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mikrobiologi

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  • Makanan Fermentasi

  • Makanan FermentasiMakanan yangtelah mengalamiaksimikroorganismeatau enzim, untukmembawa perubahanyang diinginkan. Produksi dan karakteristik berbagai produk makanan sangat tergantung pada kegiatanfermentasimikroorganisme. Makanan fermentasiberasalribuan tahunyang lalu ketikadidugamikro-organisme mengkontaminasi makanan lokal.

  • Makanan FermentasiMikroorganismemenyebabkan perubahan dalammakanan: Membantu mengawetkan makanan, Memperpanjangumur simpanjauhdi atas bahanbaku Meningkatkanaroma dankarakteristikrasa, Meningkatkankandungan vitaminataukecernaandibandingkan denganbahan baku.

  • Table 1 History and origins of some fermented foodsFoodApproximate yearof introductionRegionMushroomsSoy sauceWineFermented milkCheeseBeerBread Fermented MeatsSourdough breadFish saucePickled vegetablesTea

    4000 BC3000 BC3000 BC3000 BC2000 BC2000 BC1500 BC1500 BC1000 BC1000 BC1000 BC 200 BCChinaChina, Korea, JapanNorth Africa, EuropeMiddle EastMiddle EastNorth Africa, ChinaEgypt, EuropeMiddle EastEuropeSoutheast Asia, North AfricaChina, EuropeChina

  • Makanan FermentasiIstilah "hal memuliakanbiologis" (biological ennoblement) telahdigunakan untuk menggambarkan manfaat nutrisi darimakanan fermentasi. Makanan fermentasimenyusun sekitarsepertiga darikonsumsi makanan duniadan merupakan 20- 40%(berat)daridietindividu.

  • Table 2 Worldwide production of some fermented foodsFoodQuantity (t)BeverageQuantity (hl)CheeseYoghurtMushroomsFish sauceDried stockfish 15 million 3 million1.5 million 300 000 250 000BeerWine1000 million 350 million

  • Table 3 Individual consumption of some fermented foods: average per person per yearFoodCountryAnnualconsumptionBeer (I)Wine (I)

    Yoghurt (I)

    Kimchi (kg)Tempeh (kg)Soy sauce (I)Cheese (kg)Miso (kg)GermanyItaly, PortugalArgentinaFinlandNetherlandsKoreaIndonesiaJapanUKJapan13090704025221810107

  • Miso is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting rice, barley, and/or soybeans with salt and the fungus kjikin

  • Hatch miso barrel

  • Table 4 Benefits of fermentationBenefitRawmaterialFermentedfoodPreservationMilk(Most materials)Yoghurt, cheeseEnhancement of safetyAcid productionAcid and alcohol production

    Production of bacteriocinsRemoval of toxic componentsFruitBarleyGrapesMeatCassavaSoybeanVinegarBeerWineSalamiGari, polviho azedoSoy sauceEnhancement of nutritional valueImproved digestibilityRetention of micronutrientsIncreased fibre contentSynthesis of probiotic compoundsWheatLeafy veges.CoconutMilkBreadKimchi, sauerkrautNata de cocoBifidus milk, Yakult, Acidophilus yoghurtImprovement of flavourCoffee beansGrapesCoffeeWine

  • CassavaSingkongsegarmengandung asamcyanhydric(HCN)yang harus dihilangkandari produkyang berasaldari singkonguntuk membuat layak untuk dikonsumsi manusia.Tergantung pada metodeproduksi (terutamametodetradisional)gari dapatberisi hingga20 mg /kgHCN- terhadap43 mg/ kg untuksingkongkupas segar. Gariadalah makananfermentasiberbentuk seperti geldan dikeringkanyang dihasilkandari singkongsegar.Ini adalahmakananpopulerdi Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana dan di negara laindi Afrika Barat.Daerahkonsumsibahkansangat luas sampai keAfrika Tengah:Gabon, Kamerun, KongoBrazzavilledan Angola.

  • Proses fermentasi GariSingkong dikupas kemudian diparutuntuk menghasilkanmash.Mashditempatkandalam kantongkaindan dibiarkanfermentasiselama18 - 24jam.

    Benda beratjuga ditempatkanpada tas untuk menekancairan keluar darimash.

    Pada akhirperiodefermentasi mashdipanaskanuntuk menghasilkangari.

  • Fermentation takes place in two phases.

    Initially the starch in the roots is hydrolysed by Corynebacterium to give sugars. These are metabolised to organic acids which hydrolyse the cyanogenic glucosides in the cassava and releases HCN. When sufficient acid has been formed the second phase, characterised by Geotrichum candida growth, begins.

    From the sugars the mould produces the aldehydes and esters that give gari its typical flavour. During dewatering some soluble cyanide and organic acid is removed with the press liquor It also contains some starch and may be used as a base for stews and soups or the starch can be recovered by allowing the liquor to settle and decanting off the liquid.

  • Gari

  • Nata de CocoMakanan serattinggi, nollemakyang sering disebut sebagai pencuci mulut Philippino(Philippino dessert). Kenyal,bening,seperti jellydihasilkan oleh fermentasi bakteripada air kelapa. Umumnyadibuat manissebagaipermen ataumakanan penutup,dan dapatsebagai campuran,minuman,es krim,dan campuranbuah. Dikenal sebagai diettinggi serat, nollemak dankolesterol.

  • Natade cocoadalah fermentasi air kelapadengan bantuanmikrobaAcetobacter xylinum.Gula dalamair kelapadiubah menjadiasam asetatdan benangselulosa. Akhirnya akanmembentuk suatu massapadatdan ketebalanmencapaibeberapa sentimeter.

  • Fermented FoodsYogurtMilk is feremented by a mixture of Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (official name Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus). Often these two are co-cultured with other lactic acid bacteria for taste or health effects (probiotics). These include L. acidophilus, L. casei and Bifidobacterium species.Acid produced from the fermentation causes the protein in the milk (casein) to coagulate into a semisolid curdIf you want strawberries or peaches, you must add them after the yogurt is made

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogurt

  • Fermented FoodsCheeseMilk is treated with lactic acid bacteria and an enzyme called rennin that partially hydrolyses the protein and causes it to coagulate into curds. The liquid portion of the milk at this time is called whey.The whey is separated from the curds, and the curds are aged (ripened) Different microbes in the early and late stages of processing give rise to cheeses with different characteristicshttp://www.realcaliforniacheese.com/

  • Meat and Fishsausageshamsbolognasalamiizushi fish, rice and vegetableskatsuobushi tuna

  • WineWhite vs. Red: juice or juice and skin

    Yeasts: Ferment when no oxygen around.Saccharomyces species

    DrySweetSparklingFortified

  • Fermented FoodsBreadinvolves growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) under aerobic conditionsmaximizes CO2 production, which leavens breadother microbes used to make special breads (e.g., sourdough bread)can be spoiled by Bacillus species that produce ropiness

  • Other Fermented Foodssilagesfermented grass, corn, and other fresh animal feeds

  • Microorganisms as Foods and Food Amendmentsvariety of bacteria, yeasts, and other fungi are used as animal and human food sourcesprobioticsmicrobial dietary adjuvantsmicrobes added to diet in order to provide health benefits beyond basic nutritive value

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