first time seen more requests from tablets than smartphones.The catch-up service saw 200,000 more requests from tablets than from smartphone devices in March. The BBC said that, tablets and smartphones combined accounted for almost a third (30%) of all iPlayer requests, or 81 million requests in total.Daily requests among smartphone and tablet owners also reached a daily record of an average of 8.1 million. Weekly requests peaked at 60 million in the second week of March.Overall, iPlayer received 200 million TV requests and 72 million radio requests in March. The Top Gear: Africa Special was the most watched iPlayer programme throughout March, with 5.7 million requests across the two-part show. The BBC recently reported that it would offer some content on iPlayer before it is broadcast on TV, part of a 12 month trial where 40 hours of programming will be made available in this way. Some 150 million tablets are forecast to ship globally this year worth an estimated $64 billion, according to ABI Research, a sales growth of over 38% year-over-yearAbout 60% of last years tablet shipments used Apples iOS software while 37% were based on Googles Android OS. The remaining 3% OS share consisted of Windows, BlackBerry Tablet OS, and unidentified OS implementations. The tide is definitely turning toward Android-based tablets, said the market researchers.Sky: UltraViolet needs simplifyingSkys head of movies has dismissed the UltraViolet standard for now, arguing the proposition is too complicated for both studios and consumers in its current form.Speaking at IHS Screen Digests PEVE Entertainment 2013 conference this week, Ian Lewis, director of Sky Movies and Sky Box Office at BskyB, said the payTV operator is interested in how the market is developing but has no imminent plans on coming on board.UltraViolet is not quite there yet. Its great the industry is looking for single format to engage population but Im not sure even Hollywood studios are aligned with what it is, said Lewis.Its too complex and difficult to explain to people. VHS and DVD took of once resolutions were reached. UltraViolet on the other hand is quite complicated. Not every film people buy is available through that route and there is a fear among customers about compatibility. Going forward it needs to be simpler and more customer focused, he argued.A day earlier at the same event, DECEs Mark Teitell explained how the digital locker will be launched in France and Germany by the end of Q3, with other European markets to follow. UltraViolet has so far rolled out in the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, while 9,000 titles from seven Hollywood studios are available in the US.Skys Lewis also echoed gripes from other service providers that content windows need to be rethought in a converging marketplace. In digital world it feels much harder to sustain existing artificial release windows. We need to embrace opportunities that digital has to offer. Constructive experimentation is needed with windows and we see huge benefits of a big launch moment than staggered releases, he said, arguing that new payTV business models can help mitigate declining DVD sales.Lewis added that the company does not see its new Now TV internet TV service as a direct competitor to the likes of Netflix and LoveFilm. We are competing in a different space to OTT providers as we are premium service with premium content.Sky Movies has been available for six months on Now TV, while Sky Sports has just been added, as have single day purchases giving customers 24-hour access for 9.99. We are very pleased with how Now TV has started, asserted Lewis, despite the internet TV service having been plagued by technical issues since it launched last year.06 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comhttp://www.csimagazine.comTechnologyConference2013 REGISTER Multimedia Home Gateways Conference13 June 2013, BFI Southbank, LondonCSI Magazine is once again proud to present a one day conference dedicated to the theme of multimedia Home Gateways. FREE for Operators, Service Providers, Broadcasters and Content ProvidersLaST CHaNCE TO BOOkPlatinum Sponsor Research Partners Media PartnersGold sponsorsTop Industry Speakers Include: in briefYouTube iOS streamingGoogle has updated its YouTube iOS app to version 1.3, which adds support for live streaming. The mobile app for Apple devices now lets users watch video live on-the-go, a feature previously reserved for PC-based viewing. Other improvements in the new version include quick access to new uploads from subscriptions, and the ability to queue videos for playback on TV.Cyfrowy tests Dolby DigitalCyfrowy Polsat is testing one of its own HD channels - Polsat Sport HD - with Dolby Digital Plus with the aim of enhancing viewers overall experience and quality and service. Dolby Digital Plus delivers up to 7.1 channels of cinematic surround sound, with scalable sound delivery and a wide range of bit rates for optimised sound quality and bandwidth efficiency.Pace to supply Horizon STBLiberty Global has selected Pace as the second set-top box supplier for its media server gateways to a number of its operations in Europe. Samsung manufactured Horizon boxes have so far rolled out in Dutch and Swiss markets, with Ireland and Germany among the new territories to follow.Smart energy specsThe ZigBee Alliance has completed its Smart Energy Profile 2 specs, which will take ZigBee into millions of connected devices such as smart meters or home security systems. The ZigBee SEP 2 provides IP-based information and control for energy management in HANs (home area networks), for both wired and wireless networks and supports any IETF IP- protocol.08 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comNewsNetflix and DRM in HTML5Netflix has said it is moving towards HTML5 as the basis for next-gen video playback on the web as it looks to replace Microsofts Silverlight streaming technology.Netflix uses Silverlight to deliver streaming video to web browsers on PC and Mac devices but as Microsoft is phasing Silverlight 5 by 2021 it has decided to move towards HTML5 video to remove some of the disadvantages of browser plug-ins, such as limited device support.The company has been working with Google and other W3C partners to implement support for so-called HTML5 Premium Video Extensions in the Chrome browser, and has just started using this technology on the Samsung ARM-Based Chromebook. The player on this Chromebook device uses the Media Source Extensions and Encrypted Media Extensions to adaptively stream protected content. Netflix said it will remove the last remaining browser plugin as soon as WebCrypto is available directly in the Chrome browser, at which point it can begin testing its new HTML5 video player on Windows and OS X.Were excited about the future of premium video playback on the web, and we look forward to the day that these Premium Video Extensions are implemented in all browsers, it wrote in a blog.Earlier this year, Netflix had together with Google and Microsoft submitted to the W3C consortium a draft proposal - entitled Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) - for a way to add DRM to video played through HTML5, a move which came under much criticism from many quarters on ethical grounds of an open internet.Like other companies, Netflix is aware that a number of other components are needed for HTML5 to be able to deliver premium quality video. Media Source Extensions and the Web Cryptography API are among the additional draft proposals under consideration with the W3C.But it is also feared in some quarters that proposals from Google may not result in a level playing field in terms of different protection mechanisms (particularly with regards to the company advancing its own technologies inside its OS and Chrome browser). To this end, Netflix is seen as simply moving from one proprietary technology in Silverlight to another that is embedded in Chrome browsers on certain platforms.All the companies that CSI has spoken to about DRM in HTML5 (whether directly or via plug-ins) suggest it is too early to tell what the outcome of the W3C process will be. It is understood, however, that discussions around standardisation are political with contributors inside the body deeply divided on the issue.Connected TV falls under ECs eye The European Commission has begun a public consultation on connected TV to help it decide whether regulation is needed in specific areas.It issued its own green paper on the subject and asked stakeholders to comment on what the convergence of internet and broadcasting could mean for Europes economic growth and innovation, cultural diversity and consumers.The European legislation most likely to be affected is the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, which aims to ensure a single market across Europe for the television and audiovisual industry.The green paper adopted questions whether the current approach to regulation will be appropriate in the future. One of the questions raised is the interoperability of connected TV devices using standards such as HbbTV; for instance, whether a product purchased in one member state will work the same way in another.It includes issues such as supporting European businesses in competition with especially US companies to win new markets, changing financing models for TV, films and other content; open access to content, and protecting user interests such as children and those with disabilities.Connected TV is the next big thing in the creative and digital world, said Neelie Kroes, the vice-president of the European Commission, who is responsible for the Digital Agenda for Europe. Convergence between sectors means people can enjoy a wider choice of great content but it also creates disruptions and challenges.The consultation is open for comment until the end of August.Netflix claims HTML5 will help it more easily reach a variety of connected deviceshttp://www.csimagazine.comHalf price for service providers1921 November 2013 Millennium Gloucester HotelConference Centre, Londonwww.ottworldsummit.comThe leading global event in the OTTtv marketFor more information and to register to attend visit www.ottworldsummit.comTony Wang GM Twitter UKKate Bradshaw Head of Digital Scripps NetworksDaniel Danker Chief Product Officer ShazamSpencer Stephens EVP and CTO Sony Pictures Entertainment Globally influence the development of OTT strategies Understand the role of telcos in driving OTT partnerships Access the future of content licensing in the OTT ecosystemVincent Martin VP Business Development DailyMotion @otttv #OTTtv OTTtv World Summit TV Connect Global Events TV Connect Global EventsGold Sponsors:Join the line-up this year to:Confirmed speakers include: Topics this year include: The onset of multiple OTT platforms Device strategy for OTT players Cloud TV Successful multiplatform monetization strategies Media asset management and its role in the OTT ecosystem Social TV and its impact on OTT strategies Social media networks Partnering with operators Original content as a route to monetization Trans media content strategies Spreading outside your domestic market through OTT Role of OTT in developing markets Advertising strategies around OTTWhat do you see as a challenge or opportunity and what would you like to be addressed?GET iN ToUCH NoW: Laurence Coldicott, Research Manager T: +44 (0) 20 7017 6801 E: Very thorough overview of current dynamics within the OTT industryJerome Kim, 3D Content Manager, LG Electronics UK0891 OTTTV CSI FP Ad 204x271.indd 1 5/13/13 3:15:25 PMhttp://www.ottworldsummit.comnews in briefTwitter TV dealsTwitter is close to reaching a deal with Viacom that would bring high-quality TV clips and advertising to the site. Twitter is understood to have also held discussions with NBCUniversal about a content partnership. If the partnerships with the television networks go through, Twitter would be able to stream videos on its site and share the advertising revenue with the networks. Building on its existing partnerships with ESPN, Weather Channel LLC and Turner Broadcasting System, Twitter is seeking to add more entertainment and news video while a large chunk of active users directly tweet about TV programmes being watched.PayPal on LG smart TVsLG Electronics has become the first connected TV manufacturer to enable PayPal payments in its products across multiple markets. The feature is already available on 2013 LG Smart TVs in the US, Canada and the UK, and will also be included in models in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and Australia starting this month, with other markets to follow.New CEO for ShazamShazam has appointed Rich Riley as its new chief executive officer. Andrew Fisher, who has led the company as CEO since 2005, has been appointed to the newly created position of executive chairman. With Riley and Fisher in their new positions, and the recent hire of the BBCs Daniel Danker as chief product officer, Shazam continues its shift from music tagging into a global media engagement firm. Shazam now has more than 300m users in over 200 countries worldwide.10 May-June 2013 NewsZiggo begins nationwide WiFi rollout Dutch cable operator Ziggo has deployed 65,000 WiFi hot spots in The Hague, the first part of a country-wide rollout of the wireless networking technology that will see almost one million hot spots activated by the end of August.Following the test city of Groningen, The Hague will be the second location to go live, with approximately 65,000 Ziggo WifiSpots active by 7 May. After a one-time registration, the companys internet clients will automatically have access to all available WifiSpots.Ziggo is looking to replicate the in-home experience to its customers on the move, and a number of European cable operators will follow suit, if this years Cable Congress conference is anything to go by, which Cable Europe Labs is also hoping to encourage with the development of a set of standard specs for cable WiFi deployments.The company said it has adapted its equipment and programmes so that: there will be a total separation between the WifiSpot and the client network; Wi-Fi use by clients does not affect their internet performance; and that the WifiSpot has enough range to provide 20 guest users simultaneously with the necessary freedom of movement.Ziggo tested the system in Groningen, saying that almost all clients found it to be an excellent alternative to 3G. Less than 1% of the clients turned off the hotspot function and did not wish to participate, according to the cablenet.We want our clients to be able to use our products outside their homes and on the move. Ziggo WifiSpots provide the technical basis that makes that possible. We are currently working on several new services that will be geared to the Ziggo WifiSpots network, said Pieter Vervoort, VP consumer products & innovation at Ziggo.Liberty Global, meanwhile, has raised its stake in Ziggo, leading to talk of a possible takeover. Liberty, which already owned 12.65% of the Netherlands-based cablenet, raised its stake to 15%.Euro payTV stays resistant to downturnEuropean private TV groups are bucking the recession by achieving overall growth despite a fall in GDP, according to European Audiovisual Observatory.EAO data shows that despite -0.3% negative growth of the EUs GDP in 2012, the 20 leading private TV companies in Europe achieved overall organic growth of 1.9%. Pay-TV providers such as Sky, Vivendi and Prisa performed better than ad-funded platforms, with an overall organic growth rate of 3.7%, compared to a fall of 1% for the latter.In the free-to-air sector, growth from the likes of ITV, The RTL Group and Prosiebensat.1 Media (mainly due to the success of diversification activities such as thematic channels and on-demand services), has been offset by a severe decrease of the TV advertising market in Italy, Spain and Eastern Europe, which has affected the revenues of Mediaset (-12.5%), Antena 3 (-7.9%), CME (-10.7%) and TVN (-7.8&).Austria launches DVB-T2Austrian Broadcasting Services (ORS) is switching on a DVB-T2 based service to boost capacity for high definition channels, the latest European country to do so.The new nationwide terrestrial TV bouquet, called simpliTV, launches in mid-April and will offer 40 TV channels. Customers will need a CI Plus module from Neotion, which uses Irdeto CA media protection technology.Austria completed analogue switch off in 2011 and ORS is moving to next-gen DVB-T2 service to improve efficiency of its DTT network, mainly greater capacity for HD channels, in order to compete more effectively with cable and satellite platforms. Italy, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany and the UK are among the countries that have already deployed commercial T2 services.A third of the initial 40 channels will be available in high definition. It includes FTA channels from public broadcaster ORF along with programmes from private broadcasters RTL and ProSiebenSat.1 i.e.The service will be launched on 15 April on a subscription basis with a EUR10 monthly fee.http://www.csimagazine.comnews in brief75m IPTV subs globallyThere are over 75 million IPTV subscribers worldwide, after 3.6 million customers were added in Q4 2012, according to Point Topic. Percentage growth is falling slightly at 4.97%, compared to 5.04% in the previous quarter. While China, France and the US continue to hold the top three spots in IPTV, emerging markets are still seeing strong percentage growth, including 32% growth in Korea, 86% in Russia and the Netherlands (45%). Some 11.8% of all broadband subscribers now take an IPTV service.DTV to rocket in LatAmDigital TV penetration in Latin America will grow from less than a third of homes at the end of 2012 to nearly 45% by the end of this year, according to Digital TV Research. Some 100m digital TV households in the 19 countries covered by the report will be added between 2011 and 2018 to take the total to 134m, when penetration will exceed 80%. Much of this growth is being driven by satellite TV, especially lower-cost and prepaid packages. