Facts About FACTS Ppt

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<ul><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Facts and Figures about Facts and Figures about FACTSFACTS</p><p>by</p><p>Naresh Acharya</p><p>T</p><p>r</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>EPSM, Energy, EPSM, Energy, Asian Institute of Technology,Asian Institute of Technology,</p><p>December 16, 2004December 16, 2004</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Presentation Outline Introduction History of Development &amp; Current Status</p><p> Semiconductor devices development 1st Generation of FACTS (SVC &amp;TCSC) 2nd Generation of FACTS (STATCOM &amp; SSSC) 3rd Generation of FACTS (UPFC) Most Recent Development (Convertible Static </p><p>Compensator)</p><p> Cost of FACTS Controllers SVC and STATCOM TCSC and UPFC Cost Structure Cost Considerations Economic Mix</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Introduction</p><p> Problems with AC transmission (1) Stability limits, (2) Voltage Limits and (3) Loop Flows</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Promising Solution - FACTSElevation = Voltage Profile</p><p>Amount of Laundry = transmission loading</p><p>Keep clothes off ground = stability criteria</p><p>Distance above ground = stability margin</p><p>Main supports = on line generators</p><p>Props = intermediate reactive power compensation, e.g. SVC, STATCOM, SC</p><p>Improved Post-Contingency Voltage Profile due to Dynamic Reactive Support by SVC, STATCOM, SC</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>History of Development</p><p> Technological change over time</p><p> Trend in deployment of FACTS devices</p><p> Where the World is heading</p><p> Where do we stand</p><p> What options are available</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Semiconductor DevicesDevelopment</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>1st Generation of FACTS -SVC</p><p> SVCs are available since 1970</p><p> First SVC demonstration was in Nebraska and commercialized by GE in 1974</p><p> More than 800 SVC are installed worldwide both in Utilities and in Industries (electric arc furnace and rolling mills)</p><p> ABB is the pioneer in its development and has installed 55% of total installations.</p><p> Half of it were installed during 80s.</p><p> 13% of utility scale SVC supplied by ABB is in Asian Countries</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>1st Generation of FACTS -SVC</p><p> Three SVCs in EGAT Power System</p><p> Chumphon 115 kV substation: 80 MVAR, installed in 1986</p><p> Tha Tako 500 kV substation: 2 X 190 MVAR, installed in 1989.</p><p> Bang Saphan 230 kV substation: -50 MVAR to +300 MVAR, installed in 1995</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Bang Saphan SVC-Thailand</p><p>To improve transient stability of tie line connecting major load center (Bangkok area) with generating station in the south. Length of tie around 700 km. Tie line consists of one double circuit 230 kV and one double circuit 115 kV line. This was considered to be the weak part.</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Utility scale SVC in Asia</p><p>S.N.Year </p><p>Installed</p><p>Country Capacity, MVARVoltage level </p><p>(kV) Place</p><p>1 1981 China 120 500 CNTIC - Wu Han II</p><p>2 1981 China 120 500 CNTIC - Wu Han I</p><p>3 1986 Thailand 80 115 EGAT - Chumphon</p><p>4 1987 China 290 500 Guangdong Gen. Pow. Co. - Jiang Men</p><p>5 1987 China 270 500 CNTIC - Dalian</p><p>6 1987 Iran 300 420 Tavanir - Omdieh</p><p>7 1987 Saudi Arabia 200 380 SCECO E - Shedgum</p><p>8 1987 Saudi Arabia 200 380 SCECO E - Faras</p><p>9 1987 Srilanka 20 132 CEB - Galle</p><p>10 1987 Yemen 80 132 YGEC Alsthom - Sanaa</p><p>11 1988 Singapore 100 230 Kallang Basin Substation</p><p>12 1988 Singapore 50 230 Labrador substation</p><p>13 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Madurai</p><p>14 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Trichur</p><p>15 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Singaropet</p><p>16 1988 Srilanka 20 132 CEB - Chunnakam</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Utility Scale SVC in AsiaS.N. Year Installed Country</p><p>Capacity, MVAR</p><p>Voltage level (kV) Place</p><p>17 1989 Thailand 190 500 EGAT - Tha Tako 1</p><p>18 1989 Thailand 190 500 EGAT - Tha Tako 2</p><p>19 1991 Malaysia 200 275 NEB - K1 North2</p><p>20 1991 Malaysia 200 275 NEB - K1 North1</p><p>21 1992 India 280 400 NTPC - Kanpur 2</p><p>22 1992 India 280 400 NTPC - Kanpur 1</p><p>23 1992 Iran 300 420 TAVINIR Omedieh</p><p>24 1995 Indonesia -25 to 50 150 Jember substation (Bali)</p><p>25 1995 Thailand -50 to 300 230 EGAT - Bang Saphan</p><p>26 1999 South Korea 200 345 KEPCO - Seo-Daegu</p><p>27 1999 Saudi Arabia 150 380 SCECO C - Riyadh I</p><p>28 1999 Saudi Arabia 150 380 SCECO C - Riyadh II</p><p>29 Japan -20 to +80 500 Tokyo</p><p>30 Japan -40 MVA Osaka</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>New Concept for Changing Environment - Relocatable SVC</p><p> Mainly used in NGC in UK, after deregulation of electric industry in 1990.</p><p> There are twelve 60 MVAR RSVC in NGC system.Conventional SVCs</p><p>Relocatable SVCs</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>1st Generation of FACTS -TCSC</p><p> Commercially available since 1990s.</p><p> Worlds first 3 phase, 2 X 165 MVAR TCSC installed in 1992 in Kayenta substation, Arizona raises capacity of line by 30%, by ABB.</p><p> Worlds first TCSC for subsynchronous resonance (SSR) mitigation installed in Stode, Sweden in 1998, by ABB.