Dried Indian Creek Greenway & Stream Restoration

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Senior terminal project for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Landscape Architecture

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Prepared for: City of Covington Newton County Tunnell - Spangler - WalshBy: Dylan BaileyDate: May 2011DR IED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION01 Project Overview .......................................................................... 502 Photorgraphic Inventory ................................................................ 1303 Precedent Projects ......................................................................... 1904 Inventory & Analysis ....................................................................... 2105 Greenway Trail Plans ...................................................................... 2906 Stream Restoration .......................................................................... 5107 Reference Materials ........................................................................ 5908 Conclusion & Disclaimer ................................................................ 61 09 Acknowledgements ....................................................................... 63DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION7NEED AND PURPOSE STATEMENTNewton County and the City of Covington, county seat, are involved in a number of progressive projects associated with their 2050 Build-Out Plan a plan aimed to create a sustainable future for the county and their resources.The County is involved in the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) and became a member of the Livable Communities Initiative (LCI) in 2005. My project falls under the Covington US 278 Corridor LCI Study Area. The LCI program is intended to promote greater livability, mobility and development alternatives in existing corridors, employment centers, and town centers. The rationale behind the program is that directing development towards areas with existing infrastructure will benefit the region and minimize sprawling land use patterns. Minimizing sprawl, in turn, will potentially reduce the amount of vehicle miles traveled and the air pollution associated with those miles. Finally, the LCI program is using the successful 1996 Olympics model to promote the concept that investment in public infrastructure will spur private investment. Thus, the LCI program is a vehicle whereby the ARC can attempt to direct mixed-use and mixed-income development towards existing infrastructure by providing study and implementation dollars.The UGA Metropolitan Design Studio of 2007 completed the Pace Street Corridor Study which Tunnell-Spangler-Walsh (TSW) in Atlanta, GA expanded on in their Pace Street Corridor Scoping Report. The city has received funding for further study and development. As part of the initial project, the studio and TSW indicated that a potential greenway could tie into the redeveloped Pace Street where it crosses Dried Indian Creek. To receive further funding, the ARC requires more detailed plans for how and where the Greenway will connect. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED PROJECTMy senior project for the Dried Indian Creek Greenway and Stream Restoration consists of two parts. The main focus will be on the length of Dried Indian Creek between US Hwy. 278 to the north; and, Washington St. to the South as the greenway trail within the 25 buffer along the creek. The intent of the greenway is to create a recreational and educational opportunity while increasing pedestrian connectivity. Without an aesthetically pleasing creek, which inherently will be more ecologically sound, the greenway will fail to be popular. The second part will be a series of suggestions for remediation of stream conditions, primarily, north of Hwy. 278, adjacent to the Kroger shopping center. Due to the urban nature of the stream, a total restoration is not likely to be conducted in all parts of the stream basin. Stabilization to prevent further erosion will be instituted in areas deemed appropriate.01 PROJECT OVERVIEWCITY OF COVINGTON8PROJECT LOCATION MAPSNational MapState MapCounty MapCovington, GADRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION9EXISTING CONCEPTUAL MASTER PLAN FOR NEWTON PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER DISTRICTCITY OF COVINGTON10TSW MASTER PLAN OF PACE ST. REDEVELOPMENTDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION11EXISTINGPROPOSEDTYPICAL SECTION BY TSW: 05 - Dried Indian CreekDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION1302 PHOTOGRAPHIC INVENTORY Section 1 Reference Map 1. Box culvert under Washington Street. Tire in foreground.2. Box culvert under Clark Street. 