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina dominate the region.Set-top box IC market shareBroadcom and STMicro tied in unit shipments for the worldwide set-top box IC market in 2012, with both delivering between 85 and 86m video SoCs for STBs, according to ABI Research. Chinas Ali Technology came third with 65m SoCs, having seen significant growth within free-to-air terrestrial boxes by Chinese OEMs. Broadcom captures significantly higher value design wins in North American and Western European cable and satellite markets.NewsGateway shipments to surge Global shipments of multimedia home gateways (MHGs) are expected to skyrocket in the next few years as pay-TV operators seek to unify the delivery of different forms of video content to all types of devices in homes.Global MHG shipments are set to climb to 9.6 million units in 2015 and 2016, up from just 90,000 in 2011, according to IHS Screen Digest.MHGs act as the bridge between broadcast and IP video distribution, allowing cable and satellite operators to use the efficiency and quality of broadcast television to provide advanced services and content to all kinds of IP-connectable devices, including mobile and tablet devices.The increasing integration of Wi-Fi home networking within MHGs underscores the commitment of operators to support multiscreen video in the home, believes IHS, with Wi-Fi penetration in MHGs is forecast to grow to 73% of units shipped by 2016, up from just 18% in 2012.Beyond the wireless networking technology some of the major services include gigabit broadband, transcoding, large applications, graphics processors, content storage and edge caching, although the hardware and software requirements for each MHG are quite different from one operator to the next, making MHGs a profitable point-of-value creation for STB manufacturers and their suppliers for the foreseeable future.Home automation and security, as well as smart energy and e-health services, all could be supported by the MHG and offer additional revenue opportunities, as operators take control of the home network.18M DVB-T2 STBs in 2015ABI Research expects over 18 million DVB-T2 set-top boxes to ship in 2015, assuming remaining analogue shutoff timelines go largely as planned.By the end of last year, North America and Western Europe had effectively made the transition to DTT broadcasts, while a number of countries in Eastern Europe and Middle-East Africa are leapfrogging to start directly with the newer more advanced DVB-T2 standard.Austria, Italy, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany and the UK are among the countries that have already deployed commercial T2 services, with others such as Turkey set to follow.While most countries have settled on a DTT technology, the path to digital is less consistent in other regions where multiple DTT technologies are present and future analogue shutoffs span a wide timeframe (2015 to 2020s). ABI sees integrated televisions playing a role in digitisation, but set-top boxes, by necessity, are still the driver used to fully satisfy most ASO goals. After 2015 we do expect demand for DTT set-top boxes to decline, but circumstances beyond ASOs could shift the outlook higher, the analysts said.Other potential factors, like spectrum reallocation for mobile broadband in Western Europe (currently the focus of much global debate), might increase the demand for DVB-T2 boxes, but this likely wont be a significant factor until the latter half, if not past the 2018 timeline, according to the May-June 2013 112011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016Source: IHS Screen Digest March 2013Global Multimedia Home Gateway Unit Shipment Forecast(Thousands of Units)02,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000Humax HD-Fox T2http://www.cirmagazine.comLife can often be counter-intuitive, and one of the key trends in the multi-channel pay TV market right now is just that: pay TV channels are clamouring to go free-to-air. They are doing it at a time when the TV advertising market remains under sustained pressure. So what is going on? Is there something in the water in Europe that makes straight-thinking US pay TV channel groups decide that the free business model is suddenly the way forward? It all started in Spain. Back in 2005 Disney and Sony inked content partnerships with terrestrial license holders when the Spanish government, realising that its self-imposed analogue switch-off date was fast approaching, got its act together and re-launched its failed pay DTT as a free platform. Those partnerships became channels that mean, today, the pay brand Disney Channel is free to every household in the country and others have since followed suit.Jump across the channel to the UK and similar developments have been underfoot. Most notably, Discovery launched its Quest channel on Freeview, marking a significant foray into the advertising-supported market for this high-end channel group. And the latest development is in Germany, where Disney recently announced that it will try to replicate its success in Spain with the launch of a new 24-hour kids channel as a free service.Its not that the world of advertising sales is new to these traditionally-pay TV groups. The basic pay TV model relies on the dual revenue stream of carriage income and advertising revenue, and in mature markets, the income from advertising once local advertising sales are in place can approach parity with that derived from carriage. But it is this dual revenue stream that has served the pay channel industry so well and been the envy of free-to-air channels when times are tough. So why, in some of the biggest TV markets in Europe, are pay groups throwing some of their eggs in the free-to-air basket?Whats particularly interesting about the latest trend is that it is premium-end pay TV brands like Discovery and Disney that are now moving to free. What is it about a market that leads to the decision to make this shift? Factors to considerThere are three key factors to consider: firstly the group must be confident that it can make the move without damaging its key pay TV relationships; secondly these developments often (but not always) occur in markets where the pay TV market is small. But the single most important factor is the strength of the countrys free-to-air platforms combined with the size of the advertising market, meaning that even in markets where there is a risk of damaging pay relationships and where the pay TV market is not small, it can still be worth taking the free plunge. In Spain the choice is clear: the pay market is tiny and (through the national reach and usage of digital terrestrial) a free-to-air play gives access to 100 per cent of Spanish households. The result is that Spain now has four major pay brands on its free service: Disney Channel, Paramount Channel, MTV and Discovery Max. Germany works a little differently: the terrestrial market is tiny, but premium pay TV is still small, and while cable is highly penetrated, the most important package on cable is the free access tier. Free satellite (self installed) is also important. At over 4bn, the German TV advertising market is also large, making it a prime market for the new planned Disney channel as well as supporting other free pay brands like Nickelodeon and Comedy Central. It seems likely that more will follow.The UK offers something of a conundrum. But here, despite the huge importance of pay, the success and reach of Freeview mean that taking a measured punt on a free-to-air channel (as Discovery has done) can still make sense. So where else in Europe is there potential to explore the free-to-air option? Analysing DTT uptake and advertising market size its clear that there are other markets where opportunity exists and has yet to be widely exploited. The key markets where free household potential is high and the advertising pie large are Spain, Italy, Germany and the UK, but France (despite a lower free household potential) also looks like an interesting market thanks to the 3.3bn potential of its TV ad market. Italy looks a little under-exploited by pay channel brands despite some forays through partnerships by Viacom and Turner. If free is the new pay, the big European markets look set for plenty more activity yet. Free to air: the new pay?Pay TV channels are fighting to go to advertising supported models, so which markets offer the best potential options?Guy Bisson is research director, television, at IHS Screen Digest. In this regular column, he gives CSI readers exclusive insight from the companys new channel strategies serviceAnalyst corner12 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.com01020304050607080Free TV market potential 2012DTT FREESATSource: IHS Electronics & Media% TV homesBelgiumSwitzerlandNetherlandsDenmarkPortugalLuxembourgNorwaySwedenFranceIrelandFinlandGermanyUKMaltaAustriaGreeceCyprusSpainItaly ConferenceStimulating debate and sharpening strategy, the IBC Conference attracts the industrys most influential and authoritative speakers to discuss the future of electronic media and entertainment. The conference is designed to: stimulate discussion to challengeand exchange ideas enable you to network with the topminds in the industry allow you to formulate strategies toimplement in your businessIBC2013 Keynote Speakers include: Peggy Johnson, ExecutiveVice President, QualcommTechnologies, Inc. and President,Global Market Development,Qualcomm Tony Wang, General Manager,Twitter Rajesh Kamat, CEO, CA MediaFor more information please visit: ExhibitionEach year, 50,000+ attendees from over 160 countries come to IBC. They are able to browse fourteen themed halls housing the latest innovations from more than 1,400 leading brands. In addition there is a wealth of free to attend feature areas including: IBC Connected World a special area of IBC which encapsulatesthe very latest developments in mobile TV,3G and 4G services IBC Production Insightcentred around a professional standardstudio set, attendees have a host of thelatest technology to get their hands onIBC Workflow Solutionsdedicated to file-based technologies andprovides attendees with the opportunity totrack the creation management journeyFor more information please visit: Big Screenproviding the perfect platformfor manufacturer demonstrationsand ground breaking screeningsFuture Zonea tantalising glimpse into the futureof tomorrows electronic mediaIBC Awardscelebrating the personalities and theorganisations best demonstratingcreativity, innovation andcollaboration in our industryRAI AmsterdamConference 12-17 September : Exhibition 13-17 SeptemberRegister now Third Floor 10 Fetter Lane London EC4A 1BR UKt. +44 (0) 20 7832 4100 f. +44 (0) 20 7832 4130 e. info@ibc.orgwww.ibc.orgUntitled-2 1 08/05/2013 11:56:46http://www.ibc.orgCable is once again opening up its toolkit in order to fulfil requirements of future services and increasing demand for more capacity. Emerging Docsis 3.1 technology will allow MSOs to deploy Gigabit services over existing HFC networks and migrate to higher bandwidth based on market requirements and also respond to the challenge posed from the likes of Google Fiber and telco FTTH deployments globally.If you follow current trends for offered maximum speeds in the downstream and upstream, we project that around 2016 that speed will be 1Gbps downstream so we need a little bit of lead time in order to be ready for that so we would be foolish not to start 3.1 prior to this, said Cable Labs CTO Ralph Brown at Cable Congress 2013, rationalising the industrys thinking. Were saying by 2016 we need to be ready. Were moving very aggressively and are on a very tight schedule. We expect specifications to be issued this year, products available next year and deployment to be in 2015 and beyond.Cable has consistently been more rapid to market in terms of development cycles compared to other fixed and wireless standards, according to Cable Labs figures, with the Docsis average taking around four years. The timelines will be even more aggressive with 3.1, the project having only been incepted last year.The OFDM revolutionD3.1 is cables next generation Physical Layer (PHY) technology, which primarily leverages two key modern communication technologies, namely Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and forward error correction (FEC) from the Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC) family. The combination provides increased efficiency (up to 50% better in the downstream and 66% better in the upstream) by enabling higher order QAM modulations (up to 4096QAM) on the plant.It also can operate over much wider channels for increased peak data rates. It does the latter by removing the 6MHz and 8MHz channel spacing used so far, replacing them with smaller 20KHz-to-50KHz-wide subcarriers that can then be bonded together inside a spectrum block up to 200MHz wide.While increased capacity is a major driver for D3.1, there are some additional operational benefits that operators will see, according to John Ulm, Fellow of Technical Staff at Motorola Mobilitys Home business (now part of Arris), such as making the plant more resilient to new interferers like LTE. We are also looking at putting in better energy management assists to enable much lower power consumption in the consumer devices, he notes.Greater intelligence and automation in plant maintenance and monitoring is another side effect but really OFDM is the star of the show.The interesting thing about OFDM is it provides the ability to provide a more consistent level of performance. Really you would get more bandwidth for a given amount of spectrum. The spectrum itself is gold, its hard to get spectrum, theres always lots to do with that spectrum and youve got to make an important business decision in how you use that spectrum, says John Chapman, engineering fellow and CTO of Cisco Systems Cable Access Business Unit.3.1 is our road to full spectrum, we see a full spectrum upstream and a full spectrum downstream, so 1 or 2GB in the upstream and 10GB in the downstream and that type of bandwidth enables a very rich video over IP experience for example. We can see the entire plant migrating over to an IP infrastructure. It will have to coexist with existing QAM offerings for VoD and broadcast for a number of years, but the operator will have a choice now as to where to put their bits and on which transport, he says.OFDM was, in fact, proposed in the early days of IEEE 802.14, which was the first attempt to come up with a cable modem standard although it failed due to too many competing proposals. On the bright side, it led MSOs to form MCNS and the birth of Docsis so in a sense the technology is now making a long overdue comeback, having established itself in wireless (WiFi and LTE), satellite and terrestrial applications (DVB-S2 and T2) that have created economies of scale. Processing power in modern silicon has also advanced sufficiently to make implementation feasible and cost effective.OFDM is a very powerful piece, but also a very complex issue and today we are at a stage where its appropriate for cable. We are convinced its the right way to go for 3.1, its a revolutionary approach, Christoph Schaaf, head of new technologies at Kabel Deutschland, said at the DOCSIS 3.1 14 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comCables need for speedThe new iteration of Docsis standard will appear sooner than might have been expected, promising higher data rates and a more efficient use of spectrum. Goran Nastic looks at the likely evolution of D3.1 and what it means for cables futurehttp://www.csimagazine.comCable Congress. Whats new with C-OFDM based solutions is we are getting close to the theoretical Shannon limit, he added.Migration strategiesWith such a bullish roadmap, how can MSOs best prepare for D3.1? The backwards compatibility and flexibility that Docsis provides even more so with 3.1 gives MSOs a lot of options in terms of how they deploy this technology and the timing of various components, according to Brown at Cable Labs.Nevertheless, it is expected that the CPE migration will occur first due silicon availability and that downstream will initially drive deployments (see chart, opposite). Not only is there still a lot of legacy Docsis 2.0 CMTS and cable modems still out there, there is even some older 1.0 and 1.1 equipment there too that needs removing. There are no more D2 modems being sold in the European market but its not clear how many customers have D3-capable CPE.To support backward compatibility there is a requirement to support up to 32 Single Carrier QAM channels as part of any D3.1 SoC solution. This allows not only backward compatibility but also provides a simple transition from D3.0 through D3.1 ready deployment of CPE (running still in D3.0 mode right up to 1Gbs or 24-32 channel bonding on D3.0) and then allowing those devices to switch over to using D3.1 OFDM channels, according to Charles Cheevers, customer premises solutions CTO at Arris, which is working with its silicon partners to develop the first D3.1 CPE devices, most likely in home gateways, but is also involved on the CCAP side.The one big bang for the buck would be to start the frequency migration at the plant, argues Ciscos Chapman. My recommendation would be to start migrating to an 85MHZ plant rate now and then all new modems that can support 85MHZ, whether Docsis 3.0 or 3.1 can then be sorted into that bandwidth.Help is also at hand from the US-based SCTE standards group, which is in parallel to the spec development developing training courses and already working with field technicians and the operations side to make sure this aspect of deployment is ready. This involves new modulation technology to understand and get used to, how the cable plant is impacted and other factors. Daniel Howard, SVP of engineering and CTO at SCTE, urges MSOs to prepare their networks ahead of time using recommended practices from the organisation, which has a special working group that is developing a document called HFC Plant Readiness for DOCSIS 3.1. Howard further believes D3.1 represents an evolution not a revolution; It will actually be easier because a lot of the issues that we ran into deploying 3.0 were issues that we would have run into when we did 3.1. A lot of the hard work in terms of getting the plant itself ready was done for 3.0 so its really just a matter of leveraging that. Its very instructive to note that its 3.1, not 4.0, he says.Cable FTTH? No so fast...The point here is that cables flexibility gives it a vast amount of tools at its disposal without needing to invest in costly FTTH solutions any time soon with the possible exception of Greenfield or new-build sites. Indeed, it is even questionable whether cable will have to go all-fibre at all, even though FTTH is widely regarded as the most future-proof access technology.On average, cable architecture serves around 500 homes passed per node and operators are still working their networks down to 256 or 125 homes per service group - with some going as low as 100 or 50 under a fibre deep architecture - to meet downstream demands (upstream needs being a matter of some debate). The closer