Growth traits and mineral concentrations of maize hybrids grown on unlimed and limed acid soil

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  • This article was downloaded by: [UZH Hauptbibliothek /Zentralbibliothek Zrich]On: 22 December 2014, At: 16:53Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number:1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street,London W1T 3JH, UK

    Journal of Plant NutritionPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/lpla20

    Growth traits and mineralconcentrations of maizehybrids grown on unlimedand limed acid soilR.B. Clark a , S.K. Zeto a , V.C. Baligar a & K.D.Ritchey aa Appalachian Soil and Water ConservationResearch laboratory, U. S. Department ofAgriculture , Agricultural Research Service , P.O.Box 400, Beaver, WV, 25813Published online: 21 Nov 2008.

    To cite this article: R.B. Clark , S.K. Zeto , V.C. Baligar & K.D. Ritchey(1997) Growth traits and mineral concentrations of maize hybrids grown onunlimed and limed acid soil, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20:12, 1773-1796, DOI:10.1080/01904169709365374

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  • JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION, 20(12), 1773-1795 (1997)

    Growth Traits and Mineral Concentrationsof Maize Hybrids Grown on Unlimed andLimed Acid Soil

    R. B. Clark, S. K. Zeto, V. C. Baligar, and K. D. Ritchey

    Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research laboratory, U. S.Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, P.O. Box 400,Beaver, WV 25813

    ABSTRACT

    Growing crop plants tolerant to acid soils is an alternative for successfulproduction on acid soils with limited inputs, especially lime. Acid soil- oraluminum (Al)-tolerant plants offer considerable protection against soil acidityproblems. Thirteen maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids developed for productionunder various environmental conditions were grown (greenhouse) on twoacid soils (unlimed and limed) to determine differences among hybrids forgrowth traits, mineral acquisition, and relative tolerance to acid soil. Porterssoil induced greater acid soil stress on maize than did Lily soil, althoughshoot/root dry matter (DM) ratios were affected more in plants grown onLily than on Porters soil. Shoot and root DM and total root length (RL) overall hybrids followed sequences of Limed Lily Limed Porters > UnlimedLily > Unlimed Porters, and the trait with the greatest variation among hybridswas total RL. Specific RL (total RL/root DM) over all hybrids followed asequence of Limed Lily=Limed Porters=Unlimed Lily>Unlimed Porters, withrelatively small variations among hybrids. Shoot DM/RL among hybrids

    1773

    Copyright 1997 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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  • 1774 CLARK ET AL.

    followed a sequence of Unlimed Porters Unlimed Lily > Limed Lily =Limed Porters, and had the least variation among hybrids. Two Brazilianhybrids (HD 91102 and HD 9176) had highest DM and total RL to indicaterelatively high tolerance to acid soil stresses, while other hybrids (ten fromthe United States and one from Brazil) had relatively small differences forgrowth traits to indicate moderate to low tolerance to acid soils. Althoughgenotypes differed widely for mineral element concentrations, no significantdifferences in mineral elements between more and less tolerant genotypeswere noted.

    INTRODUCTION

    Maize is the third most important cereal crop in the world, and is grown onvarious soils under diverse environments. Nearly half of the total potentiallyarable land of the world is acidic (Clark, 1982), and much of the maize grownworld-wide is on acid soils. For example, maize is grown on 8 million ha ofacid soil in central/south America and Asia (Pandey and Gardner, 1992), and acidsoils comprise approximately 850 million ha in tropical America, 450 million hain tropical Africa, 210 million ha in tropical Asia (Van Wambeke, 1976), andabout 223 million ha in the United States (below pH 5.5) (R. Arnold, 1995, NaturalResources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, personal communication).Plants grown on acid soils commonly have reduced growth and yield. Liming isa common practice to alleviate acidity problems on acid soils (Adams, 1984), butlime is often too expensive or impractical for many crop production systems.Liming subsoils is particularly impractical and uneconomical (Foy, 1992). Usinggermplasm tolerant to acidic conditions would be an alternative for overcomingsome constraints with which plants must cope on acid soils with low or no limeinput.

