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  • ERDAS Field Guide

  • Copyright (c) 2005 Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging, LLC

    All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America.

    The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging, LLC. This work is protected under United States copyright law and other international copyright treaties and conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging, LLC. All requests should be sent to: Manager of Technical Documentation, Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging, LLC, 5051 Peachtree Corners Circle, Suite 100, Norcross, GA, 30092, USA.

    The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

    Government Reserved Rights. MrSID technology incorporated in the Software was developed in part through a project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, funded by the U.S. Government, managed under contract by the University of California (University), and is under exclusive commercial license to LizardTech, Inc. It is used under license from LizardTech. MrSID is protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835. Foreign patents pending. The U.S. Government and the University have reserved rights in MrSID technology, including without limitation: (a) The U.S. Government has a non-exclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced throughout the world, for or on behalf of the United States, inventions covered by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835 and has other rights under 35 U.S.C. 200-212 and applicable implementing regulations; (b) If LizardTech's rights in the MrSID Technology terminate during the term of this Agreement, you may continue to use the Software. Any provisions of this license which could reasonably be deemed to do so would then protect the University and/or the U.S. Government; and (c) The University has no obligation to furnish any know-how, technical assistance, or technical data to users of MrSID software and makes no warranty or representation as to the validity of U.S. Patent 5,710,835 nor that the MrSID Software will not infringe any patent or other proprietary right. For further information about these provisions, contact LizardTech, 1008 Western Ave., Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98104.

    ERDAS, ERDAS IMAGINE, IMAGINE OrthoBASE, Stereo Analyst and IMAGINE VirtualGIS are registered trademarks; IMAGINE OrthoBASE Pro is a trademark of Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging, LLC.

    SOCET SET is a registered trademark of BAE Systems Mission Solutions.

    Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

  • Table of Contents / iiiField Guide

    Table of ContentsTable of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

    List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvConventions Used in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv

    Raster Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Image Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Remote Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Absorption / Reflection Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Spectral Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Spatial Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Radiometric Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Temporal Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    Data Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Line Dropout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Striping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Storage Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Storage Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Calculating Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23ERDAS IMAGINE Format (.img) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    Image File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Consistent Naming Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Keeping Track of Image Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Geocoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Using Image Data in GIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Subsetting and Mosaicking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Multispectral Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    Editing Raster Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Editing Continuous (Athematic) Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Interpolation Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    Vector Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

  • Table of Contents / ivField Guide

    Vector Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Vector Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    Attribute Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    Displaying Vector Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Color Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Symbolization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    Vector Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Tablet Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Screen Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    Imported Vector Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    Raster to Vector Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    Other Vector Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Shapefile Vector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46SDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46SDTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46ArcGIS Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    Raster and Vector Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Importing and Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    Raster Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Raster Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Annotation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Generic Binary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Vector Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    Satellite Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Satellite System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Satellite Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57IKONOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58IRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Landsat 1-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Landsat 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65NLAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66NOAA Polar Orbiter Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67OrbView-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68SeaWiFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69SPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70SPOT4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    Radar Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Advantages of Using Radar Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Radar Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Speckle Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Applications for Radar Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Current Radar Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Future Radar Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

    Image Data from Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83AIRSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83AVIRIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Daedalus TMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

  • Field Guide Table of Contents / v

    Image Data from Scanning . . . . . . . .

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