operators get to the home, the higher the costs are, whereas cables distinction has historically been the ability to do incremental upgrades, an adaptability that has put it in good stead for the last few decades as competition has become more intense. Thanks to D3 technology, cable now offers average customer broadband speeds of 32Mbps in Europe (30-50Mbps is seen as the marketing sweetspot).We view D3.1 to be a long term capacity management tool at cables disposal as opposed to a near term capacity management approach such as node splits, analogue reclamation and SDV, says Ulm. Motorolas capacity modelling, based on continued aggressive video and data growth scenarios, has shown that there is plenty of life left in HFC, and certainly more than ten years. We do not see a cliff emerging where operators will have no choice but to go to FTTP, suggests Ulm. In fact, he points out that FTTP is a complimentary aspect of the companys HFC portfolio and operators can deliver this through node platforms today. Personally, I think that cable will always have a choice. Cable operators will be competitive with the telcos for a long time and always have that advantage that they have a choice as opposed to being forced to go one way or another, agrees Ciscos Chapman.For Cheevers at Arris, the same logic applies. Its ironic that when you look at the Node+0 architecture of HFC as the endgame where you have moved fibre as deep as possible, and preserve the last 100ft of coax - the available capacity for 250-128 homes connected allows for all the video and ultra HD content any home can consume. So if you assume that someday the DVB QAM linear content goes away in preference for an all IP delivery over OFDM D3.1 capacity then we have so much additional capacity to use we can offer new real-time networking experiences to our customers.So, Docsis 4.0 anyone? May-June 2013 15DOCSIS 3.1 http://www.csimagazine.comIn Europe at least, it is increasingly clear that the cable industrys strategic focus has shifted to broadband, a message reinforced at this years Cable Congress in London, an annual gathering of the industrys great and the good which attracts around 750 or so delegates every year. Around 20% of the regions broadband homes are connected via cable, which creates a large opportunity to play for and one that MSOs are aggressively looking to penetrate further, mainly in the residential market but also the largely untapped business segment.The stall was set from the shows opening press conference, where the message was one of a telco- and network-centric future. The industry is at a major crossroads of technology and content. The narrative of the cable industry is changing from a fundamentally TV business to a telecoms service industry, said Cable Europe president Manuel Kohnstamm, perhaps prescient of a long-term future where TV delivery becomes internet based.Cable Europe data showed growth in broadband and telephony services but a decline in the overall cable TV (CATV) subscriber base as competitive pressure and perhaps a consequence of this change of narrative - takes their toll.Official figures compiled for the industry group by IHS Screen Digest showed broadband revenues increasing 6.5% on the back of subscriber growth of 8.4% to just over 27 million broadband customers. Together with a healthy growth in telephony the two now reached almost half of all cable industry revenues at the end of 2012, a big change from a decade earlier when TV ruled the roost.It also shows that cables aggressive investment in broadband infrastructure, especially Docsis 3 technology, is paying off. Cable operators now offer average customer broadband speeds of 32Mbps in Europe (30-50 is seen as the marketing sweetspot), which is a greater headline rate than DSL across Europe. To further boost competitiveness, MSOs are now also aggressively pursuing even faster speeds with the Docsis 3.1 standard (see page 14), which will allow cable to deploy Gigabit services over existing HFC networks and migrate to higher bandwidth services based on market demand while making more efficent use of spectrum.Cable has long prided itself on the number of tools it has in its toolbox without needing to invest in costly FTTH infrastructure and it is this flexibility that insiders believe give it an advantage over competitors.On the other hand, it was also revealed that the total number of European CATV keeps falling as users switch to IPTV (and OTT) platforms, while DTT and satellite remain robust. What about TV?So where does all this leave cable television? TV services seem to be seen by the industry as merely a way of adding to the value in terms of multi-service offerings. Premium and exclusive content, moreover, has been traded off to deliver everything in a more agnostic way.Conference review16 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comBroadband and TV: a tale of two cablesThis years Cable Congress marked yet further proof that cable is evolving from TV towards broadband infrastructure. Goran Nastic reportshttp://www.csimagazine.comConference May-June 2013 17During a Q&A session on the first day of the conference, Liberty Global CEO Mike Fries was asked what plans the cablenet had in terms of sports and other content, in light of the company becoming the worlds largest cable operator once its acquisition of Virgin Media closes at the end of May. His response was telling; Our philosophy historically has been that were in the business for open access not exclusive for content. I dont see us competing with Sky for sports content or football rights in an aggressive way across most of our markets. Its also not in our strategic plan to start investing massive amounts of capital in content providers. Content will flow to the best platforms and it will flow to consumers through those platforms and it will end up on their TV sets, said Fries.Some analysts believe this unwillingness to match satellite in terms of content or indeed rolling out new TV related technologies might cost cable dear in the long-term. The cable industry is caught in a pincer movement between higher value, technology-leading satellite services, and free DTT services, wrote Strategy Analytics analyst David Mercer in his blog, noting that cables real strength lies in broadband.Predominantly, it was competition from telcos that contributed the main talking points. The following comments made by various MSO executives paint a good picture: Having gone through the heavy lifting of investing in core networks, cable is now ready to reap the rewards. Cables strength is the changing nature of broadband, thats been our hero product. We have Gigabit capability coming to a Docsis network near you soon. We are investing 26% of our revenues in CapEx every year and most of it is on fibre.To this end, the message was also that cablenets should get more cosy with national governments to ease regulatory burdens against the might of telco incumbents.Of course, television still matters which explains Libertys investment in Horizon, Virgins progress under TiVo and Zon underlining the importance of its Iris UI - to the vast majority of customers, so cable must deliver to those expectations in one way or another. As connected home technologies converge the opportunity to build on cables broadband strengths will increase, but content rights battles, the key competitive challenge, are here to stay, added Mercer.Back to the dumb pipe?As Fitch Ratings agency highlighted in a recent research note: Cable operators revenue and EBITDA growth has been increasingly reliant on high-speed data products. In contrast, their legacy video services continue to experience negative pressure in revenue and margins. Ultimately a growing consumption of data will lead to measured data service for cable connections. This scenario could drive cable operators to focus solely on growing data usage on their connections to customers through owned and third-party applications even at the expense of their own retail video services. Cable Europes new executive chairman, Matthias Kurth, was right when he noted: It is clear from Cable Congress this year, that the future has much to offer, but one thing is for certain we must keep the pressure on, keep innovating, and keep the customer at the forefront of everything we do.So for all the bullish enthusiasm on display over the three day event (and to be sure, the cable industry has much to be proud of in terms of how it has reacted to new challenges and continually reinvented itself), this should serve as a warning against any complacency.But operators are stuck between a decision of being innovators, and those that see the value of simply being a dumb pipe given competition from OTT, high content costs and thinning margins (an estimated 70% of an operators CPE costs are tied to the STB). As Parks Associates put it, should MSOs extend through value-added services, or refocus on their core provision of bandwidth capacity? The answer is still very much up for debate.Cable Congress 2014, likely to be held in Brussels as the EU capital becomes the events semi-permanent home, will be a good marker as to whether cables strategy of open access to content through superior networks continues to pay off or whether it shows that a change in thinking is required. Superfast broadband is as important as canals and railways were in the past. Digital services are the new arteries for our economies. The official Cable Congress party, held at the London Film Museum, with local beats and vibesLiberty Global CEO Mike Fries interviewed on stage about acquisitions and cables future directionhttp://www.csimagazine.comIf 2012 was the year of the second screen, then by most accounts 2013 will be the year of the second screen app. Broadcasters, content owners and brands are looking for ways to engage multi-tasking viewers with content and advertising properly aligned to whats being shown on the first screen. According to Intrasonics CEO Luc Jonker, Weve seen the first green shoots in the second-screen apps space and we know that were right at the start of what will become a whole new market area, not just for broadcast TV, but for radio and cinema as well.The companys clients include Belgiums Fastest Quiz in the World and Spains MTV Xtra/ Gandia Shore, the latter serving 500,000 pieces of exclusive content each episode.Automatic content recognition (ACR) technology lives within a broader context of second screen TV engagement, the market for which is rapidly on the rise. Within this context, ACR plays an important enabling role in reducing the effort required of users to engage and as a means of measuring engagement, says Steve Plunkett, CTO at Red Bee Media.The technology is in an experimental phase but most observers expect to see considerable uptake over the next 12 months. Jay Friedman VP, marketing and client services, Audible Magic is among them. He believes the killer app is yet to be found but when it does it might just explode the market.Were beginning to see some really good social engagement numbers but discussion of monetisation opportunities is possibly premature, he says. We see some success promoting the sale of merchandising during a show as a way to add value but nobody is going to get rich on that alone.In the North American market, broadcasters seem to be ahead in adopting ACR technology, followed by content owners, especially for applications to synchronise apps to broadcast content, says Friedman, where Audible Magic is working with networks including FOX, CBS, Univision, CBC, A&E and Discovery. The company as recently awarded six technology patents for its recent innovations in digital fingerprinting, content recognition and related technologies, including ACR technology that automatically identifies TV advertising.Broadcasters seem to have the strongest incentive to increase viewer engagement and ultimately see improved GRPs (Gross Rating Points) as measured by Nielsen, he says. Movie production companies see ACR as a way of adding more value to DVD and Blu-ray releases to increase sales. While we see activity among service providers, they seem to be lagging behind these others because they have other ways of understanding what viewers are watching.The most common companion experiences in the UK to date have been around show formats talent shows or quizzes - such as the BBCs inaugural second screen app for The Antiques Roadshow (with ACR devised by Intrasonics) but here too broadcasters are adopting ACR. NBC Universal-owned Syfy is the first domestic broadcaster to launch a channel-wide second-screen app, after the success of the original in the US which has been downloaded 200,000 times since August 2012 in support of series including Being Human.There is clear interest among broadcasters who have noted the success of format specific apps and would like to now drive engagement around all of their programming, and channels, and to do theoretically as often as people are viewing TV, asserts Civolution CEO Alex Terpstra. French media group Lagardre Active, for example, is using Civolutions synchronisation technology to drive second screening around its family channel Gulli.If you are developing a TV format or series without any notion of second screen you are already in a danger zone, argues Terpstra. You cannot afford not to address the opportunities that already exist.Zeebox, the second screen app which has been downloaded over four million times since launch with investment from broadcasters in the UK [Sky], US [Comcast, NBC Universal] and Australia [Network 10], says content teams are exploring ways to enhance shows in Zeebox.If you want to pitch a new commission to Sky you need a second screen proposition around it or be sent back to come up with something, reports founder Anthony Rose.Until now Zeebox has been tied to the linear EPG but is introducing an ACR service in tandem with Gracenote that will allow it to detect which show a user is watching and serve up relevant social media and Zeeetags produced at the time of broadcast. The update, trialled in the US first, 18 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comThe year of the second screen appSecond-screen synchronisationWith significant growth predicted for apps linking second screen interactivity to TV viewing, synchronisation technology will see a similar commercial expansion. All it needs is one killer app, writes Adrian PenningtonKDDI UI on iOShttp://www.csimagazine.comwill enable it to support any show aired in the past seven days.Is engagement working?Ensequence, which builds interactive software and services for US networks, has been working with ACR for about 18 months and has found a lot of excitement but no clear strategy in particular around monetisation, reports Aslam Khader, the companys CTO. It was an experiment then, and that is largely still the case. More worryingly, he says, Its been a bit of a disappointment no matter what parameter you choose to measure - from level of engagement to number of users or time spent in the apps.He attributes this to some fundamental flaws in the consumer experience, namely having to download a number of apps, or having to invoke and launch an app while watching a show. Unless theres a really compelling reason to do so and heavy on-air promotion or unless you are a die-hard fan then the barrier to experience is too high, he says. The industry needs another 12 months for clarity in terms of the forms that work.Nor is he alone in sounding an early warning. Gareth Capon, product development director at BSkyB, provided a rationale in the broadcasters investment in Zeebox: Its a challenge to ask customers to use lots of different apps or devices to move through them and remember what they are. We need to simplify things and offer a singular, cross platform experience.Michael Woodley, business development consultant, Intrasonics adds, Its important not to roll out the second-screen experience too quickly, especially advertising. It needs to start by educating and informing. We will put audiences off if we throw in too much ads too soon.A fresh study by NPD Group in the US found that while multitasking is common, viewers are less willing to use their second devices to interact directly with applications designed specifically for the TV programmes they are watching. Those that did, interacted most by visiting IMDb, Wikipedia, and social networks (see chart, above).Viewers are interested in searching to find further information about TV shows they are watching, but they are not using games and other immersive applications created as a component of the programming, said analyst Russ Crupnick. This situation creates a potential diversion from advertising, and it will take a combined effort from content owners, advertisers, broadcasters, and others to present an aligned second-screen experience that will appeal to viewers.Tom Cape, who runs app developer Capablue, notes: People will start at programme level because its easy to bite off. Once youve built up a portfolio of these you can start to aggregate this into a channel-wide app, then a top-level app across multiple channels. My fear is that if you try to go straight to a bigger cross-channel app too soon, you end up doing an EPG with some programme information which is not that interesting.Advertising potentialThe second screens advantage over TV in interactivity theoretically means that advertisers can better convert sales through direct calls to action and initiatives like product placement. There have been a rash of solutions designed to show users targeted ads simultaneously with specific TV programmes and commercials.The first US campaign for Zeebox SpotSynch was trialled during the 2013 Super Bowl in which second screens showed a display ad for Fast & Furious 6 simultaneously with the trailer broadcast during the half-time break. Zeebox stresses that broadcasters and ad agencies do not need to change the way they produce or manage TV advertising, as the app will detect broadcast spot ads (across all broadcast networks and 120 cable channels) automatically.Civolution has tied its similar server-side content-triggering solution SyncNow with that of US-based ad-management and distribution platform DG. Audible Magics SmartID and SmartSync platform is optimised to recognise and create interactive advertising experiences. Capablue, meanwhile, has trialled a proof of concept using automatic watermarking technology to sync ads with Channel 4s linear output.We see it as second-screen engagement rather than advertising, says Cape. Its more about relations and click-throughs and the direct connection of seeing