Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture

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<ul><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 1/15</p><p> EARLY BUDDHIST ROCKCUT ARCHITECTURE</p><p>ANURDDHA BADARAWANNINAYAKE</p><p>MA ARHCAEOLOGY</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 2/15</p><p>INTRODUCTON The early rock cut caves of India excavated in to</p><p>the hills and valleys of western ghats, are allBuddhist monasteries. each sites consists of oneor more chaityas- chapels for congregational</p><p>worship and several viharas which wereresidential halls for the monks. Rock cutarchitecture developed in the India during theperiod of Maurya in Bihar( 250 BC).Number ofBuddhist complexes were excavated in this</p><p>period onward(2nd</p><p>C.BC). The main centre for the early rock cut caves</p><p>monuments were clustered in westernIndia(Maharashtra) in the numerical and stylisticbasis.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 3/15</p><p>CHRONOLOGYOn the basis of inscriptions , architectural style, style of sculpture these caves were put</p><p>in particular chronological period and these are as follows:</p><p>Kondivte100 C BC</p><p>Nansur...70 C BC</p><p>Bhaja..90 to 70 C BC</p><p>Kondane90 to 70 C BC</p><p>Pitalkhora III 90 to 70 C BC</p><p>Ajanta X ..90 to 70 C BC</p><p>Ajanta IX .70 to 50 C BC</p><p>Aurangabad IV 70 to 50 C BC</p><p>Nasik..70 to 45 C BC</p><p>Bedsa .50 to 30 C BC</p><p>Karla 50 to 70 C AD</p><p>Kuda 140 to 150 C ADJunnar(Tuljaleni) ....100 to 125 C AD</p><p>Junnar (Buddhaleni)50 to 70 C AD</p><p>Lenyadri90 to 100 C AD</p><p>Bhimasankar110 to 150 C AD</p><p>Kanheri150 to 180 C AD</p><p>Shivaneri.110 to 150 C AD</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 4/15</p><p>DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY BUDDHIST ROCK CUT ARCHITECTURE</p><p>WESTERN INDIAN</p><p>ARCHITECTURE OF ROCKCUT CAVES ARE</p><p>INFLUENCED BY LOMAS RISI</p><p>AND SUDAMA CAVES PLANS</p><p>WHICH WAS EXCAVATED</p><p>AROUND 250 C.BC. INBARABARA HILLS IN BIHAR</p><p>DURING MAURYAN PERIOD.</p><p>THIS ROCK CUT CAITYA</p><p>CONSIST OF A</p><p>RECTANGULAR CHAMBERAND SMALLER CIRCULAR</p><p>ROOM BEYOND WITH A</p><p>DOMED ROOF. THE INNER</p><p>CHAMBER HAVING STHUPA</p><p>FOR WORSHIP. AT THE</p><p>ENTARENCE SEMI CIRCULAR</p><p>SUDAMA CAVE</p><p>PLAN</p><p>LOMAS RISI CAVE PLA</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 5/15</p><p>FAADE OF LOMAS</p><p>RISI CAVE TEMPLE</p><p>SUDAMA AND LOMAS RISI CAVES ATBARABAR BIHAR</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CunninghamMauryan.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sudama_and_Lomas_Rishi_Caves_at_Barabar,_Bihar,_1870.jpg</li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 6/15</p><p>2ND CENTURY B.C.COMMON ARCHITECTURAL AND STYLISTIC FEATURES</p><p>Kondivte Bhaja</p><p> Pitalkhora</p><p> Kondane</p><p> Ajanta cave NO.IX</p><p> Ajanta cave NO.X</p><p> Used minimal sculptural and decoration, typical of these</p><p>Buddhist architecture.</p><p> The caitya hall is apsidal in the plan. Faade is wooden.</p><p>Apsidal hall is consisted with vaulted roof with wooden ribs onroof.</p><p> Hall is dividing by slanted pillars the most dominant element of</p><p>the rock cut faade is horse shoe shaped caitya arch.</p><p> Pillars are plain octagonal without capital.</p><p> The raw of pillars divided hall into central hall and side aisles. </p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 7/15</p><p>KondivteAjanta no. X</p><p>Ajanta IX</p><p>Pitalkhora</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 8/15</p><p>BHAJA In western India early</p><p>Buddhist caves foundat Bhaja, which istypical early phase ofBuddhist architectureand it provides the</p><p>closest copy ofwooden prototype inthe detailing of thefacade and interior.The chitya hall is</p><p>apsidal in the plane.Same plane found atAjanta cave No. 10,Pitalkhora this apsidalhall is consisted with</p><p>vaulted roof with </p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 9/15</p><p>HALL IS DIVIDED BY SLANTEDPILLARS THE MOST DOMINANTELEMENT OF THE ROCK CUTFACADE IS HORSE SHOESHAPED CHAITYA ARCH.THE FACADE IS CARVEDMAINLY WITH SIMPLE MOTIF OFA RAILING, PLAIN CUT OUTBRACKETS, YAKSHI AND ACOUPLE. FACADE IS WOODEN.THE NUMEROUS PINHALES INTHE FRONT PORTION OF THECAVE INDICATES A LAND OFWOODEN ADDITION.THE PILLARS ARE PLAINOCTAGONAL WITHOUT CAPITAL.THE STUPA IS CONSISTED ASIMPLE DRUM AND ANDA.