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    EARLY BUDDHIST ROCKCUT ARCHITECTURE

    ANURDDHA BADARAWANNINAYAKE

    MA ARHCAEOLOGY

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    INTRODUCTON The early rock cut caves of India excavated in to

    the hills and valleys of western ghats, are allBuddhist monasteries. each sites consists of oneor more chaityas- chapels for congregational

    worship and several viharas which wereresidential halls for the monks. Rock cutarchitecture developed in the India during theperiod of Maurya in Bihar( 250 BC).Number ofBuddhist complexes were excavated in this

    period onward(2nd

    C.BC). The main centre for the early rock cut caves

    monuments were clustered in westernIndia(Maharashtra) in the numerical and stylisticbasis.

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    CHRONOLOGYOn the basis of inscriptions , architectural style, style of sculpture these caves were put

    in particular chronological period and these are as follows:

    Kondivte100 C BC

    Nansur...70 C BC

    Bhaja..90 to 70 C BC

    Kondane90 to 70 C BC

    Pitalkhora III 90 to 70 C BC

    Ajanta X ..90 to 70 C BC

    Ajanta IX .70 to 50 C BC

    Aurangabad IV 70 to 50 C BC

    Nasik..70 to 45 C BC

    Bedsa .50 to 30 C BC

    Karla 50 to 70 C AD

    Kuda 140 to 150 C ADJunnar(Tuljaleni) ....100 to 125 C AD

    Junnar (Buddhaleni)50 to 70 C AD

    Lenyadri90 to 100 C AD

    Bhimasankar110 to 150 C AD

    Kanheri150 to 180 C AD

    Shivaneri.110 to 150 C AD

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    DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY BUDDHIST ROCK CUT ARCHITECTURE

    WESTERN INDIAN

    ARCHITECTURE OF ROCKCUT CAVES ARE

    INFLUENCED BY LOMAS RISI

    AND SUDAMA CAVES PLANS

    WHICH WAS EXCAVATED

    AROUND 250 C.BC. INBARABARA HILLS IN BIHAR

    DURING MAURYAN PERIOD.

    THIS ROCK CUT CAITYA

    CONSIST OF A

    RECTANGULAR CHAMBERAND SMALLER CIRCULAR

    ROOM BEYOND WITH A

    DOMED ROOF. THE INNER

    CHAMBER HAVING STHUPA

    FOR WORSHIP. AT THE

    ENTARENCE SEMI CIRCULAR

    SUDAMA CAVE

    PLAN

    LOMAS RISI CAVE PLA

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    FAADE OF LOMAS

    RISI CAVE TEMPLE

    SUDAMA AND LOMAS RISI CAVES ATBARABAR BIHAR

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CunninghamMauryan.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sudama_and_Lomas_Rishi_Caves_at_Barabar,_Bihar,_1870.jpg
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    2ND CENTURY B.C.COMMON ARCHITECTURAL AND STYLISTIC FEATURES

    Kondivte Bhaja

    Pitalkhora

    Kondane

    Ajanta cave NO.IX

    Ajanta cave NO.X

    Used minimal sculptural and decoration, typical of these

    Buddhist architecture.

    The caitya hall is apsidal in the plan. Faade is wooden.

    Apsidal hall is consisted with vaulted roof with wooden ribs onroof.

    Hall is dividing by slanted pillars the most dominant element of

    the rock cut faade is horse shoe shaped caitya arch.

    Pillars are plain octagonal without capital.

    The raw of pillars divided hall into central hall and side aisles.