</p><p> No TCSC in ASIA, but two projects are under construction: in China and India</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>TCSC InstallationsSN Year Installed Country</p><p>FACTSType</p><p>Capacity, MVAR</p><p>Voltage level (kV)</p><p>Purpose Place</p><p>1 1992 USA FC + TCSC 2x165 230To increase powertransfer capability Kayenta substation, Arizona</p><p>2 1993 USA TCSC 208 500Controlling line power flow and increased loading</p><p>C.J.Slatt substation on the Slatt-Buckley 500 kV line in Northern Oregon</p><p>3 1998 Sweden FC +TCSC 400 SSR mitigation Stde</p><p>4 1999 Brazil FC +TCSC 500To damp interarealow freq (0.2 Hz) osicllation</p><p>1. FC at Maraba (348MVAR) 2. FC at Imperatriz (161MVAR) 3. FSC at Colinas (2x161MVAR) 4. FC at Miracema (161MVAR) 5. TCSC at Imperatriz (107MVAR) 6. TCSC at Sarra de Mesa </p><p>5Under Construction</p><p>China FC + TCSC</p><p>55 controlled 350 fixed</p><p>500 Series compensation Pingguo substation</p><p>6Under Construction</p><p>India FC + TCSC</p><p>118 controlled 788 fixed</p><p>400</p><p>Compenstion, Damping of interregional Power oscillation</p><p>Raipur substation</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>TCSC - Brazil</p><p>To increase power transfer limit and to damp the low frequency oscillations. Length of interconnection 1020 km. </p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>2nd Generation of FACTS -STATCOM</p><p> Commercially available since 1990s.</p><p> Around 20 in numbers and includes both utility and industrial installations.</p><p> Successfully applied in countries like Japan, USA, UK.</p><p> Also in service in China, developed by TsinghuaUnversity and Henan Power Authority.</p><p> World 1st STATCOM (+/- 80 MVAR) installed in 1991 in Inumaya substation in Japan and developed by Mitsubishi Electric Power Products, Inc.</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Utility Scale STATCOM</p><p>S.N</p><p>Year Installed Country</p><p>Capacity, MVAR</p><p>Voltagelevel (kV)</p><p>Purpose Place</p><p>1 1991 Japan 80 MVA 154 Power system and voltage stabilization Inumaya substation</p><p>2 1992 Japan 50 MVA 500 Shin ShinanoSubstation, Nagona</p><p>3 1995 USA 100 MVA 161 To regulate bus voltage Sullivan substation in TVA power system</p><p>4 1996 China 20 MVAreactive compensation, improve system stability and damp system oscillation</p><p>China </p><p>5 2001 UK 0 to +225 400 Dynamic reactive compensationEast Claydon 400 kV Substation</p><p>6 2001 USA -41 to +133 115</p><p>dynamic reactive compensation for fast voltage support during critical contingencies</p><p>VELCO Essex substation</p><p>7 2003 USA 100 138</p><p>to relieve transmission system constraints in the area through dynamic varcontrol during pak load conditions</p><p>SDG&amp;E Talegasubstation</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>STATCOM SDG&amp;E Talega</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>STATCOM-Sullivan, USA STATCOM, Sullivan substation, TVA, USA 27 X 15 m</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Layout arrangement comparison of STATCOM and SVC</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>2nd Generation of FACTS - SSSC</p><p> Not in commercial operation as independent device.</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>3rd Generation of FACTS - UPFC</p><p> The first utility demonstration of UPFC is located at Inez substation of American Electric Power (AEP) area in 1998.</p><p> Only two UPFC in operation.</p><p>S.N Year Installed CountryCapacity, </p><p>MVAVoltage </p><p>level (kV) Purpose Place</p><p>1 1998 USA 320 138Dynamic voltage support and added real power supply facility</p><p>AEP Inez substation</p><p>2 2003 South Korea 80 154 Gangjin substation</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>UPFC Inez, USA UPFC at AEP Inez substation, USA</p><p> 61 X 30, 5 m</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Latest Development Convertible Static Compensators (CSC)</p><p> CSC offer full flexibility by allowing its converters to be connected in shunt (STATCOM), in series (SSSC), shunt/series (UPFC) and series/series (IPFC).</p><p> The worlds first CSC is installed at New York Power Authoritys Marcy 345 kV substation, which is capable of operating in 11 different control modes.</p><p> The shunt portion of CSC came into operation in 2001 and full scale CSC came into operation in early 2004.</p><p> It consists of two 100 MVA inverters, two 100 MVA series transformers and one 200 MVA shunt transformers</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Investment cost for SVC and STATCOM</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Investment cost for TCSC and UPFC</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Cost Components</p><p>55%</p><p>15%</p><p>10%</p><p>12%4% 4% Hardware</p><p>Eng &amp; Project Mgmt.InstallationCivil WorksCommissioningInsurance</p></li><li><p>Tr</p><p>a</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>g</p><p>W</p><p>o</p><p>r</p><p>k</p><p>s</p><p>h</p><p>o</p><p>p</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>F</p><p>A</p><p>C</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>A</p><p>p</p><p>p</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>c</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n</p><p>,</p><p>E</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>y</p><p>,</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>Cost ConsiderationTechnology Transmission Line </p><p>Transfer Enhancement Cost Range Operating principle Procurement </p><p>Availability Reconductor lines Increase thermal capacity $50K to $200K per </p><p>mile Increases thermal limit for line Competitive </p><p>Fixed or Switched Shunt Reactors </p><p>Voltage reduction Light Load Management </p><p>$8-$12 kVAR Compensates for capacitive var-load </p><p>Competitive </p><p>Fixed or Switched Shunt Capacitors </p><p>Voltage support and stability </p><p>$8-$10 kVAR Compensa