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THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHIST LITERATURE

ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIENTALESOTTO LA DIREZIONEDI

ROMA

GIUSEPPE TUCCI

VOLUME

VIII

ROMAIs.

M. E. O.

1956

SERIE ORIENTALEVIII

ROMA

E.

FRAUWALLNER

THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGSOF BUDDHIST LITERATURE

ROMAIs.

M. E. O.

1956

TUTTI

I

DIRITTI RISERVATI

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Printed in Italy - Stampato in Italia

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORYOF SYLVAIN LEVI

PREFACEIn sciencetain,

many

things become cer-

provided

one

docs

not

allow

himself to be led astray by exceptions

and

is

able to respect problems*

(Goethe)

The present workBuddhist Vinayathanpress,it it

is

the

texts.

It outlines

outcome of a cursory study of perhaps more problemsit

canis

solve.

Jf in spite of this I now send

to the

because I think that the importance of the results

obtained warrants

my

decision.

If these results are confirmed,it

we

shall gain through

them a basis from which

appears

possible to grapple the central problems of the earliest Buddhistliterature

with a greater chance of success than heretofore.to

I have attempted

bring nearer

to

a solution a funda-

mental problem in the history of the Buddhist Vinaya. The threads issuing from it run in manifold directions; to follow themall

would require many years, andStill,

my

activity is

bound

by other tasks.

I think that several important results

have been secured.through

.The mass of the material has been worked and prepared for further research. Through the

determination of a

Vinaya

text

belonging to the first half

of the 4th century B. C.the history of the earliest

we have obtained a firm point for Buddhist literature. At the same

time some light has been thrown on the literature of that period. The development of the biography of the Buddha hasbeen clarified in an essential point.Lastly,

we have found

[IX]

E.

FRAUWALLNERorigin of Buddhist

a starting point for a criticism of thechurch history andthese results willits

historical value.

I

shall be glad if

in the field,

and above

meet with the approval of fellow workers all if they will stimulate them to furtherProfessor G. Tucci,

successful research.

I

am

deeply obliged

to

mythus

work for his valuable Serie Orientate I wish its early publication possible.forthis,

who accepted Roma and madeto

express

my

heartfelt thanks

as well as for the friendly interest

which he has always taken inLastly, Ithis

my

work.

work.

words about the dedication of I have studied at a university, where Indology

may add some

had been neglected for a long time and was limited to a most narrow circle of subjects. When later I went my own ways and became acquainted with the work of Sylvain Levi

and

was for me like the revelation of a new world and I received from it a large amount of stimulation. I had no occasion to meet Sylvain Levi personally, but I have This continuously learnt and am still learning from him.his school,it

book tooworks.to his

is

in a large measure based upon his and his pupils'even if I have gone

And

my own

ways, yet I owe

stimulating researches more than the references in the

The dedication of this work to his memory means for me, therefore, the payment of a great debtnotes

appear

to reveal.

of gratitude.

Vienna,

November

15th, 1953.

E. Frauwallner.

[*]

Abbreviations:

BEFEO =IHQJAs

Bulletin de l'ficole franchise d'Extreme Orient.

.ZDMG

= = =

Indian Historical Quarterly.

Journal Asiatique.Zeitschrift der

Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.

Works frequently quoted:Lamotte,Grande Vertu de Sagesse I-II, Louvain 1944-49. Przyluski, Acoka =* J. Przyluski, La legende de Vempereur Acoka dans lesTraitela

Ex. Lamotte, Le Traite de

de Ndgdrjuna (Bibliotheque der Museon, vol. 18),textes indiens el chinois

Tome

(Annales du Musee Guimet,

Tome

31), Paris 1923.

Przyluski, Concile = J. Przyluski, Le concile de Rdjagrha, Paris 1926. Przyluski, Le Nord-Ouest de VInde = J, Przyluski, Le Nord-Ouest de VInde dans le Vinaya des Mula-Sarvastivadin el les textes apparentSs, in JAsy

1914, II, pp. 493-568.