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    KondivteAjanta no. X

    Ajanta IX

    Pitalkhora

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    BHAJA In western India early

    Buddhist caves foundat Bhaja, which istypical early phase ofBuddhist architectureand it provides the

    closest copy ofwooden prototype inthe detailing of thefacade and interior.The chitya hall is

    apsidal in the plane.Same plane found atAjanta cave No. 10,Pitalkhora this apsidalhall is consisted with

    vaulted roof with

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    HALL IS DIVIDED BY SLANTEDPILLARS THE MOST DOMINANTELEMENT OF THE ROCK CUTFACADE IS HORSE SHOESHAPED CHAITYA ARCH.THE FACADE IS CARVEDMAINLY WITH SIMPLE MOTIF OFA RAILING, PLAIN CUT OUTBRACKETS, YAKSHI AND ACOUPLE. FACADE IS WOODEN.THE NUMEROUS PINHALES INTHE FRONT PORTION OF THECAVE INDICATES A LAND OFWOODEN ADDITION.THE PILLARS ARE PLAINOCTAGONAL WITHOUT CAPITAL.THE STUPA IS CONSISTED ASIMPLE DRUM AND ANDA.

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    FIRST CENYURY B.C Kondane At Kondane chaitya caves

    have same plane of earlycaves as apsidal hall atBhaja. Only difference

    found in the faade. Belowthe chaitya arch sculpture isdepicted, which indicatescharacteristic of 1st C BC. Itis a figure of yaksha , alsohave the panels of dancing

    men and women. Gracefullfigures reveal the artistsmastery over his craft andemphasis on the essentialplan of the body suggest a

    phase as advance as theSanchi gate ways. Chaitya

    http://images.vam.ac.uk/item/O175905/photograph-kondane-caves/
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    BEDSA

    Two large caves

    Both caves has apsidal plans

    One is caitya hall and other

    one is vihara griha Caitya hall has been

    elaborated by the addition of

    the verandah and cells.

    Verandah is wider than the

    interior of the cave.

    The pillar retain octagonal,

    topped by bell shaped

    capitals with animal horse,

    bull, elephant with human

    riders. The upper half consist of a

    large horse shoe shaped

    caitya arch.

    The two side walls of the

    verandah are carved with

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    1ST CENTURY A.D.

    Karla cave

    Around start of 1st

    century A.D.subsequent development found

    at Karla.

    The cave itself is one of the

    largest Buddhist excavation.

    Here a stone screen is added toenclosed verandah with lion

    capital pillar as carved as

    Mauryan.

    Verandah is parallel to the

    Bedsa. But greater symmetryfound here than Bedsa.

    In Karla there are three doors in

    verandah. Bedsa walls un

    sculptured but at Karla large

    mithun couples flank thedoorways.

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    In contrast to the Bedsa verandah a row of approximately

    life size elephant is carved as it supporting the entire super

    structure on the two end walls in a manner reminiscent of

    the elephant plinth at Pitalkhora.

    The sculptures of highly advanced characters and some of

    the finest examples of the sculptures craft.

    pillars have base with three tier pedestal and octagonal

    shaft capped bell with amalaka within a square frame

    above. The top most carries the capital.

    The top most carries the capital. The capital is two pare of

    elephant with male and female riders on them.In these

    figures there is an amazing sense of propotion.

    The stupa has a drum in two terraces both crowned by arailing. Over the stupa is seen an original wooden

    umbrella(chatra).

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    2nd 3rd CENTURY A.D.Next important phase of development is plan of caitya is

    that the flat roof rectangular quadrangular caitya hall. This

    became most prominent and standared designed in periodof 2nd -3rd C.A.D. According to the Dr. Dhavalikars

    interpretation this is development phase of late hinayana

    period.

    Th l t d i ibl d i th i d f th

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    The general trend visible during the period of theearly Buddhist caves is a development from shallowrelief sculpture with an emphasis on surfacedecoration to a truly sculptural style of deeper relief

    with simplified details. These rock cut caitya cavesdeveloped from simple architectural style tocompound or complicated and decorative largevihara complex. Developed from apsidal caitya hall

    with slanting pillars, wooden ribs and woodenfaade; to the apsidal hall with verandah and stonefaade; to the quadrangular flat roof caitya hall. Intime space 500 to 600 years i.e. IInd century B.C. to

    II

    nd

    -III

    rd

    centuries A.D.

    THANK YOU

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