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 10/15</p><p>FIRST CENYURY B.C Kondane At Kondane chaitya caves</p><p>have same plane of earlycaves as apsidal hall atBhaja. Only difference</p><p>found in the faade. Belowthe chaitya arch sculpture isdepicted, which indicatescharacteristic of 1st C BC. Itis a figure of yaksha , alsohave the panels of dancing</p><p>men and women. Gracefullfigures reveal the artistsmastery over his craft andemphasis on the essentialplan of the body suggest a</p><p>phase as advance as theSanchi gate ways. Chaitya </p>http://images.vam.ac.uk/item/O175905/photograph-kondane-caves/</li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 11/15</p><p>BEDSA</p><p> Two large caves</p><p> Both caves has apsidal plans</p><p> One is caitya hall and other</p><p>one is vihara griha Caitya hall has been</p><p>elaborated by the addition of</p><p>the verandah and cells.</p><p> Verandah is wider than the</p><p>interior of the cave.</p><p> The pillar retain octagonal,</p><p>topped by bell shaped</p><p>capitals with animal horse,</p><p>bull, elephant with human</p><p>riders. The upper half consist of a</p><p>large horse shoe shaped</p><p>caitya arch.</p><p> The two side walls of the</p><p>verandah are carved with </p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 12/15</p><p>1ST CENTURY A.D.</p><p> Karla cave</p><p> Around start of 1st</p><p>century A.D.subsequent development found</p><p>at Karla.</p><p> The cave itself is one of the</p><p>largest Buddhist excavation.</p><p> Here a stone screen is added toenclosed verandah with lion</p><p>capital pillar as carved as</p><p>Mauryan.</p><p> Verandah is parallel to the</p><p>Bedsa. But greater symmetryfound here than Bedsa.</p><p> In Karla there are three doors in</p><p>verandah. Bedsa walls un</p><p>sculptured but at Karla large</p><p>mithun couples flank thedoorways.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 13/15</p><p> In contrast to the Bedsa verandah a row of approximately</p><p>life size elephant is carved as it supporting the entire super</p><p>structure on the two end walls in a manner reminiscent of</p><p>the elephant plinth at Pitalkhora.</p><p> The sculptures of highly advanced characters and some of</p><p>the finest examples of the sculptures craft.</p><p> pillars have base with three tier pedestal and octagonal</p><p>shaft capped bell with amalaka within a square frame</p><p>above. The top most carries the capital.</p><p> The top most carries the capital. The capital is two pare of</p><p>elephant with male and female riders on them.In these</p><p>figures there is an amazing sense of propotion.</p><p> The stupa has a drum in two terraces both crowned by arailing. Over the stupa is seen an original wooden</p><p>umbrella(chatra).</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 14/15</p><p>2nd 3rd CENTURY A.D.Next important phase of development is plan of caitya is</p><p>that the flat roof rectangular quadrangular caitya hall. This</p><p>became most prominent and standared designed in periodof 2nd -3rd C.A.D. According to the Dr. Dhavalikars</p><p>interpretation this is development phase of late hinayana</p><p>period.</p><p>Th l t d i ibl d i th i d f th</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Early Buddhist Rock Cut Architecture</p><p> 15/15</p><p> The general trend visible during the period of theearly Buddhist caves is a development from shallowrelief sculpture with an emphasis on surfacedecoration to a truly sculptural style of deeper relief</p><p>with simplified details. These rock cut caitya cavesdeveloped from simple architectural style tocompound or complicated and decorative largevihara complex. Developed from apsidal caitya hall</p><p>with slanting pillars, wooden ribs and woodenfaade; to the apsidal hall with verandah and stonefaade; to the quadrangular flat roof caitya hall. Intime space 500 to 600 years i.e. IInd century B.C. to</p><p>II</p><p>nd</p><p>-III</p><p>rd</p><p>centuries A.D.</p><p>THANK YOU</p></li></ul>