Przyluski, Le Parinirvana J. Przyluski, Le Parinirvana du Buddha (Extrait du Journal Asiatique, 1918-1920).

etles funerailles

[XI]

E.

FRAUWALLNER

THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHIST LITERATURE

1.

- The schools of Buddhism and the missions of Asoka.is

The Vinayaof theearliest

of the highest importance for the studyits

Buddhist literature and

development.

While the Sutrapitaka, with the exception of some fragments, has come down to us in the tradition of only one school (and that a scarcely important one for the generalschools.

we possess the Vinayas of no less than six have here, therefore, our only chance of getting more precise information on the origin and development of the earliest Buddhist literature. I shall thus place at the basis of the following discussion the Vinayadevelopment),

We

according to the tradition of the various schools, andshallis

we

be concerned above

all

with that part of

it

whichSar1J ,

known by the name Skandhaka (P. Khandhaka). The Vinayas of the following schools are preserved:

vastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka, the Pali school)

l With this name I indicate the school by which Buddhism was introduced into Ceylon, as well as the schools of Ceylon as far as they directly reproduce the tradition of the home country. For a later period, when in Ceylon a development of its own was started which gradually wielded influence on the home country too, the name Tamraparniya for the Singhalese schools seems to be preferable.

[i]1.

- E.

Frauvvallner, The

earliest

Vinaya,

E.

FRAUWALLNER1}.

Mulasarvastivadin and Mahasamghika

Of

these,

the

Vinayas of the Sarvastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka and Mahasamghika exist in Chinese translations, the Vinavaof the Pali school in the original Pali language, the Vinayaof the Mulasarvastivadin in Chinese and Tibetan transla-

which lately considerable sections of the Sanskrit 2 original have been added \ It has been known for a long time that a close relationship exists between all these works, both in the general outline and in the particulars. They are all of them divided in two parts: the Vibhaiiga^ i.e. the commentary on the ancient confession rules of the Pratimoksa, and the Skandhaka, i.e. the exposition of the Buddhist monastic 3 rides, to which several appendices are usually added \ Taking the Skandhaka first, we can see at once that the agreement of the texts reaches deep into the partiIt is strikingly close with four schools above all: culars. Sarvastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka and the Pali school. Of course we have to disregard the formal subdivisions appearing in the extant texts. These subdivisions are in contradiction with the inner structure and are palpably late, as is the case e.g. with the Mahdvagga and Cullavagga of the Pali school and the Saptadharmaka and Astadharmaka of the Sarvastivadin. Nor must we allowtions, to1 ) The following abbreviations will be employed for these schools: SarP, MuDh, Mahisasaka M, Pali school vastivadin == S, Dharmaguptaka

=

=

=

lasarvastivadin

Mhs. Ms, Mahasamghika 2 ) Published in Gilgit Manuscripts, vol. Ill, Srinagar 1942. I quote the Pali Vinaya in the edition of H. Oldenberg, London 1879-1883; the first two volumes have appeared also in the series of the Pali Texts Society. TheChinese texts are quoted according to the Taisho edition of the Tripi$akaJ.

=

=

by

Takakusu and K. Watanabe, Tokyo 1924-1929.

The Tibetan bKa'-

'gyur was not accessible to me*3)

On

the details of the structure of these texts see the Appendix.

[2]

THE EARLIEST VINAYAourselves to be led astray

by thetitles

fact that the sequence

of the several sectionstions appear

is

partly uncertain, that some secin the various schools

under differentin

and thatonly,is

occasionally

this

or

that

school

several

sections are joined into one.

If

weis

consider the contents

disregarding

all

these external features, the result

a complete agreement.

This

clearly

shown by thesections

following table, in which the titles

of the

are

given in Sanskrit according to the tradition of the Mulasarvastivadin, but are listed in the order which appearsto

me

to have most chances of being the original one;refer to the corresponding sections in the te