    Use of acid soil-tolerant plants is common in many parts of the world (Maranvilleet al., 1993; Rao et al., 1993). Many maize lines/genotypes (Bahia Filho et al.,1978; Clark and Brown, 1974;Furlanietal., 1986;Kasimetal., 1990;Kovacevicetal., 1996;Magnavacaetal., 1987b, 1987c; Nyamangombe and Lefbvre, 1985;Oliveiraetal., 1983; Pandey and Gardner, 1992; Rhue etal., 1978) and populations(Bahia Filho etal., 1978; Ceballos etal., 1995; Duque-Vargas etal., 1994;Furlaniet al., 1986; Granados et al., 1993; Lima et al., 1992; Lopes et al., 1987; Magnavacaet al., 1987a; Pandey and Gardner, 1992; Pandey et al., 1984) have been identified,screened, and/or improved for acid soil/Al-tolerance, including some understandingof genetic/heritable processes/traits involved. Breeding to overcome acid soilproblems is practical and feasible (Magnavaca and Bahia Filho, 1993,1996). Forexample, a high yielding maize hybrid released to Brazilian producers/cooperativesin 1987 became acceptable to the extent that the market share ofthat hybrid incentral/south Brazil increased from 0.8% in 1988/89 (Magnavaca and Bahia Filho,1993) to > 15% in 1995/96 (Magnavaca and Bahia Filho, 1996). Maize germplasm

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  • GROWTH TRAITS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS 1775

    from the Maize Improvement Program of CIMMYT is also becoming availablefor production on many acid soils of central/south America and Asia (Granadoset al., 1993; Narro et al., 1996). Other acid soil-tolerant maize hybrids have beenor will be released, which should enhance production of maize on acid soils.

    Common features of plants grown with excess Al or on acid soils are reducedyields. Root growth is especially reduced by soil acidity (Taylor, 1989) so thatroots are unable to obtain sufficient nutrients (and water) to sustain optimumgrowth. The objectives of our study were to determine growth traits and mineralacquisition differences among hybrids of young maize grown on unlimed andlimed acid soils, and to assess relative tolerance of the hybrids to acid soil.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Acid Porters (coarse-loamy mixed, mesic, Umbric Dystrochrept from easternTennessee) and Lily (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic, Typic Hapludult from southernWest Virginia) soils were used. Properties of these soils before addition of fertilizerand lime treatments are provided in Table 1. Soils were air dried, screened (2 mmscreen), fertilized with 143 mg NH4NO3 and 878 mg KH2PO4 kg

    1 soil, and limetreatments [chemical grade CaCO3 (2.0 g) + Mg(OH)2 (0.5 g) kg-

    1 soil] were added,and soils thoroughly mixed. Soils received moisture to near field capacity, put inplastic bags, and incubated seven d before being placed in pots (1.0 kgpot1) forplant growth.

    Seeds of 13 maize hybrids (Table 2) were surface sterilized with 0.1-strengthNaOCl (household bleach) for 5 min, rinsed thoroughly with distilled water, andgerminated between wrapped germination papers. Three 3-d-old seedlings weretransplanted in each pot of soil and distilled water was added. Water was addedmanually every other day initially and daily after about one week to provideadequate water for plant growth, to prevent splashing on leaves/stalk, and to preventleaching from pots. Pots were arranged in completely randomized blocks withfour replications.

    Plants were grown 28 d in a greenhouse (March) with added artificial light(high pressure sodium halide 1000-watt lamps) to provide 16 h day lengths. Theexperiment was terminated by severing shoots from roots, and shoots were driedat 60C and weighed. Soil was shaken from roots [representative soil sampleswere saved for pH and electrical conductivity (EC) determinations] and rootswere thoroughly rinsed with water to remove adhering soil. Roots were blotteddry, cut into 1-2 cm segments, and ~2 g subsamples were collected for total RLdetermination using a Comair RL scanner (Commonwealth Aircraft Corp. Ltd.,Melbourne, Australia1 ). Remainder of roots were dried and weighed, as were

    1Mention of company or commercial products does not imply recommendation orendorsement by the U. S. Department of Agriculture over others not mentioned.

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  • 1776 CLARK ET AL.

    TABLE 1. Properties of acid Porters and Lily soils before addition of lime and growth ofmaize.

    Property/element

    Sand

    Silt

    Clay

    Organic matter

    pHw (soil.HjO, 1:1)

    pHc. (Soil:0.01 AfCaCI,, 1:1)

    Electrical conductivity (EC)

    Exch. acidity (1 M NH40Ac extr.)

    Exch. AI (1 M KCI extr.)

    Effective cation exchange capacity (CEO

    Effective AI saturation

    P (Bray-I extr.)

    S (1 M NH4OAc extr.)

    Cations (1 M NH40Ac extr.)

    Ca

    K

    Mg

    Na

    Cations (0.005 M DTPA extr.)

