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  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 1



    August 2011 Draft City Sanitation Plan- Main Document

    Varanasi Municipal Corporation Technical Assistance: GIZ ASEM

    Prepared by:

    Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination (CDD Society) Bangalore

    CEPT Research & Development Consultancy (CRDC), Ahmedabad

    Alchemy Urban Systems (P) Ltd. (Alchemy), Bangalore


  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 2

    1.1 Introduction

    The Government of India (GoI) had identified 100% sanitation as a goal during the 11th Five Year

    Plan. The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) officially launched a country-wide National

    Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) on November 12, 2008 with an objective to call upon individual

    states to draft their own strategies based on the NUSP, while taking into account of their own specific

    requirements. These strategies are a part of the City Sanitation Plan. The NUSP defines the city

    sanitation plan as- “A comprehensive document which details out the short, medium and long term

    plans for the issues related to governance, technical, financial, capacity building, awareness and pro-

    poor interventions to ensure 100% access to safe sanitation.”

    The City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi has been prepared with support from GIZ-ASEM. It has been

    designed to address the special nature of the city which has undergone massive interventions, the likes

    of Ganga Action Plan without much effect. It has been prepared after detailed stakeholders

    consultation, governmental, nongovernmental and the various other city and area level organizations.

    The CSP is directive in nature, suggesting the various possible interventions and principles to achieve

    city sanitation in a comprehensive way. Various technological, management and institutional options

    have been examined, which will facilitate the urban local body to adopt specific strategies and

    projects best suited to their situation.

    1.2 Key Issue and Recommendations

    The following section identifies the various key sanitation issues of Varanasi. These issues are backed

    by the rationale of the same and are followed by recommendations that can effective address these


  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 3

    1.2.1 Key Issue-1

    Public toilets in the city are inadequate and under-maintained. The urban poor also lack access

    to toilets. The cumulative result is open defecation being practiced rampantly in the city

    affecting the health and environment. Rationale for Key Issue- 1

    In Varanasi, 15% of the households do not have access to toilets and resorts to open defecation (ward

    no. 3, 5, 6, 19, 26,27,30,33, and 36). Open defecation is being practiced in the slum as well as non

    slum areas of the city.

    The user charges for the community toilets allow access to 5 members as against the average HH size

    of 7.2. Primary surveys indicate that the people find the user charge of Rs.30 per month per 5 users

    expensive. There is a severe shortage of toilets for the urban poor. In the existing condition there is

    one toilet seat for 158 people in an average in the CDS, as against the national norms of one seat per

    50 users.

    The toilets severely lack in maintenance making people reluctant to use them at the given user charge.

    Open defecation hotspots have been identified along the Ghats and tourist areas, railway line and the

    peripheral areas.

    The attached map indicates the hotspots of open defecation in the city (Refer annexure I, segment

  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 4

    Map 1- Open defecation hotspots in Varanasi

    The exiting public toilets have been mapped in the city and the following map indicates the location

    Figure 1- Open defecation hotspots in Varanasi

  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 5

    and the un-served pockets on the city the number of public toilets is inadequate considering the high

    tourist influx and the unavailability of public toilets in the dense commercial areas, especially in the

    core city. (Refer annexure I, segment

    Figure 2- Location of Existing toilets in the core city area Recommendations for Key issue- 1

     It is recommended that the existing community and public toilet complexes should be repaired/

    rehabilitated at an immediate phase through a strict monitoring protocol enforced by the

    municipal corporation.

     It is recommended that the municipal corporation enforces the existing private operators to collect

    user charges for the community toilets on a HH basis as against the current practice of charging

    on member basis.

     Preliminary studies indicate a requirement of 240 public toilets seats and 250 community toilet

    seats to ensure 100% access to toilets in the city. The possible locations and design prototypes

    have been indicated in the Sectoral strategies (refer chapter 2)

     It is suggested that a DPR should be prepared for the identification, both spatially and

    quantitatively the number of toilets seats (both community and public) required in the city. The

    DPR should also consider the following issues

     Access and the number of seats required and the provision for toilets in special areas

    like Ghats (Refer annexure I, segment

     Location (mapping of the existing and proposed toilet complexes)

     Gender sensitivity

     Financial mechanism

  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 6

     Once approved it is suggested that the design construction, operations and maintenance of the

    new public and community toilets as per the DPR should be tendered and implemented.

     It is recommended that the VNN with support from the state should develop a design specification

    and operation manual for maintenance of a minimum desirable quality of the amenities created

    including punitive and incentive mechanisms. Refer annexure VI, segment 7.3.1 for the basis of

    developing such an O&M manual.

     The VNN should evaluate the possibilities of cross subsidization of community toilets through

    public toilets. (Refer annexure I, segment & annexure VI, segment

     A tripartite monitoring system consisting of the users, private party and the ULB for the promised

    levels of maintenance should be developed on a medium term. Tools like citizens report card are

    found to be useful in this context. (Refer annexure I, segment

     It is suggested that the big shops and commercial establishment should provide for public toilets

    in the ratio of 1 seat for 100 users. The actual number of toilet seats may be assessed from their

    market surveys. This can be enforced by the corporation through the bye laws and the clearance


     VNN should enforce the schools to have 100% access to well maintained toilets through stirt

    monitoring and punitive measures

     VNN should invite specialized design options for the public toilets located within 500m of the


     The VNN should conduct a feasibility study on the technology options for the public toilets. A

    detailed comparison between the technical options, ease of maintenance, local know and

    adaptability and the cost benefit analysis should be used to identify the technology suited for

    public toilets in the city.

    1.2.2 Key Issue-2

    No coverage to sewerage system in peripheral areas and limited sewer connectivity in

    covered areas 1 . Rationale for Key Issue-2

    The coverage of the current wastewater network services according to the SLB is 77.87%. Though it

    is expected that the coverage will be significantly increased after commissioning of the JICA and

    JnNURM schemes, analysis of the proposed JICA and JnNURM schemes indicated that a majority of

    the areas in the north (ward number 30), western (ward number 3, 19) and southern (ward 28, part of

    13, 77 and 38) peripheral areas will lack coverage to sewer networks. The attached map indicates

    these areas.

    Though the coverage is high, the connectivity as stated under the SLB remain as low as 27.67%. The

    household survey the connectivity in the core area of the city is more than 80% whereas in the

    northern periphery is as low as 28%. However the connectivity to sewer networks in slum areas is

    generally much lower (Refer table 7, Sectoral Strategies). The low coverage of sewer network and

    low household connectivity to the sewer system has impeded the high dependence on septic tanks in

    1 Due to non accessibility of Sewerage Master Plan document prepared by JICA in 2004, the recommendation provided in

    this document needs to be cross checked with JICA master plan report.

  • Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi

    CEPT, Ahmedabad 7

    Figure 3- Coverage of Sewage


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