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  • Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice?

    Makoto Igarashi

    本論文の筆者と内容について

    帝京大学法学部助教授 則 武 輝 幸

    本論文は、本学法学部卒業生である五十嵐真君が、2000 年に英国

    HULL 大学大学院に提出した修士論文である。筆者五十嵐君は、

    1992 年4月に本学法学部に入学、96 年3月に卒業した。在学中の 94

    年から 96 年にかけては、本職担当の講義や演習を履修し、国際法に

    ついて研鑽を積んでいる。本学卒業後は、単身渡英し、96 年 10 月に

    英国 ESSEX 大学言語学部英語学科に入学して英語の習得に努め、翌

    97 年6月に卒業、同 97 年 10 月には同大学大学院政治学部国際関係

    論学科に入学し、翌 98 年6月に Diploma Award(修士論文執筆資格)

    を取得して卒業した。一時帰国の後、1999 年8月に HULL 大学大学

    院法学部国際公法学科に入学、翌 2000 年9月に卒業し、同年 11 月に

    法学修士号(LL.M.)を授与された。帰国後は、2001 年4月から8

    月まで国連開発計画(UNDP)東京事務所でインターンとして勤務

    し、続いて、同年8月から 2002 年 11 月までは、参議院議員の私設政

    策担当秘書(安全保障・開発援助・環境・エネルギー担当)を務め

    た。現在、保守新党の職員として働いている。

    一 三 八

    Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice? (9)

  • 本論文のテーマは、司法的手段による国際環境法の履行の確保で

    ある。筆者は、国際司法裁判所(ICJ)も、国内裁判所も、ともに国

    際環境法の履行確保の手段として適切ではないこと、国際環境司法

    裁判所の設立は、理念的には望ましいが、現実性に乏しいことを論

    証し、最後に、現実的な方策として、1993 年に ICJ に設けられた特

    別環境部の強化を提言する。本論文では、学説や国際裁判の判例の

    みならず、国内裁判所の判例も豊富に引用されて、筆者の主張を実

    証的に裏付けており、当紀要に掲載するに値する内容であると認め

    られる。本学部の卒業生が、単身渡英して、国際環境法の履行確保

    という今日的なテーマに取り組み、かかる大部の英語論文をものし

    て、修士号を授与されたことは、まことに喜ばしい。かような先輩

    の存在は、本学学生の励みともなろう。ここにご紹介する所以であ

    る。(2002 年 11 月 8 日記)

    一 三 七

    (10)

  • Introduction

    Chapter q

    What kinds of the reasons exist for establishing an International Court

    of Environmental justice?

    Chapter w

    A) General function of international environmental law

    B) What is the current situation of the states’ obligation in the interna-

    tional environmental protection?

    Implementation

    C) How are states made to comply with international environmental

    law?

    Chapter e

    A) Dispute settlement and avoidance in the field of international envi-

    ronmental law

    1) Technical points

    2) Political processes

    3) Legal Means

    4) Considerations in dispute settlement and avoidance in interna-

    tional environmental law

    B) International Court of Justice

    C) How does the International Court of Justice develop international

    environmental protection?

    Historical Cases

    D) Can the ICJ adequately work as ICEJ?

    1) For ICJ

    一 三 六

    Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice? (11)

  • 2) Against ICJ

    Article 34; Competence of the Court

    Jurisdiction

    Enforcement

    3) Can a special environmental Chamber work adequately?

    Assessment

    Chapter r

    A) What is the role of the national court?

    B) The importance of judicial attitude for implementation ; Judicial

    Activism

    C) What are the problems of national courts?

    D) Benefit of litigation and its difficulties

    E) How can damaged individuals access the national courts in the

    transboundary cases? Can they succeed?

    Assessment

    Conclusion

    Bibliography

    Table of Cases

    1938-1941 Trail Smelter Case (United Nations v. Canada)

    1947-1949 Corfu Cannel Case (United Kingdom v. Albania)

    1972-1974 Fisheries Jurisdiction Case (United Kingdom and Fed. Rep.