    Mn

    Fe

    Zn

    Cu

    Unit

    %

    %

    %

    %

    dSm"1

    cmol kg"'cmol kg"1

    cmol kg"'

    %

    Mg"1

    WO'*

    cmol kg"'

    ^flg-'

    Porters

    81

    14

    5

    3.91

    4.50

    4.210.09

    5.71

    4.89

    6.45

    76

    2.33

    83.4

    0.270

    0.144

    0.117

    0.205

    4.0

    86.0

    1.20

    0.09

    Uly

    63

    31

    7

    5.02

    4.82

    4.570.08

    3.022.55

    3.97

    65

    4.00

    66.9

    0.280

    0.146

    0.081

    0.391

    60.2

    33.5

    2.81

    0.11

    roots used for total RL determination. Other parameters calculated from DM andRL data were shoot/root DM ratios, specific RL (total RL/root DM; m-g-1), andshoot DM/RL (mg-m1)-

    Dried shoot samples were ground (0.5 mm screen), representative samplesweighed (50 to 100 mg) into teflon containers, and digestion solution (1.7 mL15.8 M HNO3+0.2 mL 11.4 M HC1+0.1 mL 28.9 M HF) was added. The tefloncontainers with plant tissue and digestion solution were placed in microwave

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  • GROWTH TRAITS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS 1777

    TABLE 2. Maize hybrids grown on unlimed and limed acid Porters and Lily soils.

    Hybrid No. Hybrid name/description/origin

    1 B73 x Mo17: Open pedigree; developed from inbreds B73(Iowa) and Mo17 (Missouri)

    2 BR2O1: Developed by EMBRAPA, Brazil (double cross hybrid)

    3 Crow 445: UN t

    4 Golden Harvest H2343: UN

    5 HD 91102: Developed by EMBRAPA, Brazil (HD = double crosshybrid)

    6 HD 9176: Developed by EMBRAPA, Brazil (HD = double crosshybrid)

    7 Jacques 7770: UN

    8 NC+ 5963: UN

    9 PA329 x PA353P: Open pedigree; developed from inbredsPA329 and PA353P (both from Pennsylvania)

    10 Pioneer 3362: UN

    11 Pioneer 3394: UN

    12 Pioneer 3592: UN

    _13 Wilson 1660: UN

    tUN = origin unknown.

    digestion bombs (Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL) and micro waved 2 min at fullpower (635-W delivered) then 4 min at 70% power, and allowed to cool in themicrowave 5 min before being removed to cool to ambient temperature (30 min).Digested solutions were transferred to 10.0 mL volumetric flasks and brought tovolume with distilled deionized water. Solutions were filtered and stored at -10Cuntil analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy.

    Data were statistically analyzed using analyses of variance procedures in aGeneral Linear Model of SAS (SAS Users Guide, 1989). Differences amongmeans for hybrids, soils, and liming treatments were evaluated using probabilitiesof significance and LSD values (P=0.05).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Many treatment and interaction effects were significant for growth traits andmineral elements (Table 3). Porters soil generally had lower pH than Lily soil

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  • TABLE 3. Probabilities of significance and coefficient of variation (CV) for growth traits and mineral concentrations of maize hybrids ^grown on unlimed and limed acid Porters and Lily soils.

    Soli Lime GenotypeGrowth trait/Element (S) (L) (G) S x L L x G S x G S x L x G CV (%)

    .. . .. . 1 4. . . 32 . . . . . . . 20

    . 34 .. 28.. .. .. 29

    57. . . . 18

    19.. .. . 32

    . .. .. .. 21

    .. .. .. .. 8

    .. .. . 31 20

    24 g

    Si- t* and **= significance at P

  • GROWTH TRAITS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS 1779

    TABLE 4. The pH and EC of unlimed and limed Porters and Lily soils after plants hadbeen grown.

    Soil trait

    p H w (soil:water, 1:1)

    pHCa (soil:O.O1 M CaCI2, 1:1)

    EC (soil:water, 1:1) dS m~1

    PortersUnlimed

    4.68

    3.78

    0.060

    Limed

    5.36

    4.72

    0.087

    Unlimed

    4.76

    3.88

    0.060

    Lily

    Limed

    5.77

    5.10

    0.093

    (Table 4). Mean soil pHw and pHCa after plant growth was 4.72 and 3.83,respectively, for unlimed and 5.57 and 4.91, respectively, for limed Lily and Porterssoils. Mean EC over both soils was 0.06 dS m 1 for unlimed and 0.09 dS m 1 forlimed soil, with similar values for Porters (0.074 dS m1) and Lily (0.076 dS m1)soils over lime treatments (Table 4).

    Plants had higher shoot and root DM and total RL when grown on Lily comparedto Porters soil, whether unlimed or limed (Figures 1, 2, and 3). Both shoot androot DM over all hybrids increased similarly (~3.4-fold) when plants were grownon limed compared to unlimed Porters soil, while root DM had greater increasesthan shoot DM when plants were grown...

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