something through to purchase. The audience is smaller but the brand engagement is higher.ACR is likely to be incorporated into transactional tracking applications, believes Woodley at Intrasonics : What interests me is the ability to pinpoint exactly the adverts viewers are interacting with - on a certain channel, certain day, certain time and to track that through to an actual purchase which could be a month later.Synchronisation technologiesThere are three main ACR techniques:Network (or IP based) sync. Uses a data connection from the app to a network server to tell the app the precise time at the broadcaster. It is then possible to calculate which show someone is watching and where they are in its timeline. Time and metadata-based IP syncing can be more cost effective and work across a broader range of devices but are most suited to live television rather than catch-up or recorded content, says Red Bees Plunkett.You have to assume that the viewer is May-June 2013 19Second-screen synchronisationLearned about actor/actressLearned about show/movieshopped for product in adDiscovered new contentUsed guide featuresDiscussed show on SNSLearned abour athletePlayed game about showWatched prevfiews/ClipsVoted for something on showFollowed stream of commentsFound popular showsChecked in Launched showNone of the aboveWhat activities did you do on each device while you were watching TV shows or movies on a televisionSource: NPD Grouphttp://www.csimagazine.comwatching the correct channel while running the app, and that they are doing so live and not on a PVR, Woodley points out. This technique does not fully overcome the variable broadcast delay so cannot offer pinpoint precise timing.Audio Fingerprint Matching. Captures a sample of audio from a TV show being watched and sends it to matching servers where it is compared with a library of audio patterns to ID the content. According to Woodley, Setting up the library of patterns is a significant effort and it is expensive to maintain on a rolling basis. This technique is good at identifying a show but not capable of precise time synchronisation.On the plus side, digital fingerprinting allows identification of content without having to modify the content upfront.Based on a patented digital fingerprint algorithm, Audible Magics solutions are unique, claims Friedman. Our solutions easily scale both horizontally and vertically as demonstrated by a number of our customer deployments. We also understand how to make a solution work for our customers, with the fewest headaches - something many other companies dont understand.Audible Magics technology drives the American Idol app, which synchronises bio information, trivia, lyrics, where to buy songs, and voting. It also has a deal with SlingMedia where Audibles ACR solutions will be embedded into SlingBoxes.Audio Watermark Detection. Performed by the likes of Civolution and Intrasonics, watermarks are inserted into pre-recorded content using software, or into broadcast streams at playout using real-time encoding hardware.We insert sequences of artificial echoes by modulating the audio, explains Woodley. Mics on smartphones and tablets pick them up and any app that uses our watermark decoders can translate these short echo sequences into binary data. This triggers an action: downloading a video, opening an image, whatever it has been programmed to do.Watermarking is ideal for precisely synced playout and also works for time-shift and PVR viewing. There is no need for a data connection and when used for time sync in a gameshow playalong, the timing is absolutely precise.New software from Intrasonics, called Heartbeat, will automatically insert watermark codes at regular intervals throughout the programme, where previously clients had to choose which points they wanted them to appear.Heartbeat is a world first and will enable broadcasters to take control of second screen by easily, constantly and automatically audio watermarking entire broadcasts, said Jonkers.ACR limitationsEach of the ACR technologies present some limitations. Audio approaches can suffer from performance problems due to TV volume levels, ambient noise, audio conditions within the programming, microphone placement in the second device, availability of microphone APIs and so on. Audio watermarking requires access to the source material and fingerprinting requires the creation, management and publication of audio libraries. IP based solutions have difficulties with accurate synchronisation across different TV transmission platforms, assesses Plunkett. It is essential that these limitations are properly understood before choosing an appropriate ACR technology for a given application, he advises.Intrasonics sees a fragmented landscape with different parties trying different things, and all doing so with different agendas. This is perfectly normal and occurs whenever multiple new technologies emerge at roughly the same time to meet a demand that no on previously knew existed, reckons Jonker.There may be moves to standardise ACR technologies to broaden adoption, though the risk at this stage is to stifle innovation.There is value of standardisation but when you look at the failures around adoption of other standards like BDLive and DLNA, the market has to be careful of standardisation for the wrong reasons, says Friedman.Adds Plunkett: It would be good to have a common mechanism based on standards but we are probably too early in the innovation cycle for this to make sense yet. We need to continue experimenting with different technological approaches before we can try to agree on a best approach. I think we will see more advances outside of audio synching. I also anticipate the cost-per-show pricing to go down dramatically if ACR solutions are to see widespread deployment.Friedman suggests that just now everybody in the industry is playing nicely and working together; When money starts to be made, the gloves will come off and the real battles will begin. Citizens of Florence appStarzs companion iPad app for its new show Da Vincis Demons: Citizens of Florence dynamically unlocks interactive content in real-time as the show is being broadcast. The same content will be available for viewers to download and use any time after they watch the show. The network said it has created enough second-screen content that it will be able to keep viewers of the series engaged long after the series ends its initial run.Different characters will have different access to different artifacts within the apps representation of Florence. Additional content includes videos, 360-degree views of da Vincis inventions, locations to explore and mini games.The app works with sound sync technology provided by German company Mufin, the first time the technology has been applied in the US. Stored in the app are audio fingerprints, which the device app listens to and when it detects an audio sequence that matches one of the stored fingerprints, thats a trigger for the app to unlock an associated feature. 20 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comWe see some success promoting the sale of merchandising during a show as a way to add value but nobody is going to get rich on that alone.Second-screen synchronisationGame of Thrones on iPadhttp://www.csimagazine.comUntitled-1 1 13/05/2013 15:01:57http://www.sedsystems.caAs media companies, including traditional payTV operators, stake their claim on the burgeoning over-the-top (OTT) services market, so a corresponding need has emerged for robust and reliable solutions to help them guarantee quality of service (QoS). The internet is, by definition, an unmanaged network involving frequent fluctuations in bandwidth that can cause latency and video jitter and potentially compromising the viewing experience, especially during live programming.From a technical point of view, the transition into OTT means understanding a range of new technologies that differ greatly from traditional methods of TV distribution, including internet streaming protocols, content encoding quality and CDN integration, buffering, profile selection methods, DRM, media player quality, and more. These can all have an impact on QoS, but by selecting the most appropriate test, diagnostic or network management tools, service providers can adapt bit-rates and resolutions and possibly restrict available content to guarantee customers quality of experience (QoE).A properly designed QoS solution should help them offer premium multi-screen and TV Everywhere-type services with the same quality available on existing satellite, cable and managed IPTV platforms, whilst taking into account the specific configurations of content, profiles, networks and viewing devices.Many operators are now experimenting with a range of QoS systems at different stages of delivery networks explains John Maguire, director of product strategy at S3 Group: We are seeing a significant effort being made to include test and diagnostic capability throughout their platform architecture. The increasing usage of mobile devices is pushing many towards embedding software diagnostics into applications used by their customers. And we are seeing a greater focus on increasing the manageability of home gateway devices, perhaps the last device truly under the service providers control, he says.Adopting the right approach is crucial as many end users will not care what technology is being used to deliver their viewing as long as the audio/video they receive meets their quality expectations. An inconsistent experience across devices could cause them to seek out an alternative provider.Back to basicsIn the digital TV realm, faulty reception is typically all about losing signal, synchronisation, or packets of data, caused by factors such as signal degradation over the network due to multi-path fading, packet drop due to channel congestion, corrupted packets rejected in-transit, or faulty networking hardware.In contrast, data communicated over the internet is sent using the more reliable HTTP/TCP transmission method, which doesnt permanently lose packets. Instead, if a packet is lost, a retransmission request is made and it is resent. So in this arena quality problems are caused more by the time and bandwidth lost by having to resend data, and this requires a new toolset for QoS.The unstable bandwidth associated with OTT can cause unwanted buffering, long start-up times, video/audio stuttering and poor video quality on full screen view. This can pose a particular challenge during peak viewing times, says Jon Haley, VP of product marketing & business development at Edgeware: The vast majority of connected devices only support unicast, ie each device requires an individual stream, even for live TV consumption in the home, which can generate huge traffic spikes. As unicast traffic levels grow, bottlenecks are likely to be created in core and aggregation networks. For network operators these can be dealt with through capital-intensive router and switch upgrades with the associated long lead OTT and the QoS conundrumOTT QoSManaging Quality of Service in an OTT environment requires a radically different approach to traditional managed TV distribution. Stephen Cousins discusses the many technical challenges and available solutions22 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comStreaming performance is impacted by many factors. Source: Netflixhttp://www.csimagazine.comtimes. However, stress on networks can be relieved in a more cost effective and rapid way through the use of highly efficient caching and delivery servers, such as CDNs, located at the edge of networks.Adaptive bit rate streaming (ABR) is another hugely important technology that ensures that the quality of video content matches bandwidth availability by leveraging the ubiquitous HTTP protocol to detect the clients bandwidth and device resources in real time and adjusting the quality of the video stream, in terms of data fragments, accordingly. ABR is designed to ensure that the viewing experience is maximised on both high-end and low-end connections, reducing buffering and start-up times.The cache-based CDN approach sees providers encode and store many different versions of every piece of ABR content on caching servers to ensure playback on any device utilising various adaptive streaming protocols such as Apple HLS, Adobe HDS, and Microsoft Smooth Streaming. The elegance of adaptive streaming is its ability to seamlessly deliver a high QoE and it is the reason that professional grade video delivery has been able to go mainstream to IP connected devices, says Keith Wymbs, VP of marketing at Elemental Technologies. Codec vendors are currently working on delivering better video quality at much lower bitrates. For example, the HEVC compression standard requires fewer bits to deliver the same level of quality.No magic bulletHowever, ABR will not provide service providers with a one stop solution to QoS, especially when it comes to payTV where subscribers expect the highest levels of video quality. By understanding where the bottlenecks in networks reside, whether at the head end, the consumer end or somewhere in between, service providers can prioritise quality optimisation accordingly. There are several analytics software vendors in the market, including Agama, Conviva, Akamai and Comscore that offer real-time monitoring and troubleshooting in these areas.Conviva gathers real time network data to determine whether a quality issue is local to a viewer or if there is a problem within the wider distribution system. Its Precision Video system then selects a corrective action to optimise every video stream and improve picture quality. The system works by directing video traffic between multiple CDNs to select the best quality stream.Meanwhile, Agamas OTT Analyzer quality assurance probe includes continuous 24/7 monitoring as well as testing and troubleshooting applications, and can analyse both Microsoft Smooth Streaming and Apple HTTP Live Streaming services in any combination. It provides timeline analytics of both QoE and QoS to help service providers understand relevant technical quality parameters and how they affect the viewing experience.The two delivery chain extremities [the head end and customer end] are the main sources of information when monitoring QoS, says Mikael Dahlgren, CEO at Agama Technologies. The head-end, where services are created, modified and bundled, continues to play a central role in service quality assurance, as problems arising here have the potential to effect all viewers. Monitoring the head end cannot be done with traditional network-oriented monitoring approaches and it requires dedicated OTT-HE monitoring and analysis that covers the full OTT service stack including the IP layer through to HTTP, manifest and actual video and audio streams, he says. Edgewares Haley adds: Solutions exist for service providers to monitor the quality of the video received on their STBs and via their apps running on connected TVs, tablets, etc. However when an issue arises, rapid interrogation of the output of the head-end encoders and the video delivery network is needed. Player/device-located service quality monitoring is widely available and firms like OTT TV platform Tvinci are able to collect quality information from end devices to give operators increased visibility as well as tools to improve the overall service quality.We have an emphasis on paid for OTT content, so QoS is something we take very seriously, says Vidan Lamdan, CTO and VP Research & Development, Tvinci. Our MediaHub is very robust and able to feedback to our customers to let them know exactly what kind of quality of service their end users are actually receiving, so they can select the right service from the ISPs, he says.But testing individual devices to determine QoS is not always sufficient, as customers often use multiple devices simultaneously in the home and the streaming of content to one device may interrupt the OTT viewing experience on another device. Devices also interact with second screen interactive applications. In the last couple of years we have seen a significant increase in interest in test automation for service validation of inter-device interaction right across our customer base, said S3 Groups Maguire. Consequently the company has expanded its StormTest platform to support CPE such as Xboxes, PS3s, Blu-ray players, CTVs and more in addition to traditional STBs.Despite the many challenges, video over the internet has serious potential and some service providers have even started developing apps that allow users to receive linear programmes on connected devices. This leads many to believe that OTT is now ready for a prime time audience. May-June 2013 23OTT QoSSky Now TV not ready for primetimeSkys over-the-top TV service has suffered multiple problems since launch, and judging from a recent experience of a live football match, they are yet to be resolved. Now TV, which has amassed over 25,000 subscribers since launch last year, has seen multiple complaints of the service failing across a variety of devices, as a look at many community chat boards reveals. There are also reports that users of other Now TV channels (ie movies) are seeing a deterioration in service.Now it seems that the companys offer of 5,000 free day passes (normal price 9.99) as a promotional tool has also backfired, with one analyst calling a football game between Manchester united and Manchester City as a major publicity disaster for the service. In this case, it was problems specific to the Xbox app on which the service is available.This fiasco is confirmation that OTT TV is a long way from prime time when it comes to live sports, which was always going to be the most challenging genre, even when major powerhouses like BSkyB are behind it, commented David Mercer, an analyst with Stategy Analytics.According to Sky, the issue was not thrown up in testing, which explains why it was only caught in a live environment.It would appear that BSkyB is unconcerned about capacity issues, suggesting that the technical issue lies elsewhere. The core infrastructure of Now TV is shared with Sky Go, which recently supported more than 330,000 concurrent users for the Real Madrid-Manchester United game.http://www.csimagazine.comIn September 2012, the Digital TV Group (DTG), the industry association for digital TV in the UK, together with the Minister for Culture, Communications and Creative Industries, Ed Vaizey MP, launched the Future of Innovation in Television Technology (FITT) Taskforce.Led by a group consisting of senior content executives, consumer specialists, technology leaders, mobile