Effective Strategies of Teaching

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enhancing teaching practices

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<p>i</p> <p>STAFF DEVELOPMENT SERIESDr. M.P.Chhaya</p> <p>ii</p> <p>Dear Reader, This CD Staff Development Series contains the following five books: 1. Book 1 - Effective Strategies 2. Book 2 - Curriculum Development and Classroom Management 3. Book 3 Measurement and Evaluation 4. Book 4 Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling 5. Book 5 Innovative School For the comforts of the reader, light classical instrumental music is introduced while you are reading (of course, it is optional). By clicking on the Music folder and then clicking twice on the music file, you can start the music and adjust the volume as you desire. This CD can be read on Microsoft Word 98 / 2000 on Normal view and for getting / retrieving the figures, it may be read on Print view. There are many advantages of these electronic books such as: Your hands remain free while reading and can take notes You can copy the pages / passages as per your requirements Material from this book can be displayed on a large screen using a projector Very handy and useful for staff-development and in-service programmes You can mix and match the topics from any of these books You can view these books according to your personal preferences (e.g. font, text size, colour, full screen mode, etc.) The use of a Compact Disc allows for easy portability, accessibility and storage in comparison to five printed books</p> <p>REQUEST You are morally obliged not to copy this CD for any other institution but for the use of your own staff development.</p> <p>iii</p> <p>Book 1</p> <p>EFFECTIVE TEACHEREFFECTIVE CLASSROOM(Effective Strategies of Teaching)</p> <p>Dr. M.P.CHHAYA</p> <p>iv</p> <p>This book is dedicated to</p> <p>Teachers who act as real Gurus</p> <p>v</p> <p>PrefaceThis book is introduced for use by students learning to be teachers, beginning teachers, and more experienced teachers all of whom may wish to improve their techniques through professional institutes, work-shops, and in-service and on the job training programmes. It is predicated on the belief that teaching is an art involving certain learned skills and that, with the knowledge of these skills, creative imagination, and talent, an individual can motivate others to learn. The major thrusts of the book, then, are the identification and illustration of the techniques and procedures that a teacher can use to increase his/her effectiveness and to help make the learning experience dynamic, meaningful, and relevant to todays student. The practical how to approach is always used; real, workable methods are provided for actual classroom situations. Because each learning experience based, as it is, on the interactions of individuals is unique, teaching techniques must be modified to fit each situation. When a teacher is concerned with the improvement of his own institution, he organises his time, thoughts and efforts very differently from the conventional teacher. Instead of spending great blocks of time organising lesson plans, lectures, and similar significant aspects of teaching, he concentrates on his own instructional behaviours. He thinks about himself as a person, how he will relate to the children, which instructional design he should follow, and the strategies he should use to facilitate learning. It is for certain that for schools to change, the teacher must change. This book does not deal with every possible instructional skill and sub-skill, which should be in the repertoire of a teacher. No single book could possibly accomplish such a task. A number of important skills have been treated, suggesting the range of competencies to be sought by the reader. This book will serve well as the base for a continuing progress of professional improvement. It can help in getting knowledge, but for it to be of any value it must be practised in the classroom until maximum utilisation of different strategies in different situations becomes second nature. The effective teaching practices have been described in a friendly manner. The language of classrooms is informal and there is no reason why a book about teachers in classrooms should not use the same language. Therefore, this book talks straight; avoiding complicated phrases, rambling discussions, or pseudo scholarly language. The idea is to get the point across quickly in a friendly and readable style. This book describes what real teachers can do in real classrooms and which teaching practices are and are not effective in those classrooms. The research-based effective teaching practices, presented in a simple style, are practical and realistic. Many individuals and professionals, whose studies of classroom life have contributed to the effective teaching, have been described in this book. The work of these professionals has made possible integration and synthesis of effective teaching practices. I also wish to acknowledge those teachers of Rajkumar College Rajkot, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan New Delhi, Schools of Chinmaya Mission and Navodaya Vidyalayas, who, over the years, have shared their insights about the teaching process with me. M.P.Chhaya</p> <p>vi</p> <p>Table of ContentsPreface iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................VI ..........................................................................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1....................................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................................1 What is method?.......................................................................................................................................2 What factors determine ones methods in teaching?...............................................................................3 Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching.......................................................................4 Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching.......................................................................4 Some important teacher effectiveness indicators:....................................................................................5 ..........................................................................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 2....................................................................................................................................................6 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION..............................................................................................6 Consider the context of your teaching......................................................................................................6 Consider the content of your teaching.....................................................................................................7 Consider the learners to be taught...........................................................................................................7 Consider yourself.....................................................................................................................................7 Elements of instructional design..............................................................................................................8 ................................................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 3..................................................................................................................................................10 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION...........................................................................................10 Individualised Learning.........................................................................................................................10 Behavioural modification.......................................................................................................................12 Contracting.............................................................................................................................................14 Independent study...................................................................................................................................15 Learning packets....................................................................................................................................16 Programmed learning (Instruction).......................................................................................................17 Student tutorial.......................................................................................................................................18 ........................................................................................................................................................................19 CHAPTER 4..................................................................................................................................................19 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS....................................................................................................19 Case study..............................................................................................................................................19 Community resources.............................................................................................................................21 Field study (trip).....................................................................................................................................22 Interest centres (Subject learning centres).............................................................................................23 Project....................................................................................................................................................24 Problem solving......................................................................................................................................25 Student research.....................................................................................................................................26 ........................................................................................................................................................................27 CHAPTER 5..................................................................................................................................................27</p> <p>vii STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS..................................................................................................27 Observation............................................................................................................................................27 Demonstration........................................................................................................................................29 Discussion..............................................................................................................................................30 Lecture....................................................................................................................................................32 Questioning............................................................................................................................................34 Role-playing...........................................................................................................................................37 Simulation gaming..................................................................................................................................39 Team teaching........................................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 6 .................................................................................................................................................43 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE..........................................................................................................43 Discovery ...............................................................................................................................................43 Interview.................................................................................................................................................46 Laboratory..............................................................................................................................................47 Socratic...................................................................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 7..................................................................................................................................................50 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE...............................................................................................50 Creative thinking....................................................................................................................................50 Co-operative learning............................................................................................................................53 Inquiry....................................................................................................................................................54 Modelling...............................................................................................................................................55 Decision-making ................................................................................................................56 Homework/Assignment...........................................................................................................................58 Brainstorming.........................................................................................................................................59 Summary.................................................................................................................................................60 Audio-visual aids...................................................................................................................................61 Overhead projector................................................................................................................................61 Slide projector...................................</p>