force and motion. what is a force? a force is a push or a pull
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- Slide 1
- Force and Motion
- Slide 2
- What is a force? A force is a push or a pull
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- Types of Forces Electrical forces (balloon with hair) Magnetic forces (magnet pulling a paperclip) Force of Gravity (apple falling from a tree and hits the ground due to gravity) Net force (the total amount of push or pull acting on an object) measured in Newtons (N)
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- Remember IFSMU I: Identify Variables F: Formula S: Substitute variables (#s) into formula M: Do the math U: Add the correct units. IF SMU (If you) do your math problems this way you will get points IF SMU dont you wont
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- Example of net force You and your brother are working together to move a box. You are both moving in the same direction. You are pulling at 30 N to the left and your brother is pushing at 20 N to the left. What is the net force?
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- Net Force answer I: Force=30 N left, 20 N left F: Add S: Net Force= 30 N left + 20 N left M: 50 U: 50 N to the left
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- Net Force Example You and your brother are fighting over the TV remote. You are pulling at 10 N to the left and he is pulling at 8 N to the right. Who wins?
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- TV Remote Net Force I: Force=10 N left, 8 N right F: Subtract S: 10 N left 8 N right M: 2 U: 2 N left You Win!
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- Main Points A force is a push or a pull A force always acts in a certain direction Forces in nature include: electrical, magnetic, and gravity. Weight is a force.
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- Newtons Law of Gravity Gravity Force of attraction between all objects in the universe An object with a LARGER MASS will have a LARGER FORCE of GRAVITY. Soa smaller mass will have a smaller force of gravity
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- Main points on Gravity Isaac Newton discovered the law of gravity All objects in the universe move toward each other because of the force of gravity between them. The amount of gravitational force between two objects depends on their mass. The force of gravity between two objects decreases as the distance between them increases.
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- Friction, Speed, and Velocity What is friction? Friction is a force that opposes the motion of an object
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- Types of Friction Sliding friction (book moving across a desk) Air resistance (object falling in air is pushed by air resistance) Rolling friction (wheel of bicycle and the road)
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- Is friction helpful or not helpful? Depends! Helpful because on earth friction between the road and bicycle wheel, your feet and the floor, cars, and trains all keep in motion from frictionwithout friction you would not be able to move the bike, car, train, or walk on the road. Not helpful metal parts touching in a machine can cause too much friction = heat and energy and parts will break or overheat.
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- Main points of friction To stop moving object, a force must act in the opposite direction Friction is a force that opposes the motion of an object There are different types of friction Friction makes motion possible Friction can sometimes be a problem
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- Speed What is speed? Speed is the distance traveled per unit of time Speed has two parts: distance and time Speed= distance/time Motion is a change in position
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- Types of speed Instantaneous speed is the speed at any given instance or point in time Average speed = total distance/total time
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- Velocity What is velocity? Velocity describes the speed (distance and time) and the direction of a moving object Moving from place to place involves distance, time, and direction so it is measured in velocity
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- Main points of speed and velocity Motion is a change in position Average speed= total distance/total time for the trip Speed at any instant is called instantaneous speed Velocity describes the speed (distance and time) and direction of a moving object
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- Newtons Laws of Motion Newtons three laws of motion can be used to explain the movement of all objects in the universe.
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- What is Newtons First Law of Motion? Inertia: tendency of an object to stay at rest or in motion An object will stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force
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- Newtons First Law of Motion If your car is traveling at 45 km/h then you are traveling at 45 km/h If your car suddenly stops because of a wallyou are still traveling at 45 km/h until you are stopped by another force (your seatbelt or possibly the ground).
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- What is Newtons Second Law of Motion? Force= mass X Acceleration The force (push or pull) of an object is equal to its mass (amount of matter) times its acceleration (change in objects velocity over time). Formulas: F=ma, a=f/m, m= f/a
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- Newtons 2 nd Law of Motion If you apply the same force on a small stone as you do a boulderthe small stone will accelerate much faster than the boulder.
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- Units to Remember Force(F) measured in Newtons (N) Mass (m) measured in kilograms (kg) Acceleration (a) measured in meters/seconds 2 (m/s 2 )
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- Math Problem: f=ma, a=f/m, m=f/a A marble has a mass of 0.05 kg and is dropped from a building at a force of 0.49 N. What is the acceleration of the marble? (units for a= m/s 2 )
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- Math Problem: f=ma, a=f/m, m=f/a I: F=.49N, m= 0.05 kg, a= ? F: a=f/m S: a=.49 N/ 0.05 kg M: a= 9.8 U: a= 9.8 m/s 2
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- Math Problem: f=ma, a=f/m, m=f/a A bowling ball has a mass of 7.0 kg and is dropped from a building at a force of 68.6 N. What is the acceleration of the bowling ball?
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- Math Problem: f=ma, a=f/m, m=f/a I: F=68.6 N, m= 7.0 kg, a=? F: A=f/m S: A=68.6 N/7.0 kg M: A= 9.8 U: A= 9.8 m/s 2
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- Why is the acceleration the same for the bowling ball and marble? Because falling objects dont accelerate through their whole fall. Eventually, the force of air resistance pushing up against the object equals the force of gravity pulling down on the object. At this point the final or terminal speed is reached. So a heavy object (bowling ball) and a light object (marble) dropped from the same height will hit the ground at the same time.
- Slide 31
- What is Newtons Third Law of Motion? Equal and Opposite For every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction Newtons 3 rd law includes two parts: the action force and the reaction force All forces act in pairs
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- Example Hitting a baseball: bat exerts force on ball (action) and ball exerts equal and opposite force on bat (reaction)
- Slide 33
- Calvin and Hobbs Interpretation
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