and network providers and leading academics in the field, the Taskforces aim is to define the measures that should be implemented to leverage the UKs track record of innovation within television technology. Ultimately, the Taskforce strives to deliver sustainable UK economic growth through facilitating innovation. The DTG brings together the industry to enable the successful delivery and evolution of digital TV and associated technologies and therefore is best placed to provide support to the FITT Taskforce.The UK has a demonstrable track record of innovating in television technology, creating better and more effective products, processes, services, technologies and ideas that are readily available to markets, government and society. Examples stretch from Bairds experiments in mechanical television, through to Ceefax and modern day technologies such as Red Button, iPlayer, Sky Go, Virgin Media, Freesat, Freeview and YouView. The UKs thriving and dynamic digital television industry includes world-class delivery networks provided by BT and Arqiva as well as the worlds largest set-top box company Pace.Historically, the UK creative industries have been at the heart of innovation with Londons West End, Soho, St. James and Mayfair having the highest concentration of creative businesses in the UK, and one of the highest in the world. However, the continued success of the UK digital television sector cannot be taken for granted. Global competitive forces are driving some of the industrys major companies to invest their R&D spending within their home countries or countries where they can work with high-quality talent at lower costs, rather than in the UK.Furthermore, the technology standards developed over time within and for the UK are now being debated and developed at European and world level. The FITT Taskforce will explore how the current developments in technology can be harnessed, to ensure the UK retains its leadership position in audio-visual technology, between now and 2025.Four streamsThe Taskforce is structured into four workstreams: Computing for the Creative Industries, Future Networks and Infrastructure, Evolution of Devices and Applications, Consumer Trends over the Next Ten Years: Expectations, Demand and Consumption. In order to capture both technical and consumer perspectives, the Taskforce brings together experts from a range of backgrounds and organisations, including EE, Freeview, Goldsmiths College, Microsoft, Sony and Virgin Media. Each workstream is guided by a number of key questions, which are reflections of the key issues currently facing the industry. Research into issues and factors that shape technological and societal developments such as politics, economics, the legal system and the environment will be completed by each workstream. The outcomes will feed into the final Taskforce recommendations and the final report. Each workstream is managed by an advisory group consisting of relevant industry experts as well as DTG staff. Skills and R&D expertise are common themes running through each area as it is vital that the UK delivers the technical talent needed for innovation and thus provides support for future television technologies. Thus, the advisory groups aim to uncover examples of where industry and academic collaboration would be beneficial to encourage the development of the right skills and expertise for the industry. The first FITT status report was published on 2 May 2013 and distributed at the DTG Summit. The Taskforce will produce two more status updates, which will be published as electronic reports available from the DTG website, in August and November 2013 followed by a final report in March 2014. For more information on the Taskforce, its work streams and to download a copy of the report please visit The DTG gives more insight into the role and significance of the FITT TaskforceGuest column24 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comSimon Gauntlett is technology director at the DTG, the industry association for DTV in the UK. This is the latest in a line of regular guest columns to provide CSI readers with updates on the DTGs initiatives and activities.Innovating for the future of UK televisionhttp://www.csimagazine.comDexter House, No. 2 Royal Mint Court, London, UK Tuesday 25 & Wednesday 26 June 2013Designed for technical professionals, the IBC London Technology Booster leverages IBCs renowned expertise to provide the very latest insights into the two most disruptive technologies that are irrevocably changing the industry - Cloud Services and Connected Content.Day 1: Floating Cloud Concepts for New BusinessDay 2: Connecting Content - From the Networks into the HomeView the programme, full speaker list and register Technology BoosterLONDON CONFERENCEA Unique Learning ExperienceThis event will engage you in a unique learning experience designed to ensure that you will leave with a deeper understanding of the key technologies for each topic. Unashamedly technical in its approach, this event will break down the barriers between vendors, broadcasters, delegates and speakers, supported by pre-event interaction, facilitated networking and lively debate. benefit from more than 15hours of networking and learning establish new partnerships,stronger peer relationships and potential new collaborative connections with major organisations reach a deeperunderstanding of how to overcome major technical challenges share knowledge peerto peer of the challenges inherent to your business and the solutions for how to overcome them effectively assess thefuture shape of the media and broadcasting industry and the role you and your company will play in it gain essential technicalknowledge enabling you to deal with technical questions, solve problems, prepare proposals, present solutions and boost productivityIndustry Leading Speakers include: Bob Harris Chief Technology Officer, Channel 4Television Professor Ed Candy CTO, 3 GroupProfessor Ed Candy CTO, 3 GroupProfessor Ed Candy John Honeycutt EVP and Chief Operating Officer, Discovery Networks International John Zubryzcki Principle Technologist, R&D BBCUntitled-1 1 14/05/2013 10:56:55 are the pros of Ka-band apart from the fact that it extends satellite capacity within the existing footprint?Ka-band satellites use spot beams, which means that each antenna on the satellite transmits to a relatively small geographical area on the ground (typically a few hundred kilometres in radius). This allows transmissions with higher power levels than with wide beams, because the power is concentrated on a smaller area. Ka-band makes satellite more profitable for service providers. Moreover it makes satellite communications affordable for regions across the globe that are difficult to reach through terrestrial means, making it important in the context of closing the digital divide. Ka-band also solves the issue of lack of availability of satellite bandwidth in regions such as Europe and markets with quickly increasing data rates such as government and defence, broadcast etc. Other advantages include smaller dishes leading to increased mobility and frequency re-use.What are the biggest business opportunities relating to Ka-band in Europe, both from Newtecs perspective and that of your customers?The biggest opportunity might be consumer broadband because of low cost terminals, efficient use of satellite resources and low service activation costs, including self-installation.Other opportunities are fast news gathering and file transfer, distribution of regional TV in areas with limited rain fade, IP Trunking, and mobility.We definitely see a clear trend towards Ka-band with several successful satellite launches in 2012. As a result we are now shipping Ka-band equipment for consumer broadband and IP trunking for various customers. Avanti Communications, for example, launched its HYLAS 2 satellite which utilises Newtecs Broadband Hubs to extend its IP service range. Avantis customers will be able to offer a true broadband experience to B2B and B2C customers in EMEA. One of them is InSat, who became the first customer to install our broadband terminal technology which is delivering Ka-Band communications across Afghanistan. Yahsat also implemented our technology to offer high-speed, Ka-band IP trunking service under their brand YahCarrier, which is set to be the regions first Ka-band IP trunking service.The original perception of Ka-band was that it would be more for high speed Internet than TV. Has this changed and if so why?Operating a multi-spot Ka-band platform has been proven to be a challenging endeavour if it targets a single managed service offering. Satellite and ground infrastructure investment are high and speed of network roll-out is typically slow showing a deep dip in the hockey stick model. With the availability of commercial Ka-band services, people have experienced that the ground segment innovations like ACM minimise the performance degradation of the service. The main issues when facing Ka-band are the service availability and the possibility to offer constant bitrates in an adaptive environment.Is Ka-band now being envisaged for TV and if so which type of services? What future does it have here?It can be linked to the broadband flavour of TV in the future, as well as multiservice platform that also include video services over Ka. TV services can quickly be set up to fill the capacity in case Ka capacity cannot be entirely filled with broadband services.The perception that Ka-band is susceptible to rain is surely not false, because water absorbs radiation much more in those wavelengths above 26.5 GHz? So is it the case that mitigation techniques have reduced this effect?Newtec has launched its FlexACM exactly to counter fading and interference issues in (highly) adaptive networks. On top of the adaptive modulation and coding technology Newtecs FlexACM also includes technologies that counter noise & distortion (NoDE), that takes care of small variations and link performance predictions (ThiMM) in order to allow the highest throughput in adaptive (also Ka-band) networks.Is antenna size and cost still a constraint for consumer applications?Service providers prefer to put the cost of the terminal in the service fee. This means subsidising the terminal cost initially. So the cost of the terminal is a key element in their business case. At Newtec, we make no pricing difference between terminals for consumer broadband access using Ka or Ku.What are the prospects for Ka-band for consumer broadband? And what are the constraints and opportunities?The success of consumer broadband over satellite is these days mainly driven by the cost of the service. The main contributor to that cost is the satellite capacity in the case of a large consumer network. As Ka-band brings down the cost per bit it generates a shift in favour of satellite to the equation between cost of terrestrial infrastructure and the number of users in a certain area. Funding initiatives by governments and the European Union will drive service providers to build business cases for universal service obligation. The availability for service providers to have access to Ka-spectrum to build their services will be a key enabling factor. Q&AInterview26 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comThomas Van den DriesscheCSI spoke to Thomas Van den Driessche, Newtecs VP of market strategy, about the challenges and opportunities facing satellite Ka-band service in Europe and elsewhereTalking Ka-bandhttp://www.csimagazine.comwww.csimagazine.comCDN roundtableSponsored byhttp://www.csimagazine.com28 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comCDN roundtableIn its latest roundtable, a group of panellists assembled to discuss current trends in the market for content delivery networks, an area of significance as the volume of online video grows ever largerPanellists:CDN roundtableGoran Nastic (Chair)Goran is currently the Editor of CSI) a bi-monthly publication that covers broadcasting technologies and content distribution, including IPTV and home networking. He has ten years of experience writing about the ICT sector. Prior to joining the magazine, Goran was an industry analyst at a telecoms research house visiongain, where he focused on mobile market trends and developments. Goran has also worked as an Assistant Editor for Asian Communications, a monthly trade publication focused on Asian telco markets. Derek Gough, senior director, Media and Internet, Level 3Derek oversees product management within this vertical, working closely with partners and customers to maximise the value of Level 3s Content Delivery Network. Level 3 Communications provides local, national and global communications services to enterprise, government and carrier customers. The company serves customers in more than 450 markets in 55 countries over a global services platform anchored by owned fiber networks on three continents and undersea facilities.Maria Ingold, CEO, mireality Maria heads up mireality, a technical consultancy in video-on-demand delivery, specialising in the secure delivery of premium content in the first rights window. Maria has created complete end-to-end VoD solutions for cable and broadband, and pushed through changes to the DTG D-Book 7 to accommodate the secure delivery of premium pay content to other services and devices. Prior, Maria was Head of Technology for FilmFlex Movies, where she set technical strategy and architected its technical solutions.John Bird, principal consultant, FuturesourceJohn is an international expert on consumer electronics, digital media, mobile, broadband and wireless sectors. John is responsible for directing many of the strategic consulting projects Futuresource undertakes in digital media, convergence and devices, and has worked with many blue chip companies. He joined after eight years at Motorola, where he was director of business research for the Corporate Strategy Office in the EMEA region. Jacques Le Mancq - CEO, BroadpeakJacques drives the strategy and execution of the company, the #1 European provider of IP video delivery solutions to telcos. Prior to co-founding Broadpeak, Jacques was with the Technicolor Connect Division where he assumed the role of Product Line Manager for the SmartVision video distribution servers product family. He led a spin-off project with five other co-founders to create Broadpeak. He has won two Emmy Awards for his work on MPEG-2 testing. May-June 2013 29CDN roundtableChair: How would you characterise the market now and how it compares to the early days of CDNs?John Bird: What were seeing worldwide is huge traffic in video, both in fixed and mobile. What is driving it largely today is free video in its various forms. Smartphones and increasingly tablets are driving this growth, some 70% of tablets owners regularly watch video, and our data shows this will surge as these device proliferate.Maria Ingold: Weve always needed to ensure that were meeting the customers quality of experience expectations as well as the studios security requirements. We have to deliver content in a way that doesnt have breakages and is also fast, geo-IP restricted and DRM protected, for streaming or downloading. So its always a balance between these two requirements.Derek Gough: The market has seen three phases of evolution and is certainly more advanced today in terms of the technology behind CDNs. The first phase was driven by fairly large, de-centralised CDNs designed to handle the offload of static content, such as small images. The second phase was the explosion of video, which was primarily from 2002 to 2009. Video became the dominant form of content on the internet and the raison detre for using a CDN during this period. The third phase started around 2010 and is characterised by the general notion that web acceleration and optimisation are now key to enhancing end-users web browsing and transaction experiences. Jacques Le Mancq: What is interesting from our standpoint is of course that OTT traffic is growing very fast. But when you take a closer look at what type of traffic is carried on the network, you see that it is not only catch-up or free content, but a lot of live OTT content as well, including premium. This comes a bit as a surprise because we usually feel that live is meant for broadcast networks. As an example, BBC data from the Olympics shows that everyone wanted to watch sports events in real time, inducing a live traffic up to 7x bigger than VoD traffic. We believe that live traffic over these new devices will be the next big thing.JB: I have to agree. In France we found that watching live is 50% bigger than on-demand. Theres no doubt that people want live content. Right now, 80% of traffic is probably live, followed by catch-up and downloads.MI: On the other hand, Thinkbox recently noted that 15% of PVR owners never watch any live TV. Im definitely one of those, but then I dont watch news or sports. I found it interesting to hear that the BBC spent as much time testing as developing in preparation for the Olympics in order to make sure that the quality of service was there. I know they had 111M video requests and 12M were from mobile devices. All the trends point to increasing usage from mobile devices. Chair: Given that the amount of live OTT traffic seemed to have caught everyone off guard, what are the implications of this for networks?JLM: Live OTT traffic will have a strong impact on the operator network at different levels. It will highlight bottlenecks at the backbone, backhaul and access network levels. And in order to avoid massive and costly network upgrades we believe that telecom and cable operators need to put in place a more scalable way than unicast to deliver live television to new screens.JB: Around 400m people watched the Royal wedding online worldwide and even YouTube wasnt sure if they could handle those numbers of simultaneous viewers online although they did it in the end. The quality maybe wasnt full HD but it was good enough. But essentially, youve got live vs pre-recorded content and then youve also got download for portability so there are two types of live if you like.DG: Our customers demands have changed in line with the evolution of the market. In the early days, their main objectives were to reduce costs and there was a dependence on a heavy infrastructural load that they would have to manage themselves. Today, the level of awareness of CDNs is infinitely greater. As a consequence, we see across every market segment a greater understanding among enterprises that the performance of their online presence is key to overall business performance. MI: The stats