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  • Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Dumps, Landfills and Emerging Contaminants in the Canadian NorthMonica Danon-Schaffer, PhD, P.Eng.

    CH2MHill

    2015 RPIC Federal Contaminated Sites Regional Workshop

    Edmonton, Alberta

    June 2015

  • 2 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

  • 3 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

  • 4 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    1. Emerging Contaminants of Concern2. Why Do We Care?3. Challenges in the Canadian North4. Sources of Emerging Contaminants5. End-of-Life Management6. Landfills and Dumpsites7. Policies8. What Happens Next?

    Topics of Discussion

  • 5 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Any chemical mixture or hazardous material with the potential to cause adverse human health, public safety, or environmental effects

    Any synthetic or naturally occurring chemical not typically monitored in the environment but recently detected in the environment

    Limited toxicity information availableConcern with the length of exposure timeCompounds designated as candidate Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    What are Emerging Contaminants?

  • 6 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    What if we have emerging contaminants in

    Source: Alex Stone, WA Department of Ecology

    upholstery mattresses electronics white goods vehicle parts auto shredder

    residue

    6

  • 7 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Why Do We Care?

    Persistent, bioaccumulative, long-range transport (PBT)

    Find their way into food chain and human population

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)Concentrations in the environment have been increasing since the 1970s

    Leach out of products; end up in sewagePersist for decades; end-of-life disposal implications

  • 8 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Challenges in the Canadian North

    If contaminant is detected in the Arctic, automatically presume it is persistent, subject to long range transport and likely bioacummulative

    Environmental pollution trends

    Many declined in Arctic over past 20 years

    Others influenced with no visible trend

    Criteria met for definition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Extent and degree of contamination poorly understood

    Release of contaminants

    Contaminants stored in: permafrost, sea ice, glaciers

  • 9 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Challenges in the Canadian North

    Problems with landfills (dumpsites) across CanadaCanadian North (i.e. north of 60o N)Most dumpsites unlined, some adjacent to water bodies, unauthorized dumping and/or uncontrolled access

    Northern dumpsites contain different waste streams than southern Canada

    Need to know nature and presence of emerging contaminant problem at dumpsites across the Canadian North

    PresenterPresentation NotesWant some pictures here of uncontrolled dumps

  • 10 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Emerging Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic

    Background on current POPsLegacy POPs 23 (historical use)Bioaccumulate, persistent, toxic, long range transport

    Emerging chemicalsMany hazardous chemicals still being used

    commerciallyNo yet regulated nationally/internationally: BFRs,

    PFOAs, current used pesticides, heavy metals (Hg, coal burning, accidents)

    Radioactive material (Chernobyl 1986, Fukushima 2011): incomplete decommissioning, inadequate storage of waste

  • 11 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    What if these emerging contaminants were

    Originating from consumer goods, ending up in dumpsites?

    Degrading and showing up in leachate, indicating their persistence in different environmental media?

    More common in southern landfills than in northern landfills?

    BPA, PBDEs, TBBPA, HBCD, PFCs, PCNs, SCCPs, PCPs/PCAs, PCBs, NPs

  • 12 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    New Chemicals of Concern

    Chemicals undergoing current screening in Arctic*:Perfluorocarboxilates (PFCAs)

    Perfluoroalkylsulphonates (PFSAs)

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs)

    Perfluorosulphonamido-alcohols (PFTOHs)

    Siloxanes

    Organophosphate flame retardants

    *Northern Contaminants Program

  • 13 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Current Emerging Chemicals of Concern

    Stockholm Convention assessing (October 2014): Dicofol: organochlorinated pesticide related to DDT Deca-BDE: bioaccumulation/biomagnification

    discussion and its debromination to lower brominated congeners

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs): used as plasticizers, flame retardants, additives in metal working fluids, in sealants, paints and coatings

    Dicofol Deca-BDE SCCP

  • 14 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Emerging Contaminants of Concern

    DicofolShort-chained chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs)Pentachlorophenols (PCPs)*Pentachloroanisole (PCA)*Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)**Chlorinated naphthalenesHexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOs)*Deca-BDE

    Risk profilephase

    Elimination under Stockholm Convention (May 2015)

    Risk managementevaluation

    *Restricted use; **Unintentional production

  • 15 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Siloxane: Intermediates in silicon polymer production SCCP: lubricants, surface coatings, rubber/leather finishing; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates and algae, toxic to liver, kidney, thyroid; persistent, bioaccumulates.

    SCCP use in China: amount could exceed entireexisting historic worldwide usage of PCBs (30 fold increase to >600,000 tonnes, between1990-2007)

    PCN: cable insulation, wood preservative, engine oil additive, capacitor fluids, dye intermediate, flame retardant

    PCP/PCA (penta chloroanisole): PCP is breakdown product of HCB (hexachlorobenzene) and HCHD (hexachlorohexane). PCP transformed into PCA and back into PCP. Both need to be considered together

    Emerging Contaminants Common Uses

  • 16 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Some Sources of Emerging Contaminants

    Agricultural sources:farming

    Consumers: pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials in personal care products (e.g. sunscreens), detergents (e.g. fluorescent brighteners)

    Industrial sources:Pharmaceuticalsnanomaterials

  • Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Specific Emerging Contaminants

  • 18 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Organic Chemistry 101

  • 19 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Brominated Flame Retardants

    Br

    Br Br

    Br

    BrBr

    HH

    HH

    HH

    HH

    HH

    H H

    H

    HH

    H

    HH

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    OHOH

    CH3

    CH3

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    O

    BrX BrY

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)

  • 20 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs)

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Electric and electronic equipment (EEE), carpets, polyurethane

    foam in sofas, vehicle interiors

    Additive flame retardant

    Persistent, bioaccumulative, long range transport

    Added to products to reduce ignition

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Thermal insulation in buildings (polystyrene)

    Backcoating of textiles in upholstery (extruded polystyrene foam)

    Electric & electronic equipment (EEE) (High impact polystyrene)

    High bioaccumulation potential, additive flame retardant

  • 21 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    One billionth of a metre in size Proven toxicity to microorganisms, fish, and humans Canadian legislation addressing nanomaterial through CEPA (1999) via

    risk management Potential for toxicity upon recombination with other products or degradation Products containing nanoparticles: powder-coated products, flat screen

    televisions Behaviour and fate in landfills not understood, environmental

    consequences being studied Contain:

    Silver: antibacterial agent Silicon oxide (SiO2): polishing/binding agent Titanium oxide (TiO2): solar cells Zinc oxide (ZnO): UV absorber in sunscreens

    Potential release of nanomaterials in landfills due to harsh conditions los pH, high reducing conditions enhance polymer breakdown

    Nanoparticles

  • 22 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide

    What do these products have in common?

  • 23 Innovation that Provides Sustainable Solutions to Complex Local Challenges, Worldwide