3. View from Clark Street fac-ing north towards Bethlehem church and Trailblazer Park.4. Trailblazer Park: Basketball pa-vilion left, picnic pavilion center, play structure right.5. Pedestrian bridge between Bethlehem Church and Trailblaz-er Park over Dried Indian Creek.6. Heavy bank erosion and un-checked parking lot flume into Dried Indian Creek.12345CITY OF COVINGTON141. Floodplain of creek2. Residence/business along the creek.3. Bank erosion and Bethlehem Church parking lot in the back-ground.4. Pedestrian bridge from Corely Street in need of repair.5. Path leading from pedestrian bridge to Emory Street.6. Box culvert under Stone Moun-tain Street.Section 2 Reference Map1234 56DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION151. Steep banks and encroach-ing buildings along Emory Street.2. Bridge over Dried Indian Creek on Emory Street/Hwy. 81.3. Existing Hydrologic Education area adjacent to Covington City Hall.4. Interpretive signage about the wetlands work.5. Fish in one of the wetland ar-eas!6. View of the abandoned train trestle over Dried Indian Creek from the wetland area.Section 3 Reference Map12345CITY OF COVINGTON163. Stormwater runoff from the shopping center parking lot is di-rected into the adjacent creek.1. View of Dried Indian Creek and deteriorating retaining wall along Pace Street shopping mall2. View of existing conditions on Pace Street.4. Box culvert under Pace Street.5. Dried Indian Creek conflu-ence area adjacent to Pace Street and the Antiques store.6. Box culvert under Pace Street and confluence area.7. Severe bank erosion on the box culvert.Section 4 Reference Map12345678910DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION178. Unchecked flume from An-tiques store parking lot.9. Excessive trash in Dried Indian Creek tributary adjacent to An-tiques store parking lot.10. Tributary to Dried Indian Creek adjacent to Antiques store parking lot.11. Shopping cart in creek ad-jacent to Ford dealership near Hwy. 278.Section 5 Reference Map1. Dried Indian Creek near Elm Street.2. Dried Indian Creek and flood-plain looking towards Fiquett El-ementary School.12CITY OF COVINGTON18Kroger Shopping Center Reference Map 1. Unchecked storm drain outfall2. Trash on stream bank 3. Channelized stream 4. Bagged soil and mulch on the stream bank rim and trash5. Shopping cart in stream 6. Stream bank from erosion col-lapsed drainage outfall123456DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION19ANIMAS RIVER TRAIL - DURANGO, COAnimas River Trail has approximately 7 miles of hard-surface trail running through town along the Animas River with 2.5 additional miles planned for the future. It travels through twelve city parks and across five bridges. Construction of the trail system has spanned several decades starting in the 1970s. Extension of the trail northward past city limits has been in planning for nearly a decade but several public meetings to move the process forward have been held since 2008.03 PRECEDENT PROJECTSArt pieces provide visual interest and allow the public to participate in a unique way.Map of Durango, CO and the Animas River Trail & Greenway.Trail underpasses integrated into vehicular bridge construction with access to street level.View of the greenway trail and cyclists.CITY OF COVINGTON20ROCKY BRANCH RESTORATION - NC STATE UNIVERSITY, DURHAM, NCRocky Branch is an urban creek that runs more than a mile through the heart of NC State University campus. The stream was narrow, deep, suffering from severe erosion and is an unsafe eyesore on campus. A three-phase stream restoration, greenway, and 6000 trail plan is underway with the first two phases already completed. The restoration strives to stabilize the creek; improve water quality, aquatic and wildlife habitat; and integrate the creek into the campus environment.Master Plan for all three phasesEroding stream banks prior to restoration.Bottomless arch culvert for road. Greenway trail travels on the right.Stream restoration - creation of floodplain zone.Post stream restoration - creation of wetlands and floodplain.DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION2104 INVENTORY & ANALYSISSITE WALK INVENTORY NOTES MAPI conducted a site-walk during my inventory and analysis phase of the project with a handheld GPS Trimble unit which I had preloaded GIS maps of my project site. I walked along Dried Indian Creek and made notes on the unit that are georeferenced to that exact location. I made note of areas of high erosion, outfall pipes, and even identified and marked several desirable trees to save. This allowed me to better designate areas that require restoration and route the greenway trail to not impact the desirable trees. ADJACENT LAND USE MAPKnowing what land uses buffer the project site allows us to form a better understanding of who will most likely be using the greenway trail and what groups (businesses or residents) may or may not be affected.HYDROLOGY IMPACT MAPStudying the hydrology impact map was important for several reasons. The entirety of the trail ended up falling in the flooplain which dictated the path material being a hard material like concrete or asphalt vs. compacted soil. The map also shows impervious surfaces such as parking lots and buildings and the storm drain system with the outfall pipes into Dried Indian Creek. This is integral to understanding where it is coming from and how much water is being discharged into the creek when attempting a stream restoration.SLOPE PERCENT MAPThe slope percent map was used to determine where steep slopes would prohibit the placement of a concrete walk. In areas of steep slopes, a boardwalk will replace the concrete walk.SOILS MAPStudying the soils map allowed an understanding of existing soils. Unfortunately, most of the soils are listed as Urban which will create poor growing conditions.SURVEY OF EXISTING PROPERTY OWNERS...to determine their