show that IPTV from telcos is increasing, albeit slowly. Theyre aiming to get more into the content delivery market. On the other side you have the CDN companies trying to figure out new ways to monetise, so theyre now offering value add services like transcoding. And then you have companies like Netflix who want a really good customer experience at a low cost. So theyve created their Open Connect caching system, which they are looking to move all of their delivery towards. A number of things are changing the CDN landscape.Chair: What does this mean in terms of the various relationships and business models?JB: CDNs are basically the delivery basket for all this content and will get paid. The conflict is on the service provider level who having put in the infrastructure to continue to ramp up broadband capability dont get paid because largely the video is free content, either as part of a subscription or totally free. Broadband is where the game lies now its a complete shift from the traditional payTV model where you had a carriage payment to take that content to your subscribers. The CDN layer, they are in the driving seat because the content provider has to reach the edge to actually deliver across that infrastructure and therein lies that model - they are providing the networks that are taking it from point of origin out to the service infrastructure. Whether its owned by a carrier or not thats a question of economics for the carrier http://www.csimagazine.comand whether its worth investing deeper in the network or outsourcing to a third party. Overall, CDNs and operators both have to invest in the network to cope with the sheer volume of traffic.JLM: Some content providers and some CDN service providers are now pushing for putting their own cache servers directly in operators datacenters. This approach can have some interest for small operators because it will reduce their transit cost. But the problem is that if they accept this from one player, an Akamai for example, they will have to accept it from others too: Limelight, Level 3 They will end up losing control of their own infrastructure, piling up different components that they dont own. We believe that if an operator can combine all that traffic and own its own infrastructure, it will be in better control when it comes to making decisions about resource allocation, while respecting net neutrality. We are hearing some service providers asking for private peering payments, renting of wholesale CDN services these are different strategies. If operators want to play in the CDN space, they need to ask themselves what they can do that the CDN service providers cant. Operators are late to the CDN market and still have to prove how they can differentiate. Its not an easy decision.JB: The conflict at the moment is you have users who only watch online streams so you are creating enormous demand in the local loop and payTV companies - who are moving heavily into TV Everywhere - are putting their own infrastructure right back to their own servers to make sure they can deliver. Its much more marginal if you are a broadband provider pure and simple.JLM: It makes sense that payTV OTT companies try and deploy their own CDN infrastructure to cut their CDN cost. However, telecoms and cable operators should not accept to host 3rd party infrastructure into their own network. If as a network operator, you accept to put different boxes from different payTV partners it will cost you more, in terms of network interconnection, power and cooling, so you are making you data centre available to everybody for free while you could optimise traffic from different platform by carrying it on a common infrastructure you own and that is optimised to carry traffic from multiple payTV sources. JB: Do you see a basic challenge to the traditional economic peering model of the internet?DG: It is not inconceivable that the peering model may cease to be relevant in the future. Peering, whilst essentially based on equitable exchange of traffic, is not free there are costs associated with operating a model based on peering economics. Based on current trends of improving economies of scale, it is possible that there will come a time when the economics of peering do not necessarily offer a significant cost advantage to simply purchasing transit. JLM: We are hearing more and more operators saying that the free peering model with CDNs (or with a symbolic transit cost) does not work anymore. Telecoms and cable companies want to preserve their CapEx, and realise that if they can delay the investments into network capacity a little by being smart and positioning caches they control in their infrastructure, it can represent a big saving.MI: Comcast and other companies are working on QAM to IP conversion gateways which will essentially be a home hub that transcodes content to all the different formats required and delivers it using DTCP to the devices within the home. What do you make of these?JLM: Weve seen these initiatives and they make sense. Its about doing broadcast until the ultimate edge which is in the home and this is what we are pushing with our nanoCDN initiative. We are saying that broadband gateways and STBs in the home can act as caches, with various amounts of storage and CPU power. We do multicast to the edge; for live OTT we take the live multi-screen channels that are unicast by nature, make them available as multicast and convert the signal back to unicast in the home gateway. This way, we make sure that live TV is scalable. This approach also allows operators to offer something different compared to a traditional CDN provider, and this benefits everybody. Even for the likes of big operators such as Comcast, it is difficult to be more competitive than Level 3 or Akamai, because their fraction of the market is small compared to CDN global players. Only by leveraging their unique assets, such as their managed network, transcoding capabilities, multicast technologies, can they deliver a better UX and save a lot of money in terms of access network, core and backhaul. The nanoCDN technology that we are promoting is really disruptive in the CDN space.JB: Until now, real time transcoding on the fly would have been prohibitively expensive but we are in the domain now where it can be done. The only thing is you are servicing a population of users who are nomadic so the content feed is often customised for the individual device.Chair: Does that mean transcoding will be done in the cloud in the future?MI: You still have to ensure that the quality is there for the different devices and that the studios security requirements are being met. If you transcode on the fly from a derivative and not a high resolution mezzanine master, you will suffer quality loss. Im curious to see how well the Comcast box does the conversion. And then of course theres ensuring that the content is as securely DRMd as required and that all the studios usage rights are met.As for the security of transcoding in the cloud, well you still have to meet the studios security requirements, especially if youre storing high resolution mezzanine masters. And if youre using 30 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comCDN roundtablehttp://www.csimagazine.comthe cloud as a delivery network you need to ensure checks like geo-IP restrictions are in place.JLM: Transcoding on the fly is a very nice technology but see two weaknesses at this point. The first is that you need to interfere with the protection. If you do transcoding you need to do encryption and decryption. With the nanoCDN, we dont touch the DRM once the content leaves the headend protected. The other limit is the start-up time for live content. But we are working on this with our partners. It has a good future for satellite especially.MI: With Ultra HD or 4K and 8K the quality is increasing the bits. But then you have things like HEVC that can process the quality better. And you also have companies like eyeIO, which Netflix uses, who say they can optimise delivery without having to change the actual player technology.Chair: Going back to QoS, there seem to be so many variables involved, like encodes and decodes, player devices, home conditions, CDNs etc. How do you guarantee this in a streaming environment?DG: There has been a widespread industry shift towards adaptive video delivery over HTTP, due to the greatly improved video quality, the ease of use for end-users. In addition, a move away from proprietary formats provides more flexibility for content owners. For some, limitations of proprietary standards incentivise a move towards adaptive standards, but in general, the industry move towards HLS, HDS or DASH has been driven by the significantly improved end-user experience.MI: It has to do with monitoring, doing the analytics, looking at the user experience, comparing it, tweaking its an on-going review.JB: It is working today. The fact of the matter is there are 34m users on Netflix and further tens of millions of broadcasters catch up services. You get the occasional outage but in the main people who are delivering content have made sure they have the end of end quality is there. You may have to drop some frames here and then but even thats changing. Its not an HD broadcast level but the industry has managed to get it to an acceptable level and its improving all the time.DG: CDNs by nature are inherently self-healing and resilient. If a part of the network goes down, content automatically defers to the next link in the chain so that there is not a single point of failure in any part of the network preventing content from flowing. In addition, every significant CDN will ensure full redundancy at each point in the network to ensure that there is no single point of failure.Chair: Are you worried about more companies going down the Netflix route and building their own CDNs?DG: On the contrary. Firstly, it is only a small number of the largest online companies for whom it would make sense to create their own CDN due to the volume of traffic that flows across their networks. For those companies, Level 3 is very well positioned to help them with the implementation of those solutions due to the broad range of products and services that we offer. For all but the very largest of content providers, an outsourced CDN is still more cost-effective and will continue to be seen as the primary solution. Chair: Do LTE and mobile broadband down the line pose a threat to CDNs and will they start taking away more and more of the live OTT traffic?JB: LTE is the next step function in mobile broadband and the next big push. But you have to manage it properly as they are already offloading a big chunk of mobile video onto WiFi. They are complimenting the fixed broadcast model which is still the most cost effective way to reach static screens and will be for years. Having said that, faster speeds and increasing data bundles will make cellular broadband a big deal. We think around 70% of all long form video has come via WiFi or fixed broadband in the last couple of years because of this issue, but that will change as 4G takes off.DG: Mobile will be a key part of the evolution going forward. This trend is at a nascent stage at present and will evolve as content becomes more CDN May-June 2013 31http://www.csimagazine.comwidely available and optimised for mobile devices. Today, scale is crucial for businesses who put their websites at the forefront of their business strategy. This will mean that players which do not provide such scale could suffer and hence consolidation in the market will take place with only the largest of CDNs able to service the volumes of content that are likely to be generated.JLM: We believe that LTE will be very useful for all operators, even those who want to deliver fixed line services. We are seeing more and more LTE routers on the market. In some cases, LTE might displace fixed networks as it has enough bandwidth for VoD content. What we see as a big benefit for LTE is the eMBMS features, LTE is finally going to make possible what DVB-H and others failed to do. It will make new scenarios possible for live events. The 4G architecture resembles a full IP network and is much more distributed and decentralised so CDNs make much more sense. This paves the way for new and exciting services.JB: At the end of the day, 4G is just the next step function. Mobile broadband is the biggest thing to hit this industry. Worldwide, 25% of wireless revenues come from data services and growing fast, with video being the key driver. But they need spectrum; therein lies the conflict. Youre already cutting into fixed broadcast spectrum and that will continue, which limits the expansion of terrestrial broadcast although it doesnt mean DTT is going away.MI: And they are trying to make sure that theres no cross leakage into the terrestrial spectrum because its in the same bandwidth. That will be interesting to see how thats resolved.Chair: Well, the UKs House of Lords Communications Committee called for TV services to be delivered over the internet in the future so to free up spectrum for wireless broadband. This obviously will have an impact on CDNs and DTTDG: Absolutely. Up until quite recently, the average home viewer consumed around four hours of content via terrestrial broadcasting, with only around four minutes via the internet. The point at which IP distribution becomes the predominant means of content distribution - when measured by minutes consumed - will happen in the later part of this decade. More content will be consumed over IP than over terrestrial broadcast.JB: In our view thats a very long scenario. Right now, in excess 95% of all viewing is either linear or time shifted broadcast on a conventional cable, satellite or DTT network. Online traffic is huge but in the overall perspective of broadcast its still in its infancy. Broadcast is such a cost effective way of reaching a mass audience this shift wont happen for at least ten years. With online, when you come to one-to-many situation, the numbers just dont add up, especially compared to satellite. There are pure play online TV channels, but they are almost fringe today.JLM: The very popular channels will still be broadcasted while the niche ones will never make it to broadcast due to spectrum issues. So broadcast will not go away because its very efficient. Operators will need to implement some form of multicast technology such as the nanoCDN if they want to achieve scalability. JB: The point about the governments long term intention, if you talk specifically about terrestrial broadcast thats one case. The other is cable and satellite, dedicated IPTV, where you have really huge capacity in terms of distribution. So you have two things: the value of spectrum, and the issue of what you want to use IP delivery for, is it time shift TV, which IP is cost effective, or is it to reach wireless/mobile devices? As youre still broadcasting 95% of the content thats effectively live simulcast online. But again, that will change as internet bandwidth and capacity increases.Chair: Finally, Limelight Networks have said they are preparing for a scenario where CDN costs increase as opposed to keep decreasing because of some telcos exerting more control over network access as a result of the large growth in online video that someone has to pay for. Do you think such a scenario might happen?MI: From a retailer perspective, if the studios are taking 70%, that leaves you with a limited amount to split among all the service providers and platforms.DG: I dont foresee this happening in the short term, but it is quite possible in the future, given the ongoing exponential increase in high volume delivery. Variables might be the cost of hosting, notably power, but this is often offset by increases in the efficiency of the technology used.JLM: We dont expect this to happen due to falling hardware costs, but what could drive prices up is transit costs and peering agreements. In the case of Netflix building its own CDN, is it because they couldnt get the price down or because nobody could monetise that traffic? We believe cost will go down and that network operators can drive them down especially in the live component where they can use their multicast enablers or transcode enablers so that when one million people are watching the same live channel from connected devices they use only a few Mbps from their network. 