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Discovering Fibonacci. By: William Page Pikes Peak Community College. Who Was Fibonacci?. ~ Born in Pisa, Italy in 1175 AD ~ Full name was Leonardo of Pisa ~ means son of Bonaccio ~ Grew up with a North African education under the Moors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Discovering FibonacciBy:William PagePikes Peak Community College

Who Was Fibonacci?~ Born in Pisa, Italy in 1175 AD~ Full name was Leonardo of Pisa~ means son of Bonaccio~ Grew up with a North African education under the Moors~ Traveled extensively around the Mediterranean coast~ Met with many merchants and learned their systems of arithmetic~ Realized the advantages of the Hindu-Arabic system

Fibonaccis Mathematical Contributions~ Introduced the Hindu-Arabic number system into Europe~ Based on ten digits and a decimal point~ Europe previously used the Roman number system~ Consisted of Roman numerals~ Persuaded mathematicians to use the Hindu-Arabic number system

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 and .I = 1V = 5X = 10L = 50C = 100D = 500M = 1000

Fibonaccis Mathematical Contributions Continued~ Wrote five mathematical works~ Four books and one preserved letter~ Liber Abbaci (The Book of Calculating) written in 1202~ Practica geometriae (Practical Geometry) written in 1220~ Flos written in 1225~ Liber quadratorum (The Book of Squares) written in 1225~ A letter to Master Theodorus written around 1225

Fibonaccis RabbitsProblem:Suppose a newly-born pair of rabbits (one male, one female) are put in a field. Rabbits are able to mate at the age of one month so that at the end of its second month, a female can produce another pair of rabbits. Suppose that the rabbits never die and that the female always produces one new pair (one male, one female) every month from the second month on. How many pairs will there be in one year?

The Fibonacci Numbers~ Were introduced in The Book of Calculating~ Series begins with 0 and 1~ Next number is found by adding the last two numbers together~ Number obtained is the next number in the series~ A linear recurrence formula 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn-2

Fibonaccis Rabbits Continued~ End of the first month = 1 pair~ End of the second month = 2 pair~ End of the third month = 3 pair~ End of the fourth month = 5 pair~ 243 pairs of rabbits produced in one year 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,

The Fibonacci Numbers in Pascals Triangle~ Entry is sum of the two numbers either side of it, but in the row above~ Diagonal sums in Pascals Triangle are the Fibonacci numbers~ Fibonacci numbers can also be found using a formula

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 11 4 6 4 1Fib(n) =n kk 1 nk =1()11 11 2 11 3 3 11 4 6 4 1

The Fibonacci Numbers and Pythagorean Trianglesa b a + b a + 2b1 2 3 5~ The Fibonacci numbers can be used to generate Pythagorean triangles~ First side of Pythagorean triangle = 12~ Second side of Pythagorean triangle = 5~ Third side of Pythagorean triangle = 13~ Fibonacci numbers 1, 2, 3, 5 produce Pythagorean triangle 5, 12, 13

The Golden Section and The Fibonacci Numbers~ The Fibonacci numbers arise from the golden section~ The graph shows a line whose gradient is Phi~ First point close to the line is (0, 1)~ Second point close to the line is (1, 2)~ Third point close to the line is (2, 3)~ Fourth point close to the line is (3, 5)~ The coordinates are successive Fibonacci numbers

The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Pinecones clearly show the Fibonacci spiral 5 and 8, 8 and 13

A pineapple may have 5, 8, or 13 segment spirals depending on direction

Daisies have 21 and 34 spiralsConeflower 55 spirals

Sunflower 55 and 89 spirals

Pine Cones, Pineapples, etc.How many spirals are there on a

Pine cone ?5 and 8 , 8 and 13

Pineapple ?8 and 13

Daisy ?21 and 34

Sunflower ?55 and 89

Put these numbers together and you get:

581321345589

Is there a pattern here?The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Continued~ Sneezewort (Achillea ptarmica) shows the Fibonacci numbers

The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Number of petals in flowers Lilies and irises = 3 petals

Black-eyed Susans = 21 petalsCorn marigolds = 13 petalsButtercups and wild roses = 5 petals