opinions of the proposed greenway plan. The survey was conducted using the following methodology.A questionnaire was developed to determine property owner opinion. Students in the 2011 UGA Metropolitan Design Studio were asked to contact property owners via telephone to survey opinions and inform them of an informational meeting at the Center for Community Preservation and Planning on March 26, 2011. Letters were also mailed to each property owner as a follow up.Property owners who attended the informational meeting were asked to participate in a visual preference survey to determine acceptable styles of site furnishings along the trail. In addition, they were presented a conceptual plan and asked to provide feedback.CITY OF COVINGTON22DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION23CITY OF COVINGTON24DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION25CITY OF COVINGTON26DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION27CITY OF COVINGTON28DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION2904 GREENWAY PLANSFor the ease of displaying the master plan in this book, it is broken up into five sections:SECTION 1The proposed greenway trail begins on the South end of the project area at Washington St. on the West side of the creek. Between Washington St. and Clark St., the greenway will be located in a residential area. After crossing Clark St. at a crosswalk, the trail will be accessible to the existing Trailblazer Park. Here, the trail will cross Dried Indian Creek to the East side of the creek at the existing footbridge adjacent to Bethlehem church. It will continue for a short distance away from the creek along the Bethlehem Church parking lot.SECTION 2The trail will meet back up with the stream past the parking lot and continue north along the east side of the creek. There is an existing footbridge connecting from the cul-du-sac on Corely St. to commercial buildings and on Emory St. The footbridge is in great disrepair and I propose that it be repaired to increase connectivity to both the greenway trail and downtown Covington. The trail then crosses at Stone Mountain St. with a crosswalk and switches back to the West side due to steep slopes and encroaching buildings on the East.SECTION 3The trail continues on the West/North side of the creek to where I have proposed that the trail continue under the bridge at Emory St. on a boardwalk. After passing under the bridge, the boardwalk will cross perpendicular to the stream and to continue on the East/South side of the creek where it will it go through an already established interpretive wetland area adjacent to Covington City Hall. The Greenway will tie into an existing boardwalk over the wetland that contains signage to educate the public on various hydrologic processes and the importance of keeping our water resources healthy. After crossing under the train tracks, the trail crosses the stream once again to the North side.SECTION 4The trail continues along the creek on the North side. This stretch is all boardwalk. Because buildings encroach on the buffer, the trail needs to move further down the stream bank which is very steep. Once reaching Pace St., a set of ADA compliant ramps takes the user up to street level. Here, they can choose to connect to either downtown Covington or Hwy. 278 on the new sidewalks, or they can cross Pace Street and continue following the greenway. A boardwalk again takes the user across the confluence area of Dried Indian Creek and a small tributary in front of the Antique store. The boardwalk crosses the confluence to meet up with a short section of trail adjacent to the Ford dealership ending at the trailhead at Hwy. 278. A small secondary trail breaks from the boardwalk and crosses East along the antique store parking lot. A previous Master Plan of downtown Covington calls for the entire 100 year floodplain to be turned into greenspace. I do not see this as a realistic immediate goal, and recommended a reduction in the size of the two parking lots in the floodplain to increase the buffer along the creek.SECTION 5 This section consists of a smaller secondary trail serving to connect EL Fiquett Elementary School and the greenway.CITY OF COVINGTON30DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION31CITY OF COVINGTON32DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION33CITY OF COVINGTON34DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION35CITY OF COVINGTON36DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION37CITY OF COVINGTON38DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION39CITY OF COVINGTON40DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION41CITY OF COVINGTON42DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION43CITY OF COVINGTON44GRADING PLANDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION45CITY OF COVINGTON46DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION47CITY OF COVINGTON482" x 6" Railing2" x 4" Posts6" x 6" Posts2" x 6" Beams4" x 6" Decking8'10'2'PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTBOARDWALK CONSTRUCTION DETAIL PLAN VIEWDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION492" x 12" Railing2" x 6" Support Railing2" x 8" Intermediate Railing4" x 6" Decking2" x 4" Post2" x 12" Joist6" x 6" Post14" x 16" Concrete Footer4" x 14" Crushed StoneLeveling Pad7/8"Hex BoltPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTBOARDWALK CONSTRUCTION DETAILCITY OF COVINGTON504"6"Concrete, Broom Finish4" Trowel Edge#57 StoneCompacted Subgrade10'PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTSIDEWALK CONSTRUCTION DETAILDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION51NECESSITY OF STREAM RESTORATIONThe section of Dried Indian Creek North of Hwy. 278 along the Kroger parking lot has been narrowed, straightened, highly eroded, and presently receives an abundance of trash and storm water runoff from the adjacent parking lots and buildings.Stream restoration is a complex process that requires a broad knowledge base. Having a design team that is diverse in fields of engineering, biology, ecology, hydraulics, and geomorphology will ensure that all aspects of restoration are met with the proper expertise. It should be understood that many stream restoration projects cannot always be returned to their condition prior to disturbance. Because a complete restoration is generally not feasible, the objective is to create a partial recovery of the stream to a natural and healthy state.Restoration of a stream not only involves reestablishing and improving the stream channel but also stabilizing the banks and flood areas. This encompasses restoring the riparian buffer and the plants located within the stream corridor. This aspect is very important in the health of the stream as the plants adjacent to the stream provide erosion control and food and nutrients to aquatic organisms.Prior to restoration of a stream, the current health must be measured. There are several ways of determining the health of a stream. The most common practices measure health both chemically and biologically. Once the health of the stream is determined, the proper restoration techniques may be used. Biological testing of a stream consists of identifying and counting the macroinvertibrates; insects, crayfish, and snails. The more diverse the collection of macroinvertibrates is, the healthier the stream. Because of their relatively small range within the environment, they are good indicators of the amount of pollution present in a given area.Biological testing is effective in determining if a stream is healthy by the number and diversity of species, but it cannot show the specific problem causing the stream to be less healthy. To attain a more accurate measure, testing of the water chemistry also needs to be completed. There are several tests that can be run: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, water clarity, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, dissolved solids, and fecal coliform levels. An important note when testing chemical quality is to test for several months to get a good look at the overall chemistry of the stream.06 STREAM RESTORATIONTesting and Monitoring Stream ConditionsCITY OF COVINGTON52DESIGN PROCESS1. Define Objectives -Capacity requirements, fish habitats, aesthetics, erosion protection2. Define Existing Conditions3. Identify Constraints -Topography, encroachment of buildings, land ownership, soil conditions that affect side slope stability4. Define Expected Natural Channel Parameters -Slope, width, depth, roughness and sinuosity5. Identify Inconsistencies6. Define Critical Design Parameters -Meander sequence, channel slope and sinuosity, availability for floodplain to accommodate sinuosity under future conditions, alternative sinuosities that can be accommodated given the floodplain and slope constraints, appropriate channel width- to-depth ratio given the available sinuosity and gradient, sediment size that the channel can be expected to transport7. Analyze Channel Dynamics -Determine if the existing channel is in equilibrium with existing flows and sediment regime8. Identify Trade-offs9. Develop Final Design Parameters and Construction Documents STREAM RESTORATION IMPLEMENTATIONStream Corridor ManipulationDeflectors are structures used to alter the flow of a stream. Deflectors can change the dynamics of stream flow depending on design. Using the double deflector design can help deepen and recreate the meander pattern of the stream. Deepening the channel will also increase flow rate.Pool FormationStacked rock in the shape of a V pointing upstream called a cross vane. Creates level change and excavates a pool inside the V called a plunge pool.DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION53Geotextile FabricPlantings orLive StakesBank Slope 4:1Existing Eroding or Steep BankPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTPRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTLIVE STAKE INSTALLATION WITH SLOPE MODIFICATIONCross Vane in action after installation Natural Deflector found in a healthy streamCITY OF COVINGTON54DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION55CITY OF COVINGTON56PLANTING PLAN INTENTThe planting plan for this project involves random placement of various species of riparian plants. Mimicking the natural fauna of stream banks, plants will be placed randomly by species but ordered by height. Shorter plants, such as grasses, ferns and river canes will be planted directly on the stream banks. Progressing away from the stream, the plant heights will increase in size, moving from shrubs to small trees to finally large shade trees. Spacing of plants will be close