design strategies for gamified physical activity applications for older adults

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  • Dennis L. Kappen: University of Ontario Institute of Technology, CanadaDr. Lennart E. Nacke : University of Waterloo CanadaDr. Kathrin M. Gerling: University of Lincoln United KingdomDr. Lia E. Tsotsos: Centre for Elder Research, Sheridan College, Canada

    Twitter :3d_ideation

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    Reality Bites: Baby Boomer Generation

    Source: Leslie Braunstein (2012)http://urbanland.uli.org/industry-sectors/many-shades-of-gray-baby-boomers-and-their-disparate-needs/http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/140926/dq140926b-eng.htm

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    Source: http://vintagefitness.com

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    Determining Motivational Characteristics ofOlder Adults towards Physical Activity andtechnology Physical Activity Applications which must be

    Gamified and Adapted on demand

  • Designing playful collaborativeapplications that older adultscan engage in (Cza et al., 2008) Integration and configuration

    of social media Prosumers: create and share

    their own content with oneanother. (Waycott et al.,2013) Social spaces (spatial and

    online) (Eklund, 2012) Overcome emotional

    loneliness (McLaughlin et al.,2012)

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    Paying for a Trainer/Gym Membership is Expensive

    Many Older Adults are on a Fixed Income

    Physical Activity is not their First Choice

    Lonely Environment at Home

  • Much research has been doneon the topic of positive aspectsof gaming and devices forolder adults. Rehabilitation (Flores et al.,

    2008; Alankus et al., 2011) Exergame; Physical and

    Cognitive training ( Gerling etal., 2010; Cho et al., 2002 ) Leisure and Entertainment

    (Wu et al., 2012) Adult Training (Serious Games)

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    Image Source:http://techcrunch.com/2008/12/15/study-shows-playing-rts-games-keeps-old-brains-healthy/

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  • QualitativeResearch

    InterviewsSDT*

    KEG* ThematicAnalysis

    FocusGroups SDT + KEG

    Qualitative Research Method Deductive Thematic Analysis (Feredey et al., 2006)

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    TheoreticalPositioning

    DataCollection

    Analysis

    *SDT Self-Determination Theory*KEG Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification

  • Relevant to SDT, do changes in intrinsic andextrinsic motivations of older adults facilitatefitness activity?

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  • What are the underlying factors andchallenges that facilitate or prevent fitnessactivities for older adults in the context oftechnology-supported PA?

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  • What are the challenges anddesign strategies for designingmotivated gamified physicalfitness activities andapplications?

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    Source: https://pixabay.com/en/old-man-adult-senior-people-care-660831/

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    Kaleidoscope ofEffectiveGamification(KEG) (2013)

    Kappen, D.L. and Nacke, L.E. TheKaleidoscope of EffectiveGamification: DeconstructingGamification in BusinessApplications. Gamification 2013,(2013), 119122.

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    Kaleidoscope ofEffectiveGamification(KEG)(2013)

    PLAYERVIEWPOINT

    DESIGNERVIEWPOINT

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    Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification (KEG)(2013)

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    Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification (KEG)(2013)

    Motivated Behaviour Layer (MBL)

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    AG

    E

    50+

    FITN

    ESS

    ACTIVEADULTS

    COM

    PUTE

    R S

    KIL

    LS

    INTERNETSAVVY

    UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATIONS OF OLDER ADULTS TOENGAGE IN TECHNOLOGY FACILITATED PHYSICAL

    ACTIVITY FROM AGE 50 ONWARDS

    Active Lifestyle : engage in activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day

  • Location Sheridan Elder Research Centre (SERC), Oakville

    Participants 19 participants 45-60 minutes

    Method Semi-structured interviews

    Materials Audio recordings

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    Categorization of intrinsic and extrinsic fitness motivations based on the KEG +SDT

  • Need Satisfaction Discussion 3 groups of one physical trainer older adult facilitator

    Focus on Physical Activity Motivations Barriers

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  • Embracing DigitalTechnology Self-Determination Theory

    + Kaleidoscope model Autonomy Competence Relatedness

    Collaboration vs.Competition

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  • 7/5/2016 Dennis L. Kappen Twitter :3d_ideation 25Mapping of Fitness Attributes from themes in relation to SDT and KEG

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    Motivations-Mental, Physical, and Contextual

    Source: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/exercises/stage2.html

  • 7/5/2016 Dennis L. Kappen Twitter :3d_ideation 27PERFORMANCE BASED ACHIEVEMENT BASEDENGAGEMENT BASED

    Intrinsic Motivation- Competence

  • 7/5/2016 Dennis L. Kappen Twitter :3d_ideation 28CUSTOMIZATION INDEPENDENCEPURPOSE

    Intrinsic Motivation- Autonomy

  • 7/5/2016 Dennis L. Kappen Twitter :3d_ideation 29SHARING PREFERENCESRELATIONSHIPS

    Intrinsic Motivation- Relatedness

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    Extrinsic Motivations Self-determined extrinsic motivation (Dacey et al.,2008) Non self-determined extrinsic motivations (Dacey et al.,2008) Tangible rewards Intangible rewards

    Barriers to Entry (Fitness Activity)

    Amotivation

    Goal Setting and Accountability

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    Barriers/Amotivation Motivations Small achievable steps Simple routines that reinforce small

    successes Praise, wellbeing and health are

    rewarding Self-monitoring and external

    feedback Togetherness and sociability at a

    common workout place

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    Challenges: 10,000 steps a day exercise adherence Prioritizing Ability Appropriate Game Elements Technology Usage and Personal

    Relationships Feedback

    Limitations Active Older Adults Attitudes towards technology-

    supported Physical Activity

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  • www.gamefulplay.cawww.touchpoint.info

    Twitter :3d_ideation7/5/2016 Dennis L. Kappen Twitter :3d_ideation 34

    .com

  • www.yayimages.com/image/fileid/22735678 https://www.heartmath.org/articles-of-the-heart/science-of-the-heart/stress-and-cognitive-decline/ http://www.medpagetoday.com/resource-center/atrial-fibrillation/Cognitive-Decline-Without-

    Stroke/a/47578 http://monsterwebsearch.com/tags/adult-home-care http://www.gamespot.com/news/68-of-us-households-gaming-youth-usage-rises-6211774 http://www.webpronews.com/mobile-games-survey-nearly-half-of-adults-are-mobile-gamers-2012-06 Czaja, S. J., & Lee, C. C. 2008. Information Technology and Older Adults. In: Sears, A. & Jacko, J.A. (Eds.):

    The Human Computer Interaction Handbook. New York, New York, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.joystickdivision.com/2010/10/5_proven_ways_video_games_are.php http://www.shockmd.com/2009/08/13/motives-for-online-gaming/ Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/wellness/how-gyms-are-tailoring-personal-training-for-

    seniors/2015/03/17/9e56bf8c-c662-11e4-b2a1-bed1aaea2816_story.html http://www.123rf.com/photo_7639131_healthy-elderly-woman-doing-dumbbell-exercise-with-personal-

    trainer-at-home-smiling.html http://brainblogger.com/2014/10/24/exercise-reduces-the-risk-of-alzheimers-disease/ "Aerobics class" by Bill Branson (Photographer) - This image was released by the National Cancer

    Institute, an agency part of the National Institutes of Health, with the ID 2375 (image) (next).This tagdoes not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright t