gautrans hvs programme - hvsia | appendix g - e آ¾structural pavement design methods.

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  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Gautrans HVS Programme

    HVSIA 4th meeting 20-22 June 2007

    Gauteng Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Overall trends in South Africa Intensified migration to urban areas coupled with sustained economic growth of between 5 and 6%: necessitates greater investment in infrastructure to support SA’s socio-economic development Large capital projects in support of economy and FIFA 2010 Significant capital investment in infrastructure provision (>6% of GDP), particularly in roads, electricity, housing, rail and ports

    … but, acute lack of skilled resources and insufficient funds available for preservation of existing infrastructure

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    SAICE Infrastructure report (Nov ’06) Road type Rating Comment

    National roads C

    Most in fair to very good condition, with recent strategic acquisitions in poorer shape. Increasing use of user-pays (tolling), but funding remains a challenge, especially given that key roads will soon require extensive refurbishing.

    All other roads D-

    Generally inadequate funding and management systems leading to neglect of maintenance, combined with overloading, means that maintenance backlogs are growing. Less condition monitoring than in the past. Shortages of skilled personnel. Decisions have been taken to stop maintaining some roads.

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Road Network Condition - Gauteng Tendency since 2003:

    • Good to very good roads decrease by ± 100 km pa. • Poor to very poor roads increase by ± 50 km pa.

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

    100%

    19 85

    19 86

    19 87

    19 88

    19 89

    19 90

    19 92

    19 93

    19 94

    19 95

    19 96

    19 97

    19 98

    19 99

    20 00

    20 01

    20 02

    20 03

    20 04

    20 05

    20 06

    Year

    Le ng

    th (%

    )

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Predicted road network condition by 2010 By 2010 Soccer

    21 26 33 26 25

    25

    49 4153

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

    100%

    Current budget with no grants for

    10 years

    Current budget with no grants for 2007 and 2008

    Current (with grants)

    % N

    et w

    or k

    Le ng

    th

    Good to very good Fair Poor to very poor

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Gautrans HVS Programme Strategic Plan 2006 - 2009

    Focus Areas: Sustainable Development and the Environment Labour-Intensive Construction Asphalt Performance Provision of Low Volume Roads (including upgrading of unpaved roads) Vehicle Pavement Interaction (including dynamic loads and contact stresses) Concrete pavements Structural Pavement Design methods

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Gautrans HVS Programme HVS programme projects:

    Ultra Thin CRCP (sponsors: SANRAL & GDPTRW) – Concrete Pavements Guidelines for bitumen stabilization with ETB & FB (sponsors: SABITA & GDPTRW) – Sustainable Development and the Environment Forensic testing of AC Part 1&2 (sponsor: GDPTRW) – Asphalt Performance Validation of HMA design protocols for permanent deformation (Sponsor: GDPTRW) – Asphalt Performance SIM testing HVS and MMLS (sponsor: GDPTRW) – Vehicle Pavement Interaction Guidelines for design and construction of LIC (Including documentation and training issues) – Labour Intensive Construction

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Gautrans HVS programme Project status: Ultra Thin CRCP

    Phase I completed and reported during HVSIA 06 Phase II consists of comparing the proprietary Dannish concrete mix (Contec-Aps) to modified South African mixes; Completed Phase III evaluating structural performance of construction joints. Completion: Sept 07

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP HVSUTCRCP HVS Sections – Phase 1

    60 m

    HVS426A5

    HVS429A5

    HVS427A5

    HVS428A5

    3. 7

    m

    20 mm AC 150 mm G7 (CBR = 15 %)

    40 mm UTCRCP

    1.0mm (40 kN) Surface Deflection Before Overlay

    HVS430A5

    HVS431A5

    3. 7

    m

    40 mm UTCRCP 20 mm AC

    150 mm G7

    150 mm C4

    0.3mm (40 kN) 0.6mm (40 kN)

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP UTCRCP –– Sections at FailureSections at Failure

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP UTCRCP –– HVS RepetitionsHVS Repetitions

    Tire Pressure = 800 kPa (Truck), 1400 kPa (Aircraft) Speed = 9.0 km/h, Load Application = Canalized bi-directional Aircraft Wheel Used for wheel loads above 100kN Shaded Areas = Surface Water Added Continuously

