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    Facts and Figures about Facts and Figures about FACTSFACTS

    by

    Naresh Acharya

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    EPSM, Energy, EPSM, Energy, Asian Institute of Technology,Asian Institute of Technology,

    December 16, 2004December 16, 2004

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    Presentation Outline Introduction History of Development & Current Status

    Semiconductor devices development 1st Generation of FACTS (SVC &TCSC) 2nd Generation of FACTS (STATCOM & SSSC) 3rd Generation of FACTS (UPFC) Most Recent Development (Convertible Static

    Compensator)

    Cost of FACTS Controllers SVC and STATCOM TCSC and UPFC Cost Structure Cost Considerations Economic Mix

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    Introduction

    Problems with AC transmission (1) Stability limits, (2) Voltage Limits and (3) Loop Flows

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    Promising Solution - FACTSElevation = Voltage Profile

    Amount of Laundry = transmission loading

    Keep clothes off ground = stability criteria

    Distance above ground = stability margin

    Main supports = on line generators

    Props = intermediate reactive power compensation, e.g. SVC, STATCOM, SC

    Improved Post-Contingency Voltage Profile due to Dynamic Reactive Support by SVC, STATCOM, SC

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    History of Development

    Technological change over time

    Trend in deployment of FACTS devices

    Where the World is heading

    Where do we stand

    What options are available

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    Semiconductor DevicesDevelopment

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    1st Generation of FACTS -SVC

    SVCs are available since 1970

    First SVC demonstration was in Nebraska and commercialized by GE in 1974

    More than 800 SVC are installed worldwide both in Utilities and in Industries (electric arc furnace and rolling mills)

    ABB is the pioneer in its development and has installed 55% of total installations.

    Half of it were installed during 80s.

    13% of utility scale SVC supplied by ABB is in Asian Countries

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    1st Generation of FACTS -SVC

    Three SVCs in EGAT Power System

    Chumphon 115 kV substation: 80 MVAR, installed in 1986

    Tha Tako 500 kV substation: 2 X 190 MVAR, installed in 1989.

    Bang Saphan 230 kV substation: -50 MVAR to +300 MVAR, installed in 1995

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    Bang Saphan SVC-Thailand

    To improve transient stability of tie line connecting major load center (Bangkok area) with generating station in the south. Length of tie around 700 km. Tie line consists of one double circuit 230 kV and one double circuit 115 kV line. This was considered to be the weak part.

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    Utility scale SVC in Asia

    S.N.Year

    Installed

    Country Capacity, MVARVoltage level

    (kV) Place

    1 1981 China 120 500 CNTIC - Wu Han II

    2 1981 China 120 500 CNTIC - Wu Han I

    3 1986 Thailand 80 115 EGAT - Chumphon

    4 1987 China 290 500 Guangdong Gen. Pow. Co. - Jiang Men

    5 1987 China 270 500 CNTIC - Dalian

    6 1987 Iran 300 420 Tavanir - Omdieh

    7 1987 Saudi Arabia 200 380 SCECO E - Shedgum

    8 1987 Saudi Arabia 200 380 SCECO E - Faras

    9 1987 Srilanka 20 132 CEB - Galle

    10 1987 Yemen 80 132 YGEC Alsthom - Sanaa

    11 1988 Singapore 100 230 Kallang Basin Substation

    12 1988 Singapore 50 230 Labrador substation

    13 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Madurai

    14 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Trichur

    15 1988 India 45 132 TNEB - Singaropet

    16 1988 Srilanka 20 132 CEB - Chunnakam

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    Utility Scale SVC in AsiaS.N. Year Installed Country

    Capacity, MVAR

    Voltage level (kV) Place

    17 1989 Thailand 190 500 EGAT - Tha Tako 1

    18 1989 Thailand 190 500 EGAT - Tha Tako 2

    19 1991 Malaysia 200 275 NEB - K1 North2

    20 1991 Malaysia 200 275 NEB - K1 North1

    21 1992 India 280 400 NTPC - Kanpur 2

    22 1992 India 280 400 NTPC - Kanpur 1

    23 1992 Iran 300 420 TAVINIR Omedieh

    24 1995 Indonesia -25 to 50 150 Jember substation (Bali)

    25 1995 Thailand -50 to 300 230 EGAT - Bang Saphan

    26 1999 South Korea 200 345 KEPCO - Seo-Daegu

    27 1999 Saudi Arabia 150 380 SCECO C - Riyadh I

    28 1999 Saudi Arabia 150 380 SCECO C - Riyadh II

    29 Japan -20 to +80 500 Tokyo

    30 Japan -40 MVA Osaka

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    New Concept for Changing Environment - Relocatable SVC

    Mainly used in NGC in UK, after deregulation of electric industry in 1990.

    There are twelve 60 MVAR RSVC in NGC system.Conventional SVCs

    Relocatable SVCs

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    1st Generation of FACTS -TCSC

    Commercially available since 1990s.

    Worlds first 3 phase, 2 X 165 MVAR TCSC installed in 1992 in Kayenta substation, Arizona raises capacity of line by 30%, by ABB.

    Worlds first TCSC for subsynchronous resonance (SSR) mitigation installed in Stode, Sweden in 1998, by ABB.

    No TCSC in ASIA, but two projects are under construction: in China and India

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