32 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comCDN roundtablehttp://www.csimagazine.comWe know youre struggling to generate more revenue in a highly competitive market. We also know you need to support more content for more users on an increasing number of devices. Do you think the solution entails a substantial infrastructure investment? We believe the answer is no. And we want to show you why.With Broadpeak nanoCDN, leverage the home network to make it an extension of your content delivery network. Improve quality of service. Dramatically reduce OPEX and CAPEX.See the hidden potential with your own eyes call Broadpeak to find out more.VISIT US ONBOOTH #Q36http://www.broadpeak.tvWherever you look in the telecommunications and broadcast media industries, new technologies are driving swift, significant changes. The teleport services sector is no exception. The key changes here are IP-based technologies, access to which is becoming more important for all teleport end-users, along with the growing number of high throughput satellites (HTS), which open up new possibilities for teleport service development and provision. These new technologies are acting like powerful fertilisers in the teleport services markets, stimulating the growth of dozens of competing service propositions.Those services are being offered by companies of various kinds, because, as has happened in other industries, one noticeable consequence of the move into an IP-based world has been a blurring of boundaries between one kind of company and another. It was once easy to distinguish between a satellite operator and a teleport operator, but today this is no longer always so straightforward. Both teleport operators and satellite operators have sought to expand their service portfolios, with teleport operators starting to offer services like video origination or manipulation; and some satellite operators seeking to deal direct with end-users. At the same time as these changes taking place, competition in this market is getting tougher anyway, as end-users seek to cut costs and increase efficiency wherever they can. So what does the future hold for this swiftly-evolving part of the industry?Contradictory trendsThe teleport market displays some contradictory trends. Many teleport operators are seeking to grow, to increase their commercial reach into new markets as they broaden their operational capabilities. Yet at the same time, other companies are choosing to build strategies around the delivery of specialist services, addressing niche requirements, from military or maritime services to occasional use applications or services tailored to suit specific broadcast markets. The traditional incumbents have been stepping out of this market since the late 90s, says Jos Snchez Ruiz, director of service operations at Eutelsat. Some incumbents are still playing important roles in certain regions, but more and more new players have entered the market, either by buying businesses or by starting from scratch. From a technical point of view, the most significant change is probably improved performance, he continues. That comes with smaller dishes and reduced costs. In the past when you were talking about teleport you used to be talking about 20 metre, 30m dishes that were expensive to build. Today you are getting the same performance from dishes that are around 4m. That is much more affordable.Robert Bell, executive director of the World Teleport Association (WTA), says teleport companies have worked hard to build on those technical advances and make themselves indispensable to end-users. Every teleport operator focuses on finding a value-added niche they can serve, so that they become an extension of the customers own business, whether that business is maritime services for cruise ships, or running enterprise networks for oil companies, working for TV channels, or for internet connectivity for specific regions.Whatever the focus of the teleport operators activities, all seem to be equally affected by the drive from end-users to cut costs. Everybodys 34 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comLook to the skies... and groundTeleportsDavid Adams weighs up the future of teleport serviceshttp://www.csimagazine.comobjective is to get more for less, says Ken Armstrong, CEO of CET Teleport. One way in which this trend is being expressed is a tendency for teleport operators to become more involved in the provision of ground services, to provide end-users with more of an end-to-end service proposition. Traditional teleport services are changing to catch up with the trend for integration between the space environment and the ground environment, notes David Hochner, CEO at SatLink. The teleport sector is getting more and more involved with the ground segments rather than the satellite segments. I can see more and more teleports entering the content management sector, more getting involved in OTT applications, IPTV, fibre, bundled services, rather than just satellite services. This is the future of the teleport industry.There is a general trend towards using VSAT technologies and IP, adds Ralph Brooker, president of satellite industry training provider SatProf. Theres more use of TV over IP and VoIP, so youre seeing teleports hosting more VSAT technologies to support more groups of IP-based terminals. Meanwhile, the most important new technology in the skies is surely HTS. These satellites can offer capacity at a lower cost than can Fixed Service Satellites (FSS), offering at least double the total throughput of FSS while still using the same amount of allocated orbital spectrum. Its clearly tempting for teleport operators to try to work out how they might exploit these capabilities. But this is still a new technology, as CETs Armstrong points out. There are people looking to try Ka-band services, which is something that is very much in its infancy, he says. It is an unknown for both customers and providers.More and more people are moving towards Ka-band applications, insists Thomas Weisner, global sales manager at signal processing specialist WORK Microwave. Demand for Ka-band is really enormous right now. This is a major trend.But working with Ka-band and Ku-band may also force teleport operators to alter their business models, says Brooker. These satellites have much more complex beam structures, so in those cases a teleport may not be able to function autonomously so easily any more, he explains. It may become more important to belong to a group of teleports that serves a group of satellites, because the satellite has got smaller sizes and each covers a smaller area. So you need teleports to be in multiple locations.I think that will be a trend: that in order to support these satellites there have to be dedicated networks that can interact with each other directly. He also believes new types of satellite, like the 03b satellite constellation, will also have a noticeable impact on the teleport industry, as working with such hardware creates more complexity for teleports. But even taking these changes and the fact that teleport operators are developing more specialised services into account, the level of competition in the market has reached a point where teleport operators need to find other ways to differentiate their service offerings. You have to accept that all teleport operators can offer the same services, says Armstrong. There are two ways to set yourself apart: one is having a good quality 24/7 helpdesk, multilingual if possible; and the second is the quality of service that you offer.So with a contended service, if a customer signs up for a 10:1 service you must make sure they get that, not a 20:1 service. That tends to make you not the cheapest supplier in the marketplace, but you have to stand above the others and say you will guarantee quality of service on contention ratios.Armstrong is also sure that hub-based services will continue to dominate the market. In the past everybody was very pro- individual links and not needing hub-based services, but now those make life much easier, he argues. At the moment I cant see this changing in the next few years. I think hub-based services will continue to dominate, especially in the data marketplace.Smaller operators may be able to differentiate their services through an ability to offer more flexible services, suggests Eutelsats Ruiz. Smaller players can be more flexible, more reactive in some cases, he says. For example they may be well-placed to offer occasional use services. Sometimes they are very quick to implement a customised solution.Ripe for consolidation?If they cannot do this, smaller teleport operators may well be swallowed up: this is a market that seems ready for a spell of consolidation activity, as the larger operators seek to expand the scale of May-June 2013 35TeleportsImage courtesy of CET TeleportI can see more and more teleports entering the content management sector, more getting involved in OTT applications, IPTV, fibre, bundled services, rather than just satellite services.http://www.csimagazine.comservices they are able to offer, to meet international needs. We can see more and more opportunities for M&A between teleports, says SatLinks Hochner. There will be more opportunities for acquisition, because a small operator cannot provide complete international solutions. If you want to be able to go beyond your own country you need to offer a variety of services to minimise your risks.On the other hand, the WTAs Bell says he can see no end to the supply of smaller companies coming into the industry to serve niche requirements (see table). My observation is that there are never-ending processes of consolidation and entrepreneurship, he says. There are dozens, if not hundreds of small teleport operators springing up. That is the sign of a very healthy market. That to me is the real dynamic: the migration of talent and capital into creating more value.Nor will the drive to expand the range of services inevitably lead to consolidation in every case, according to Ruiz. I expect to see more synergies between teleports using partnerships, he says. For example a good teleport operator in Europe may have customers asking them to deliver services in Asia. So they might buy services from a teleport operator there. The customer then has a one-stop shop. And it could work the other way round too, if the Asian teleport operator wants to be able to provide a service in Europe.As for the future of the industry, it seems certain that teleport operators chief preoccupation will be finding ways to offer ever more capacity and speed to end users. More bandwidth, especially for IP traffic, and higher data rates, asserts WORKs Weisner, when asked to sum up future trends in teleport.When one considers the broadcast sector, for example, the continued growth of OTT services and perhaps some development of ultra-HD 4K services may also help to drive demand for more capacity.Ka-band and HTS seem certain to become ever more important in the teleport world. We expect use of Ka-band to grow further, says Weisner. We have seen increased interest in that for two to three years, but this year has seen the biggest growth so far and we think this will be maintained for the next two to three years, because lots of people will change their equipment or add new equipment.WTAs Bell suggests that platforms like Intelsats Epic may indicate the shape of things to come: a platform that uses C- and Ku-bands as well as Ka-band, with wide beams, spot beams and frequency reuse solutions. Its taking the technology that makes Ka-band technology work, sharing frequencies among many small beams, global beams and spot beams, he adds. The present and future is driven by the new generation of satellites with capacity in Ka-band, multiple beams and higher bandwidth, notes Eutelsats Ruiz, and in the ground segment by a new generation of modulations supporting higher bit rates.This is going to be a world where capacities are going to go way, way up, says Bell. So there are great opportunities for teleport operators to benefit from that and help their customers to take advantage of it. 36 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.com1. Harris CapRock (USA)2. GlobeCast (France)3. Arqiva Broadcast & Media (UK)4. Globecomm (Services revenue) (USA)5. Encompass Digital Media (USA)6. TeleCommunications Systems Inc. (Govt Services revenue) (USA)7. RRsat Global Communications (Israel)8. Du (Emirates Integrated Telecom) (UAE)9. Signalhorn Trusted Networks (Germany)10. NewSat (Australia)11. Essel Shyam Communication (India)12. SatLink Communications (Israel)13. CETel (Germany)14. Jordan Media City (Jordan)15. CET Teleport (Germany)16. NewCom International (USA)17. STN (Slovenia)18. Elara Comunicaciones SA (Mexico)19. Cobbett Hill Earth Station (UK)20. Europe Media Port (Cyprus)1. Intelsat S.A. (Luxembourg)2. SES (Luxembourg)3. Eutelsat (France)4. Telesat (Canada)5. SingTel Satellite (Singapore)6. Harris CapRock (USA)7. EchoStar Satellite Services (USA)8. GlobeCast (France)9. Arqiva Broadcast & Media (UK)10. Hispasat (Spain)11. AsiaSat (China)12. Globecomm (Services revenue) (USA)13. Encompass Digital Media (USA)14. Thaicom Public Company Ltd (Thailand)15. TeleCommunications Systems Inc. (Government Services revenue) (USA)16. RRsat Global Communications (Israel)17. MEASAT Satellite Systems (Malaysia)18. Gazprom Space Systems (Russia)19. Du (Emirates Integrated Telecom) (UAE)20. Signalhorn Trusted Networks (Germany)The Independent Top Twenty The Global Top Twenty The Fast TwentySource: The World Teleport AssociationTop teleport operators of 20121. Encompass Digital Media (USA) 2. Elara Comunicaciones SA (Mexico) 3. CETel (Germany)4. TeleCommunications Systems (Govt Svcs) 5. NewSat (Australia) 6. Essel Shyam Communication (India) 7. Thaicom (Thailand) 8. Jordan Media City (Jordan) 9. AsiaSat (China) 10. Globecomm (Services revenue) (USA) 11. Hawaii Pacific Teleport (USA) 12. RRsat Global Communications (Israel) 13. Emirates Integrated Telecom (Du) (UAE)14. STN (Slovenia) 15. EchoStar Satellite Services (USA) 16. SingTel Satellite (Singapore) 17. CET Teleport (Germany)18. Eutelsat (France) 19. Intelsat (Luxembourg) 20. MEASAT Satellite Systems (Malaysia)Teleportshttp://www.csimagazine.comwww.intelsatepic.comHigh Performance.Open Architecture.When you have it all, thatsAt Intelsat were used to big things.We already own and operate the biggest satellite, teleport and fi ber infrastructure network in the world. But weve got even bigger plans.Intelsat EpicNG our Next Generation high-performance satellite platform with an innovative combination of C-, Ku- and Ka-bands, wide beams, spot beams, and frequency re-use. For broadcasters and media applications this means: Content Regionalization: advertising, time zone, language Customization: bitrate, resolution, encoding format More Throughput: HD content to smaller terminals Backward Compatibility: better performance through existing infrastructureFor you, this means lower cost of ownership.More control. More choices. Thats Epic.Meet with Intelsat during CommunicAsia 2013 at Stand 1S3-01. Contact us at sales.asiapacifi for details.6755-CSI.indd 1 5/1/2013 5:27:36 PMhttp://www.intelsatepic.comIn the delivery of multimedia content over the internet, varying and unpredictable bandwidth across supporting networks has provided a challenge for content providers in ensuring a consistently high quality of experience for viewers.Recognising this obstacle to full realisation of the potential of multimedia streaming over the internet, the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), a working group of ISO/IEC, developed the MPEG-DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) specification (ISO/IEC 23009). This suite of standards, ratified and published in April 2012, supports the efficient and easy streaming of multimedia using existing available HTTP infrastructure.DASH examinedThe power of DASH rests in part in its adaptive streaming capabilities. DASH is built on adaptive bit rate streaming technology in which multimedia files are encoded multiple times at various bitrates and delivered to a client on demand to adapt quickly to changing bandwidths. The packets are delivered using the same hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) data communication that has long served as the foundation for the World Wide Web. While segments can contain any media data, the DASH specification offers specific guidance and formats for use with the ISO Media File Format or MPEG-2 transport stream, which covers just about all of the multimedia content in use today.The DASH adaptive streaming manifest file delivered from server to client is referred to as a media presentation description (MPD). This XML-based file describes segment information such as program timing and URL, accessibility features, digital rights management (DRM), and media characteristics such as encoding format, video resolution, and, of course, bit rates. Live or on-demand content is encoded at a variety of bit rates (often a dozen or more), and each version is stored and accessed via a unique URL address. (This model gives operators the option of serving different versions from different locations and/or over different networks for further flexibility in maximising bandwidth usage.)Information within the MPD sent from the HTTP server allows the client to request the optimal segment fragment (and bit rate) according to current bandwidth availability and processing power available for bit stream decoding. HTTP GET requests are sent by the client every few seconds, assuring that the best possible audio and video quality free from dropped frames or buffering delays is being provided at all times. The shift between source files of different bit rates is seamless, ensuring continuous playback for the viewer.DASH enables the low-cost deployment of streaming services using existing internet infrastructure without any special provisions. The specification supports both on-demand and live streaming and can be used with any media format. While DASH is not alone in its implementation of adaptive streaming, it is a particularly compelling streaming platform because it offers the industry a non-proprietary means of delivering media to a wide range of devices. The DASH towards a unified standardThe MPEG-DASH specification is one of several streaming platforms, including Apples HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), Microsofts Smooth Streaming, and Adobes HTTP Dynamic Streaming, that rely on HTTP streaming as their underlying delivery method. While all of these proprietary streaming platforms typically use the MPEG-4 H.264 video codec along with MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), each employs its own segment fragmenting techniques, sequence timing, and manifest formats. Thus, if consumer devices are to receive and display content from a server implementing any one of these platforms, they must support the corresponding client protocol. By serving as a widely accepted standard for HTTP streaming of multimedia content, DASH would allow a standards-based client to stream content from any standards-based server.Because DASH includes a relatively generic container specification, it can support a wide assortment of data and codecs. DASH allows the incorporation of subtitles, accessibility features, content ratings, and other metadata. Its extended technical capabilities include progressive download of on-demand content, enhanced trick modes, ad insertion, and random access, as well as support for common encryption and multiple DRM models. Any DASH-compliant DRM may be implemented by a content provider with no changes to the underlying specification or protocols, so the extension of premium programming and services 38 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comMPEG-DASHDASH it all Richard E Doherty, director, E-Media Technology Strategy Office of the CTO at Dolby Laboratories, explains the inner workings of MPEG-DASH and the specs future prospectshttp://www.csimagazine.comvia connected devices can be undertaken without compromising the security of content.Leading media technology companies and content providers participated in the design of the MPEG-DASH specification in an effort to reduce the number of streaming protocols required to reach most devices. By establishing interoperability among all variety of servers and clients, widespread adoption of DASH would bring about a dramatic simplification in the preparation and delivery of multimedia content to broad array of target clients, which today include connected TVs, computers, streaming players, gaming consoles, tablets, and smartphones. With a unified standard, content providers could produce a single set of files for delivery to any DASH-compatible device.Increasing the interoperability of DASHIn