Delphiniums 8 petalsAsters 21 petals

Very few plants show 4 petals which is not a Fibonacci number!What are the ratios of consecutive Fibs?1/1 = 12/1 = 23/2 = 1.55/3 = 1.6678/5 = 1.613/8 = 1.62521/13 = 1.61534/21 = 1.61955/34 = 1.61789/55 = 1.61818144/89 = 1.61798233/144 = 1.61806377/233 = 1.618026610/377 = 1.618037987/610 = 1.6180328The Golden Section and The Fibonacci Numbers Continued~ The golden section arises from the Fibonacci numbers~ Obtained by taking the ratio of successive terms in the Fibonacci series~ Limit is the positive root of a quadratic equation and is called the golden section

The Golden Section~ Represented by the Greek letter Phi ~ Phi equals 1.6180339887 and 0.6180339887 ~ Ratio of Phi is 1 : 1.618 or 0.618 : 1~ Mathematical definition is Phi2 = Phi + 1~ Euclid showed how to find the golden section of a line

bab + a

baa + b

The Golden Rectangle

A METHOD TO CONSTRUCT A GOLDEN RECTANGLEConstruct a square 1 x 1 ( in red)

Draw a line from the midpoint to the upperopposite corner.

Use that line as the radius to draw an arc that defines the height of the rectangle.

The resulting dimensions are the Golden Rectangle.The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Continued~ Plants show the Fibonacci numbers in the arrangements of their leaves~ Three clockwise rotations, passing five leaves~ Two counter-clockwise rotations

The Golden Section in Nature~ Arrangements of leaves are the same as for seeds and petals~ All are placed at 0.618 per turn~ Is 0.618 of 360o which is 222.5o~ One sees the smaller angle of 137.5o~ Plants seem to produce their leaves, petals, and seeds based upon the golden section

Placement of seeds and leavesA single fixed angle for leaf or seed placement can produce an optimum designProvide best possible exposure for light, rainfall, exposure for insects for pollinationFibonacci numbers occur when counting the number of turns around the stem from a leaf to the next one directly above it as well as counting leaves till we meet another one directly above the starting leaf.Phi 1.618 leaves per turn or 0.618 turns per leaf 0.618 x 360 = 222.5 degrees or (1-0.618) x 360 = 137.5 degreesThe Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Continued~ The Fibonacci numbers can be found in the human hand and fingers~ Person has 2 hands, which contain 5 fingers~ Each finger has 3 parts separated by 2 knuckles

At one time it was thought that many people have a ratio between the largest to middle bone, and the middle to the shortest finger bone of 1.618.

This is actually the case for only 1 in 12 people.

Leonardo Da Vinci self portrait

The Vetruvian Man

Man of Action

Full of Golden Rectangles:Head, Torso, Legs

Ratio of Distance fromfeet midtorso- headIs 1.618

Madonna of the RocksThis artwork uses the Golden TriangleA Golden triangle is an isosceles triangle In which the smaller side( base) is in golden ratio ( 1.618) with its adjacent side.

Notre Dame Cathedral

ParisThe Golden Section in Architecture~ Golden section appears in many of the proportions of the Parthenon in Greece~ Front elevation is built on the golden section (0.618 times as wide as it is tall)

The Golden Section in Architecture Continued~ Golden section can be found in the Great pyramid in Egypt~ Perimeter of the pyramid, divided by twice its vertical height is the value of Phi

A METHOD TO CONSTRUCT A GOLDEN RECTANGLEConstruct a square 1 x 1 ( in red)

Draw a line from the midpoint to the upperopposite corner.

Use that line as the radius to draw an arc that defines the height of the rectangle.

The resulting dimensions are the Golden Rectangle.As the dimensions get larger and larger, the quotients converge to the Golden ration 1.61803

Golden Spiral50The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature~ Fibonacci spiral found in both snail and sea shells

Phi as a continued fraction

So

Phi is a famous irrational number that can be defined in terms of itself. It is a continued fraction.

Continued fractions were developed or discovered in part as a response to a need to approximate irrational numbers.

Lets list 10 Fibonacci numbers in a column

I wont watch

When you get to the 10ht one tell me

I will turn around and you will start to calculate the sum using a calculator

I will get the sum faster than you will!!Quick calculation of sum of 10 Fibonacci Numbers a bThe sum of 10 Fibonacci numbers is a + b55a + 88b. The 7th sum is 5a + 8b. By a + 2bmultiplying the 7th sum by 11, you get the 2a + 3btotal sum for the column of 10 numbers. 3a + 5b 5a + 8b 8a + 13b 13a + 21b 21a + 34b 55a + 88 b

THE END, THANKS!Without mathematics there is no art Luca Pacioli bill.page@ppcc.edu