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  • 1

    First language support in adult ESL in Australia

    Denise E Murray

    Series editor

    Teaching in Action 1

  • Published by theNational Centre for English Language Teaching and ResearchMacquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109for the AMEP Research Centre

    First language support in adult ESL in Australia.

    Bibliography.ISBN 1 74138 118 5.ISSN 1832-8733.

    1. English language Study and teaching Australia Bilingual method. 2. English language Study and teaching Australia Foreign speakers. 3. Adult education Australia. I. Murray, Denise E. II. Wigglesworth, Gillian. III. National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (Australia).IV. AMEP Research Centre. (Series: Teaching in action, 18328733; 2).

    428.0071094

    Macquarie University 2005

    The AMEP Research Centre is a consortium of the National Centre for English Language Teaching andResearch (NCELTR) at Macquarie University in Sydney, and the School of Educational Studies at La Trobe University in Melbourne. The Research Centre was established in January 2000 and is fundedby the Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs.

    Copyright

    This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold,hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publishers prior consent in any form of binding or coverother than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition beingimposed on the subsequent purchaser.

    All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,without the prior permission of the publisher.

    The publishers have used their best efforts to contact all copyright holders for permission to reproduceextracts and wish to acknowledge the following for providing copyright permission:

    Examples of worksheets on page 37 and page 154, 155, 156 reproduced from The literacy workbook forbeginners by Judy Christie, Bilingual Chinese version translated by Lai-ping Yuen (1999) by permissionof AMES NSW

    Bilingual snakes and ladders board game on page 49 and page 157 from Art on the run: Visuals forteachers of English as a second language (1989) edited by P Macer (by permission of Commonwealth of Australia).

    Project Manager: Louise MelovProduction Supervisor: Kris ClarkeDesign and DTP: Helen LaveryCover design: Simon Leong DesignPrinted by Ligare Pty Ltd

  • iii

    Contents

    Abbreviations ......................................................................................................................v

    Acknowledgments............................................................................................................vi

    Series introduction .........................................................................................................vii

    Introduction .......................................................................................................................viiiDenise E Murray and Gillian Wigglesworth

    Section 1 Background ................................................................................................1Chapter 1 Research in use of L1 in adult learning settings.............................................2

    Gillian Wigglesworth

    Chapter 2 L1 as a resource in adult learning settings ...................................................12

    Denise E Murray

    Section 2 Classroom perspectives .....................................................................25

    Part 1 The bilingual teacher ...................................................................................26

    Chapter 3 The Russian bilingual class ...........................................................................27

    Ella Viroslianskaia

    Chapter 4 The Chinese bilingual class...........................................................................35

    Mei Fong McMahon

    Chapter 5 The Vietnamese bilingual class .....................................................................45

    Ngoc Bui

    Chapter 6 The Chinese bilingual Saturday class ...........................................................51

    Yong King

    Part 2 Teaching with bilingual assistants .............................................................55

    Chapter 7 Zsuzsas class................................................................................................56

    Zsuzsa Fodor and Cecily Thevenaz

    Chapter 8 Foroughs class..............................................................................................64

    Forough Doronian, Mohammad Kavianpour, Amy Liu and Yousif Yalda

    Chapter 9 Tricia and Ngocs class..................................................................................78

    Patricia Barton, Ngoc Bui and Bunna Khin

    Chapter 10 Christines class .............................................................................................91

    Christine Martin and Salwa Boulos

    Chapter 11 Sooi Lins class ............................................................................................100

    Sooi Lin Tye and Michelle Phoung Tran

  • iv

    Teaching in Action 1

    Chapter 12 Annas class .................................................................................................111

    Anna Barbara and Ljubisava Residovic

    Chapter 13 The Dandenong class..................................................................................119

    Jacky Springall

    Part 3 Use of L1 to support settlement needs ...................................................126

    Chapter 14 Shahans class.............................................................................................127

    Shahan Tan

    Chapter 15 Gails class ...................................................................................................135

    Gail Anderson

    Chapter 16 Susans class ...............................................................................................139

    Susan Henenberg

    Section 3 Where to now? ......................................................................................145Chapter 17 Implications for L1 use where to now? ....................................................146

    Denise E Murray and Gillian Wigglesworth

    Section 4 Sample activities ..................................................................................153

  • v

    Abbreviations

    acl Australian Centre for Languages

    AMES Adult Multicultural Education Service

    AMEP Adult Migrant English Program

    BSA Bilingual Student Assistant

    CALL Computer-assisted language learning

    CLT Communicative language teaching approaches

    CPSWE Course in Preliminary Spoken and Written English

    CSWE Certificates in Spoken and Written English

    DIMIA Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

    ESL English as a second language

    EFL English as a foreign language

    ILC Independent Learning Centre

    K-12 Kindergarten to year 12 (the complete range of primary and secondary education)

    L1 first, or native language

    L2 second language

    NCELTR National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research

    TAFE Technical and Further Education, Australia

    TESOL teaching English as a second or other language

    TLOTE teaching languages other than English

  • vi

    Acknowledgments

    The research recorded in this volume was conducted as part of the Special ProjectResearch Program at the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP) Research Centre,funded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs(DIMIA), Canberra.

    Special thanks are due to the AMEP teachers, bilingual assistants and learners whowere involved in the study. All but one of the teachers have contributed chapters thatgive their perspectives on the use of L1 in their classrooms. Talat Abouzaid was engagedin the project initially, but had to leave Australia and return to his home countrybecause of a family emergency and we acknowledge his contribution to this study.Several bilingual assistants also contributed their perspectives. We acknowledge thesupport of those who were not able to write reports.

    Thanks are also due to the coordinators at each of the research sites GordanaTokic from Australian Centre for Languages (acl) and Jacky Springall from AdultMulticultural Education Service (AMES) Victoria. They were invaluable in setting upmeetings, providing support for teachers and helping the teachers write their chapters.

    Several staff at the AMEP Research Centre have also contributed to this researchand volume: Kristine Clarke, Helen Lavery, Rosemary Lloyd, Louise Melov, StephenMoore and Karen Scott.

    The names of the editors of the book, the Introduction, and Chapter 17 are inalphabetical order. Both editors contributed equally.

  • vii

    Series introduction

    Teacher research in the field of second language teaching and learning has gainedprominence in recent years. Such re-examination of the activity of teaching connectsthe doing of teaching with the questioning of research (Freeman 1998: ix), apractice that Freeman calls teacher-research. While action research is a popularresearch methodology used in teacher-research (see for example, Burns 1999; Edge2001), action research and teacher-research are not synonymous. Action research has a broader focus than teacher-led inquiry, focusing as it does on the action researchcycle the iteration of findings of research that lead to action, which is again analysed,leading to further action. Teacher-researc

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