herbs and herbal remedies

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a brief presentation on herbs and herbal remedies

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  • 1. Herbs and Herbal Remedies Cynthia K Grothe HW499-01 Bachelors Capstone

2. The Old Wives Tale We have all heard that certain herbs will cure just about anything, such as garlic for viruses, or ginger for overall health. But how much is true? How does one decide what to try? Are these remedies safe? Are there certified herbalists that can make recommendations? 3. History of Herbal Remedies Herbal remedies have been around since the beginning of recorded history. Records from 1500BC describe the use of garlic, juniper, and myrrh. In 19th century, Samuel Thompson created a gentle root and herb approach to medicine when he became disenchanted with the side effects of regular physicians. 1864- the National Association of Medical Herbalists is established in Britain. 1945- The NAMH is renamed the National Institute of Medical Herbalists. (The National Institute of Medical Herbalists. (2014) A Potted History of Herbal Medicine.) 4. What is an Herb? An herb can be any form of a plant or plant product, including leaves, stems, flowers, roots, and seeds. These plants can either be sold raw or as extracts, where the plant is macerated with water, alcohol, or other solvents to extract some of the chemicals. The resulting products contain dozens of chemicals, including fatty acids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and others. Because any given herb contains multiple ingredients, some manufacturers attempt to create standardized herbal products by identifying a suspected active ingredient and altering the manufacturing process to obtain a consistent amount of this chemical. (S.Bent. (2008) Herbal Medicine in the United States: Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation) 5. Popular Herbs Depending on who you talk to, there are several herbs that are commonly recommended for use. Many of these herbs have been tested and studied for effective uses and they are also available over the counter. The FDA does not have a strict protocol for herbs like they do for conventional medicines. Herbs and herbal supplements are considered to be nutritional supplements so there are no labeling rules on them. In order to get the latest research, the best place to look is on the NCCAM website- http://nccam.nih.gov/ On the following slides, I will discuss three of the more popular herbs and their uses. I will also be listing known side effects. ***As with any other dietary changes and medicines, Always talk to your doctor first before using any of the herbs. If you are allergic to any of those discussed here, DO NOT USE THEM!! If you are not sure, DO NOT TAKE THE CHANCE!! There is still research ongoing and the possibility of herbs having an adverse effect if taken with conventional medications is still very great, so be sure to bring any questions to your doctor. This presentation is for educational purposes only*** 6. Lets take a look at what Garlic is recommended for. Used to reduce cholesterol- there was some evidence that it reduced LDL, but further studies have found no evidence of this. Used as an antihypertensive- there is indications that it is effective in reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Used to protect against viral infections- regular consumption of garlic may ward off the common cold. (McFadden, R. and Patterson, N. (2011) Interactions between drugs and four common medicinal herbs. Nursing Standard. 25, 19,65-68.) 7. Garlic Side-effects: Breath and body odor, heartburn, upset stomach, and allergic reactions Can thin the blood (reduce the ability of blood to clot) in a manner similar to aspirin Has been found to interfere with the effectiveness of saquinavir, a drug used to treat HIV infection (NCCAM. (2014) Herbs at a Glance: Garlic.) 8. Next, the Popular Herb St. Johns Wort Used to treat mild-to- moderate depression Used in Somatoform (mental symptoms such as pain and fear that lack a reason) disorders May be effective in Anxiety disorders May be effective for atopic dermatitis May be effective ADHD May be effective for treatment of Bone diseases. May be effective in treating brain tumors May be effective in controlling symptoms of herpes May be effective for treating nerve pain (Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: St. Johns Wort.) 9. Side Effects: May cause anxiety, headache, muscle cramps, sweating, weakness, dry mouth, or skin irritation. May increase the risk of photosensitivity. May increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. May alter drug levels. May cause heartburn, loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. May cause dizziness, tiredness, insomnia, problems with nervous system, skin tingling or prickling, and nerve pain. (Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: St. Johns Wort.) 10. Ginkgo Biloba Effective in the treatment of poor concentration, confusion, decreased physical performance, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, and anxiety. May improve cognitive performance and protect against Alzheimers Offers benefit to people with Generalized anxiety disorder. In combination with antipsychotics, ginkgo may offer benefits for people with schizophrenia. (Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: Ginkgo.) "Ginkgo Biloba Leaves - Black Background" by James Field (Jame) - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution- Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Ginkgo_Biloba_Leaves_- _Black_Background.jpg#mediaview er/File:Ginkgo_Biloba_Leaves_- _Black_Background.jpg 11. Side Effects: May cause higher or lower blood pressure. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. May lower blood sugars. May increase risk of bleeding. (Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: Ginkgo.) 12. Conclusions: Herbalists are not always medically trained, so they are not permitted to make diagnoses. Most states have certification requirements for Master Herbalists, so be sure they are certified, and check the accreditations of the practitioner. For locating a Master Herbalist in your area, refer to the NCCAM website (http://nccam.nih.gov/) or you can also refer to the Mayo Clinic (http://www.mayoclinic.org/) for uses and side effects. 13. References: Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: St. Johns Wort (Hypericum Perforatum). Retrieved July 30, 2014 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs- supplements/st-johns-wort/safety/hrb-20060053 Mayo Clinic. (2014) Drugs and Supplements: Ginkgo (Ginkgo Biloba). Retrieved July 30, 2014 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs- supplements/ginkgo/background/hrb-20059541 McFadden, R. and Patterson, N. (2011) Interactions between drugs and four common medicinal herbs. Nursing Standard. 25, 19,65-68. The National Institute of Medical Herbalists. (2014) A Potted History of Herbal Medicine. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from http://www.nimh.org.uk/?page_id=1722 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2014) herbs at a glance: Garlic. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/garlic/ataglance.htm Stephen Bent. (2008) Herbal Medicine in the United States: Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation. J. Gen Intern Med. 23(6): 854-859. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2517879/

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