    Germany v. Iceland)

    一 三 五

    (12)

  • 1973-1974 Nuclear Test Case (Australia and New Zealand v. France)

    1978 Cosmos 954 Case (Canada v. USSR)

    1981-1984 Gulf of Maine Case (Canada v. the USA)

    1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents (in USSR)

    1986-1992 The Land Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute Case (El

    Salvador v. Honduras ; Nicaragua intervening)

    1989-1993 Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru Case (Nauru v. Australia)

    1994- Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Projects Case (Hungary v. Slovakia)

    1995 Nuclear Test Case (New Zealand v. France)

    Table of Cases in Domestic Courts

    Banwasi Seva Ashram v. State of U.P. (India 1987)

    M.C. Mehta v. Union of India (India 1991)

    M/s. Saraswati Sugar Mills v. Haryana State Pollution Control Board and

    Others (India 1991)

    OPOSA Case (Philippine 1992)

    S. P Sharma Dhungel v. Godavari Marble Industries Case (Nepal 1995)

    THORP Case (England 1994)

    De Nieuwa Meer Case (Netherlands 1986)

    Lingen Nuclear Power Plant Case (Federal Republic of Germany 1985)

    Bauman Case (Federal Republic of Germany 1986)

    Bonn Case (Federal Republic of Germany 1987)

    Table of Statute

    The Charter of the United Nations

    一 三 四

    Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice? (13)

  • Statute of the International Court of Justice

    Rules of Court (adopted on 14 April 1978)

    Rome Statute of International Criminal Court (1998)

    Table of Treaties

    1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear

    Energy

    1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

    1972 Declaration of the UN Conference on the Human Environment,

    in Stockholm

    1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by

    Space Objects (1972 Space Liability Convention)

    1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of

    Wild Fauna and Flora

    1974 Nordic Convention on the Protection of the Environment,

    Stockholm

    1992 Declaration of the UN Conference on Environment and

    Development, in Rio de Janeiro

    Abbreviation

    American Journal of International Law AJIL

    Convention on International Trade in CITES

    Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna

    European Court on Human Rights ECHR

    Environmental Impact Assessment EIA

    一 三 三

    (14)

  • Environmental Policy and Law EPL

    International Criminal Court ICC

    International Court of Environmental Justice ICEJ

    International Court of Justice ICJ

    Permanent Court of Arbitration PCA

    Review of European Community & RECIEL

    International Environmental law

    United Nations UN

    United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP

    World Health Organization WHO

    Yearbook of International Environmental Law YIEL

    一 三 二

    Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice? (15)

  • Does the world need an International Court of Environmental Justice?

    Introduction

    Today, it is widely recognized that problems of environmental dam-

    age have emerged. The world environment is under threat in several

    ways. New human settlements and agricultural developments to

    meet the demands of a growing population destroy nature.

    Moreover, as in the case of the Chernobyl nuclear plant, unexpected

    accidents also cause destruction of the environment. Furthermore,

    states may destroy parts of ecosystems, as Iraq did during the Gulf

    War in 1990-91.

    Since the 1972 Stockholm Declaration, numerous multilateral and

    bilateral treaties have been formulated. International environmental

    law is rapidly developing. Moreover, human awareness and concern

    for a healthy environment are significantly growing. Despite recent

    developments in international environmental law, protection of the

    environment has apparently improved little. In fact, many states try

    to neglect their international environmental obligations. There is no

    enforcement/ sanction to such a delinquent states, because of lack of

    an enforcement mechanism. Furthermore, in the 1997 Kyoto

    Conference, some states, especially third world countries, did not

    agree to increased protection of the environment, especially regula-

    tion of CO2 emissions, because they are keen to raise their living

    standard and develop their countries. Moreover, one of