    426A5 427A5 428A5 429A5 430A5 431A5 30 2,000 40 18,000 40,000 100,000 38,000 40,160 40,000 60 20,500 40,000 40,500 40,000 40,080 40,088 80 26,500 197,000 59,650 177,704 122,764 120,000 80 130,500 80 122,500 52,650 800,000 703,189

    100 23,000 21,547 120 20,528 125 137,000 140 135,100 1,360 140 103,300

    Total Reps 463,400 530,000 252,800 257,704 1,046,439 903,277

    Total ESAL's (n=4.5) 92,190,469 10,470,348 2,892,170 4,306,993 25,761,052 18,915,197

    Test Wheel Load (kN)

    HVS Repetitions Per Test

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP UTCRCP –– Conclusions Phase 1Conclusions Phase 1 Do not use “spacer bars” or asphalt paver for placement; Debonding between UTCRCP and asphalt support layer in presence of water – increase in stress; Presence of anchors did not have a major impact on curling; Steel fibre length and shape do impact performance – optimum 30 mm x 0.5mm hook end fibre; Amount of steel not that crucial according to FE model, but lab test indicate optimum to be - Ø 5.6mm @ 50x50mm – HVS tests to verify this.

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 2 UTCRCP Phase 2 -- APT TestsAPT Tests Reconstructed APT Test Section 1

    • Different Steel Mesh (max Ø 5.6mm @ 50x50mm), Steel Fibre and Concrete Mix Options

    • Placed by Hand – Drum Mixer

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 2 UTCRCP Phase 2 -- APT TestsAPT Tests Test plan

    • Loading: 0 – 40 000 reps @ 40kN 40 – 80 000 reps @ 60kN 80 000 + @ 80kN

    • Water added from 200 000 reps 2 days wet, 5 days dry

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 2 UTCRCP Phase 2 –– APT ResultsAPT Results Contec-Aps mix • Ø 5.6mm @ 50x50mm, Straight 12mm Fibre; • Repetitions = 1,356 million; • ESAL’s = 29,151 million

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 2 UTCRCP Phase 2 –– APT ResultsAPT Results RSA mix 1 • Ø 4.0mm @ 50x50mm, Hooked Fibre 30mm; • Repetitions = 1,176 million; • ESAL’s = 25,099 million

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 2 UTCRCP Phase 2 –– APT ResultsAPT Results RSA Mix 2 • Ø 5.6mm @ 100x100mm, Hooked Fibre 30mm; • Repetitions = 0,258 million; • ESAL’s = 4,336 million

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP UTCRCP –– Conclusions Phase 2Conclusions Phase 2 Hand placed performs equal or better than asphalt paver laid; The absence of asphalt inter layer had no noticeable impact; The absence of anchors had no noticeable impact; Hooked Fibres did prevent previous “explosive” failures noticed during phase 1; Major difference in performance between Steel Mesh with 50x50mm and 100x100mm spacing for same Ø – Wider shrinkage cracks the larger the spacing; Presence of crack with subsequent moisture increase is critical to performance; Construction Joints ???

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    Objectives: Phase III Evaluate the structural performance of construction joints: • Constructed 4 slabs, slab 1 and 3 during the first day

    and slabs 2 and 4 the following day. • Each joint differently constructed

    Measure slab shrinkage and slab curl prior to HVS loading

  • HVSIA meeting.20-22 June 2007 Gautrans HVS Programme. Elzbieta Sadzik

    UTCRCP Phase 3 UTCRCP Phase 3 -- APT TestsAPT Tests Steel Mesh Ø 5.6mm @ 50x50mm, with 3 Construction Joint Solutions Placed by Hand – Pan Mixer

    3, 7m

    Wh eel Pat hs

    24 m

    50 mm Concrete

    Additional Ø5.6 mm x 500mm Dowel Bar @ 150mm

    6m

    0.5m0.5m

    Ø5.6mm # 50x50mm RSA Binder

    50 mm

    Ø5.6mm steel mesh placed @ 50x50mm intervals at centre of slab continuing through day-joint

    50 mm

    Additional Ø5.6 mm x 1400mm Dowel Bar @ 150mm

    Join

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