creating the DASH specification, the MPEG designed only the way in which content is segmented, not the codecs or profiles used. Today, the DASH Industry Forum (DASH IF), comprising industry leaders such as founding members Akamai, Ericsson, Microsoft, Netflix, Qualcomm, and Samsung who contributed to the original MPEG-DASH specification, is working to create a set of profiles that will increase the interoperability of the DASH streaming platform. These and other companies view MPEG DASH as a tool for simplifying and unifying the delivery of IP video, a shift that will offer new business models for service providers and operators and support other breakthroughs in media delivery.The DASH IF Interoperability Working Group currently focuses on the development of DASHAVC-264. DASHAVC-264 is being designed to offer service providers, operators, encoding solution providers, and client vendors a set of interoperability guidelines along with the test cases, test vectors, and software tools they need to build and deploy DASH-compliant solutions. The DASHAVC-264 guidelines offer best practices and the specifics required for actual implementation of MPEG-DASH. The guidelines specify codecs, file types, and details of the HTTP transmission syntax. All of these details provide practical guidance intended to assure that various players and clients will in fact work together.DASHing aheadIn a few years, video content will continue to comprise the vast majority of internet traffic and continue to grow. Facilitating broad interoperability among servers and devices, DASH promises to be a key enabler of this new media landscape, in turn making it easier and more economical for operators to provide media consumers with an exceptional audio and video experience over the internet. Around the world, both standards bodies and content providers already are moving to take advantage of DASH.In Europe, version 1.5 of the HbbTV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV) standard, released late in 2012, includes support for MPEG-DASH. HbbTV first was intended to support distribution of premium and free Internet content over broadband connections to smart TVs and hybrid set-tops in combination with over-the-air digital terrestrial TV (DTT). The new multiscreen streaming version of HbbTV has fuelled commercial momentum for DASH testing and implementation, and it is significant because half of Western Europes installed market of TV sets is expected (by the HbbTV Consortium) to be HbbTV-compliant by next year.In the US, numerous demonstrations at the 2013 NAB Show illustrate the rapidly rising number of vendors supporting MPEG-DASH in their encoders, streaming software, DRM platforms, and other products. Chip manufacturers already are building MPEG-DASH into chipsets designed for smartphones. With respect to implementation, some of the industrys leading streaming content providers are strongly supportive of MPEG-DASH. Using DASH, such companies can achieve both high efficiency and high visual quality in the delivery of streaming content, which translates to a great media experience and higher rates of consumer satisfaction.Given the ubiquity of Apples HLS format and the promise and momentum of DASH, content providers and their multiscreen operations may be best served by an investment in support for both DASH and HLS streaming platforms in the short term. HLS is a fixture in present-day streaming services, but DASH may well be the streaming platform that moves the industry forward. In the Office of the CTO at Dolby, a Diamond SMPTE member, Richard E Doherty works on standards including DECE, DLNA, SCSA, and DASH, and on the companys advanced technology strategy including investigation of future technologies. He will present Internet Media Delivery Formats A DASH to the Races at the Entertainment Technology in the Internet Age (ETIA) conference, presented in June by SMPTE and the Stanford Center for Image Systems Engineering (SCIEN). May-June 2013 39http://www.csimagazine.comWith the ever increasing growth of online video consumption, and the explosive growth in internet connected devices over the past five years, content publishers have an extraordinary opportunity to leverage the internet to reach wider audiences and explore new business models for their video assets. Key to enabling success, however, lies in meeting the contractual obligations of the content owners. Contractual obligations can amount to the ability of the content distributor, such as a broadcaster or over-the-top service provider, to protect content that is being distributed over IP networks, such as the internet, from unauthorized use and redistribution.The reason is simple: content piracy fundamentally threatens the content publishers ability to monetise its valuable assets. Take 2012 as an example. In 2012 the most illegally download movie was ProjectX, which was downloaded a total of 8.7 million times. If you take an average cost of EUR4.99 to stream a movie online, this would be the equivalent of EUR43.4 million in lost revenue, at least thats how the media and entertainment industry view it. The most illegally downloaded TV programme in 2012 was Game of Thrones, which was downloaded a total of 4.3 million times. Again, in terms of potential loss of revenue, the cost could be estimated at EUR12.8 million Euros, if you take an average price of EUR2.99 per download.So its no surprise that content owners view piracy as an illegal activity equivalent to walking into a store and stealing a DVD. Securing physical media in a physical brick and mortar store is relatively straightforward. Securing media assets being distributed over IP networks is a much more complex task, and one that requires a multi-layered approach employing different techniques to defend against different threats. In addition, content protection needs to strike the right balance between business and legal requirements, end user experience, and cost. Attack and defenceThere are a number of ways that video content can be compromised when it comes to internet distribution. Attacks on video content can come in the following ways: LinkSharing-unauthorisedusersobtainaccesstopremium/paidcontent,bypassingaretailersbusinessmodel; DeepLinkingAhackerdecompilestheplayerandpostshiddenlinkstohisownsiteinordertomonetizethecontent; PlayerHijackingTheftoftheplayer,followedbycopyingittoadifferentwebsite,therebybypassingattributionstotheoriginsite;Stream Ripping - Theft of the actual content from the stream while it is being delivered to client systems;Stealing from cache - Theft of the content from a browser, player cache or disk; andContent tampering - Modification of the actual content (e.g., replacing/injecting unwanted advertisements into the stream).There are a number of technologies available today from vendors such as Akamai Technologies, Microsoft, Adobe, and Google that can be used to help protect content from the most common threats to content being distributed over the internet.These mechanisms are designed to discourage 40May-June2013 www.csimagazine.comHack to the future taking steps to protect your contentIP media securityStuartClearyoutlinesthewaysinwhichcontentproviderscancounterthemultiplethreatsofinternetpiracyEdge ServerHD Token AuthorizationHD Player VerificationHD Media EncryptionContent TargetingFigure 1 - SecureHD multi layered Content protectionPlayer RuntimePlayer HeuristicsPlayer Hash GenerationMedia DecryptionPlayer VideoIn 2012 the most illegally download movie was ProjectX, which was down-loaded a total of 8.7 million times.http://www.csimagazine.comand disable the ability to pirate content, while at the same time allowing the content owner to successfully monetise video assets - whether through pay-per-view, rentals and subscriptions, ad-supported, or other innovative business models.Some of these technologies include:Token Authorisation. Token authorisation is a method by which a shared secret is exchanged and validated between the content providers web infrastructure and the user (connecting from their IP enabled device). This mechanism is typically enabled to validate that the user has the rights to access the content providers content. Token-based authorisation mechanisms are commonly used across the internet as a security mechanism to validate user rights. To help confirm that only authorised users get access to your video stream, token authorisation security mechanism can be used to provide a hybrid token scheme in which a combination of a short TTL URL token and a long TTL cookie-based token is used.Player Verification. Player verification is designed to prevent unauthorised players from playing protected content. Because the video player application can control much of the user experience (eg, look and feel, playback functionality, ad watching, and security features), ensuring that the player is a valid and unaltered one offers a high level of security against deep linking attacks aimed at circumventing the content providers business model. This security mechanism is designed to ensure that a player and resident AUTH module are authentic. This is normally achieved by hashing the player and the AUTH module to produce a message digest for verification by the server managing the delivery of the content. In addition, player verification can also include a means by which to test the running image for certain security code, and obfuscation of the AUTH module.Geo-fencing or content targeting. Geo-fencing/ content targeting enforces access control over content in specific geographic regions. For example, a content provider in Germany may license a movie title from a major studio but is restricted to only distributing that movie title in the German market. Geo-fencing/ content targeting technology enables that content provider to restrict the consumption of that video to within Germany.Media Encryption. Media encryption is the process of encoding video content in such a way that hackers cannot read it, and ultimately rip the content, but that authorised parties can. For video delivery, media encryption can be applied at multiple levels to protect content. For example, a content provider may choose to only encrypt the transport layer and not the content. For added security the content provider may also choose to encrypt the content itself, in addition to the transport layer. One of the most powerful implementation is the use of per session key encryption. This means that every session request for a video has its own unique encryption key.Digital Rights Management. More commonly referred to as DRM, this is a method used to enforce and manage the distribution policies for video. For example, a content provider may only allow a video to be downloaded and available for twenty-four hours after the download. DRM would ensure that the copy of the video would no longer be available after the twenty-four hour period had expired. This scenario is common in the digital video rental market. DRM may also be leveraged to ensure that a video may only be played on the device it has been download to, and not available to transfer to other playback devices. The security mechanisms described above are designed to provide content providers with tools to help defend against the theft and unauthorised use of their online video content across major player run-times. Leveraging the technologies above offers a multi-layer security approach, which can be implemented in an easy and scalable way that avoids end-user software installation and maintenance hassle in most cases. The streaming media security landscape is one that will continue to evolve. As more and more compelling content is made available online, efforts to misappropriate and misuse the content will increase as well, and content providers need to arm themselves with best-of-breed solutions to protect against those threats. Are you ready? May-June201341IP media securityStuart ClearyisEMEAproductdirectorofDigitalMediaatAkamaiTechnologieshttp://www.csimagazine.comHEVC and DASH enjoy something of a symbiotic relationship and are the two big technology stories of 2013, both centring on IP video. For the 70 or so operators that have launched multi-screen services, the challenge is one of having to match consumer expectations of QoS versus online delivery of content, which the two can facilitate. But the two standards also seem to be attracting some diverging thoughts on their potential success in the face of increasing market and device fragmentation.Industry executives like to say, only half-jokingly, that the great thing about standards is there are so many of them. In the case of DASH, ironically, its overarching challenge is the competition it faces from the very same adaptive streaming protocols namely Apple HLS, Adobe HDS and Microsoft Smooth Streaming - it aims to unify.Primarily, this is due to a big shift in the last few months towards HLS, which a number of vendors CSI spoke to at the TV Connect show highlighted was taking place. Broadcasters are said to be implementing HLS to reach not just iOS devices but also an increasing number of other platforms, including Android. One executive noted that, while he wasnt allowed to disclose exact figures, Sky numbers in terms of multi-screen video consumption are heavily skewed towards iOS, partly attributable to the fragmented Android space.Adobe has added HLS to HDS and they have since then swung even harder towards the HLS side. So that certainly is reducing some of the players in that market for the protocols, while Microsoft, although pushing DASH at one point, have slowed a little in their support for it, said Nabil Kanaan, VP product management at RGB.So we find ourselves at this interesting crossroads where HLS is gathering a lot more momentum now more than ever before. So the question is will the industry fall in line behind a de facto standard or will the true standard efforts continue, he said.According to Kanaan, for the projects RGB is involved in, any mention of DASH is usually a case of customers wanting vendors that have a DASH roadmap for fear of getting backed into a corner, as opposed to any firm deployment plans.Kanaans sentiments were echoed by Ciscos Nick Thexton, who doesnt see the same driving forces with DASH as there exist with HEVC. We dont think that DASH is fundamentally a bad standard but it feels like a forced measure. It wont be adopted as rapidly as HEVC but it does have merit and it will be hard for another standard to replace it, said Thexton, adding that the real issue DASH solves is that it thinks carefully on power consumption on mobile devices and spectrum utilisation.By comparison, the HEVC market is ready to rip wide open, according to Thexton, pointing to a clear value proposition for OTT HD delivery (high-def content can be pushed down broadband networks at bitrates of 2-4Mbps) and no real competition, citing Googles proprietary VP8 codec as a recent example that has received lukewarm support.The other problem facing DASH is too many fragmented profiles, which is causing extra headaches, although the updated DASH-264 spec has tried to fill some of these holes and the overall technology standard is understood to be stable enough that it wont be broken in future. Most argue that Apple has a big role to play here in terms of iOS device support - there are no smartphones or tablets that support DASH as yet - but, again, the fact that things seem to be moving towards HLS means that the company has little to gain from migrating to DASH TS or another variant.There are too many standards and this wont slow down. DASH is just an umbrella name for various protocols, that covers a lot of different sub sets, said Lionel Bringuier, senior solutions architect for EMEA at Elemental Technologies. Bringuier hopes that maybe in the next two years there will be a Darwinian selection of protocols and only the best will survive.So it seems that despite the best efforts of DASH, there wont be one standard to rule them all any time soon, with a co-existence period existing between DASH and HLS for the next couple of years at least.HEVC, on the other hand, which offers at least twice as much efficiency to MPEG-4, is seen as unavoidable and is already coming along nicely, illustrated by Oranges decision to start HEVC-based VoD services to Samsung smart TVs in France in March, as well as NTT DoCoMos intent to launch one of the first smartphones running on the new compression standard later this year.HEVC is an immediate win for everybody, said Thexton, with development speed driven mainly by economics, particularly the fact that most extra complexity is in the encoding not decoding, meaning that end-user devices will not need significant extra processing power.Set-top box lifecycles, however, mean that the first HEVC capable STBs wont happen until at least 2015, driven by 4k/ultra HD services in the broadcast world. 42 May-June 2013 www.csimagazine.comDASH & HEVCIndustry divided on DASHHEVC will flourish, but the same cannot be yet said of MPEG-DASH streaming technology, discovers Goran Nastic http://www.csimagazine.comIMAGINE INFINITE CONNECTIVITYPay TVPhotosTelevisionTwitterFacebookSpotify iTunesMP3 PlayerNewsFriendsTVStreamingPay per viewOn demandSubscriptionMoviesSportNewsFavourite ArtistSocial NetworkDVRGamingTabletMobileLaptopMoviesMusicHomeBroadbandwww.adbglobal.comConnected ThinkingImagine offering a universe of new opportunity to your subscribers, where they can access all of their content when, where and how they want to. Seamlessly.Imagine delivering a personalised, unifi ed service across all devices that becomes so entwined in their everyday lives, they cant do without it. Reducing churn.Imagine delivering convenience, with overnight upgrades, remote management and diagnostics. Minimising operating costs.Imagine full quality HD streaming inside the home together with adaptive streaming from the cloud. Serving all their screens simultaneously. Imagine always offering the platforms and services that exist on the furthest edge of innovation. Staying ahead of the competition.Imagine working with ADB to defi ne the future. All trademarks acknowledgedADB Connected Thinking _CSI_08_12.indd 1 09/08/2012 14:12 www.verimatrix.comVerimatrix specializes in securing and enhancing revenue for multi-network, multi-screen digital TV services around the globe. The award-winning and independently audited Verimatrix Video Content Authority System (VCAS) and ViewRight solutions enable DVB cable, satellite, terrestrial, IPTV and OTT operators to cost-effectively extend their networks and enable new business models.


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