as the goal of the planting design is to recreate a forest environment. Plants must compete with each other in order to survive. This type of reforestation planting insures that the healthiest plants survive. It is slightly more expensive during the initial stages because plants are being installed that will eventually die. In the long term however, the reforested area will be much healthier resulting in less replanting in the future.SUGGESTED PLANT MATERIALSTreesAcer negundo, BoxelderBetula nigra, River BirchSalix nigra, Black WillowShrubsCalycanthus florida, SweetshrubItea virginica, SweetspireLeucothoe axillaris, DoghobbleViburnum nudum, Winterthur ViburnumXanthorhiza simplicissima, YellowrootPerennialsArundinaria gigantea, RivercaneAsclepias incarnata, Swamp MilkweedChelone glabra, TurtleheadEupatorium fistulosum, Joe-Pye-WeedJuncus effusus, Soft RushLobelia cardinalis, Cardinal FlowerPhysostegia virginiana, Obedient PlantTiarella spp., Foam FlowerRiver BirchSoft RushSweetspireJoe-Pye-WeedSweetshrubFoam FlowerTurtleheadDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION57BOARDWALK CONCEPTUAL SECTION-ELEVATIONCITY OF COVINGTON58DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION5906 REFERENCE MATERIALSDesigning GreenwaysNC State Stream Restoration InstituteStream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, & PracticesLandscape Architectural Graphic StandardsLandscape Architectural Graphic Standards: Student EditionCovington Final LCI ReportPace Street Corridor StudyDHM DesignDurango Colorado Official WebsiteDRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION6107 CONCLUSION & DISCLAIMERConclusionThe Dried Indian Creek Greenway & Stream Restoration achieves the goal of meeting and improving on existing plans connected to Pace Street Redevelopment for which the City of Covington has already received funding for from the LCI. The greenway trail remains within the 25 stream buffer for nearly the entirety of the length except in areas where property owners objected to the trail running through their property. Involving the community was integral because without their support, there would likely be many issues with the implementation. A significant restoration of the stream ecosystem is necessary to stabilize banks and reduce erosion, improve water quality for flora and fauna habitat, and increase the aesthetic quality of the stream which will inherently increase the desire to use the trail by pedestrians. This project is a great opportunity for the City of Covington to increase pedestrian connectivity, improve wildlife habitat and water quality through an urban area, and help educate the public by linking the trail to the existing constructed wetlands adjacent to Covington City Hall, and potential additional signage along the trail, of the importance of preservation and the hydrologic cycle.Disclaimer NoticeThe design service for the City of Covington, GA completed by Dylan Bailey represents student course work with the School of Environmental Design at the University of Georgia during the Spring semester of 2011. The intent of the project is to allow the student to demonstrate an understanding of comprehensive landscape architectural design. It can provide the client with development ideas, but should be used only in determining if feasibility of future development and for publicity purposes to gain support for the professional design and implementation of the proposed project. It must be clearly understood that the student who carried out the project out to meet specific academic objectives and it should not be regarded as a substitute for the work of a licensed practicing landscape architect. Its is not a project which can be necessarily implemented without correction and/or refinement.The school of Environment and Design, the faculty in the School of Environment and Design and the student completing the project assume no responsibility for the accuracy, feasibility, completeness, or relative merit of the project. In all cases, full credit to the student, faculty and the school must be given whenever the work is displayed. Where the report or drawings fail to meet minimum standards, the school reserves the right to prohibit reproduction for circulations.DRIED INDIAN CREEK GREENWAY & STREAM RESTORATION6308 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to thank the following people and organizations, both recent associations and long term relationships, for their help on this project, my schooling, and general path through life:Donnie Longnecker, ProfessorRandy Vinson, Director of Planning and Zoning, City of CovintonRyan Jenkins, Tunnell-Spangler-WalshKay B Lee, The Center for Community Preservation & PlanningAdam Kirk, The Center for Community Preservation & PlanningShamica Williams, The Center for Community Preservation & Planning2010 UGA Metropolitan Design StudioAnn Christensen, Principal, DHM Design, Durango, COKatie Nelson, Associate, DHM Design, Durango, COBoth of my parents for always supporting my endeavors and guiding me to where I am in life now I wouldnt want to be anywhere else. Rachel Sotsky for continually pushing me to be and do my best, being there for me, and being by best friend.My professors, classmates, and friends for the past four years Its been fun!

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