Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens“

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<ol><li> 1. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF AWARENESS ABOUT LAND POLLUTION, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION AND NOISE POLLUTION WITH ITS CAUSES AND EFFECTS AMONG THE CITIZENS NAME: ROLL NO: STUDENTS SIGN: SYBMS-A RESEARCH METHODS IN BUSINESS DEEPIKA GURSHANI 40 POONAM SANKHE 44 MANSI DESHMUKH 45 REEMA PEDNEKAR 46 MAHESHWARI ANNAM 49 SUBMITTED TO: MRS.MUGDHA BAPAT </li><li> 2. 2 CERTIFICATE OF PROJECT COMPLETION This is to certify that the Project Titled Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens is an original work and that this work has not been submitted anywhere in any form. Our indebtedness to other works/publications has been duly acknowledged at the relevant places. Date: Signature: (Name of the Supervisor) </li><li> 3. 3 DECLARATION We hereby declare that this project report entitled Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens is written by us and is our own effort and that no part has been plagiarized without citations. DATE: SUPERVISOR SIGNATURE: </li><li> 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mrs.Mugdha bapatas well as our principal Mrs.shakuntala singh who gave us the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens which also helped us in doing a lot of Research and we came to know about so many new things we are really thankful to them. Secondly we would also like to thank our parents and friends who helped us a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. We are making this project not only for marks but to also to increase our knowledge. THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED US!! </li><li> 5. 5 INDEX SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO. 1 CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Purpose 1.3 History 1.4 Introduction of air pollution 1.4 (a)Disadvantage of air pollution 1.5 Introduction of water pollution 1.5 ( a) Disadvantage of water pollution 1.6 Introduction of land pollution 1.6 (a) Disadvantage of land pollution 1.7 Introduction of noise pollution 1.7 (a) Disadvantage of noise pollution 2 CHAPTER 2 2.1 Research methodology 2.2 Primary data 2.3 Secondary data 2.4 Aims and objectives of research methodology 2.5 Scope of research methodology 3 CHAPTER 3 3.1 Analysis 3.2 Causes and effects of air pollution 3.2(a) Cases related to air pollution 3.3 Causes and effects of water pollution 3.3(a) Cases related to water pollution 3.4 Causes and effects of land pollution 3.4(a) Cases related to land pollution 3.5 Causes and effects of noise pollution </li><li> 6. 6 SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO. 3.5(a) Cases related to noise pollution 4 CHAPTER 4 4.1 Primary data analysis CHAPTER 5 5.1 Suggestions 5.1(a)How to control air pollution 5.1(b) How to control land pollution 5.1(c) How to control water pollution 5.1(d) How to control noise pollution 5.2Conclusion 5.2(a) Conclusion of air pollution 5.2(b) Conclusion of land pollution 5.2(c) Conclusion of water pollution 5.2(d) Conclusion of noise pollution </li><li> 7. 7 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Pollution is when something is added to the environment that is harmful or poisonous to living things. Smoke in the air from factories is a type of pollution as it is bad for the lungs when breathed in. Sewage in drinking water is another type of pollution, as it can make people unwell because it contains germs and viruses. People living next to a building site where there is too much noise can become sick as they cannot sleep or relax. This is called noise pollution. 1.2 Purpose Reason for Choosing Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution .I believe that we have discussed relatively thoroughly when it comes pollution, but I dont think we have been as thorough when it comes to the solution for the issue of pollution. I believe it would benefit the class and grasp their attention as to teach them about pollution and how it is affecting biodiversity. Many species, are endangered and going extinct. With pollution, populations are being depleted rapidly. It is also interesting to hear how it affects humans with the tiny amount of available clean water left in the world. I plan on also teaching the class exactly what ways the water , land , air is being polluted, meaning the sources of the pollution, because it will be interesting for them to learn how they can help make a difference or learn how they are currently polluting indirectly or directly. I want to discuss what areas of the world are worst and what areas are the cleanest, so the class can put things in perspective and relate the areas being discussed to their homes. I also plan on awareness them what the Environmental Protection Agency, has planned as goals for the near future to express how serious this ecological issue really is. It is to bring more attention to the problem established to everyone and to aware and find solution on this serious issue </li><li> 8. 8 1.3 History The history of pollution is as old as the life itself. At the very beginning of life on Earth when man came to know the use of fire and first time burnt wood to cook the food, the smoke emitted from it and first time the environment of this world got polluted. Stone Age the start of history of pollution Thereafter, in Stone Age the cutting and trimming of stones to make pottery and weapons created dust which made pollution in the air. Despite that its level was so tiny and was not widely felt by the human beings of that time. You may also like: Its never too late; so lets solve the pollution problems Metal Age However, in metal age man started intensively using the fire to make various usable items apart from weapons and intense heat emitted huge smokes and first time it was observed that smoke pollutes the air if it keeps on emitting. However, its intensity as compared to machine age was quite less and not worthy of raising concerns. Semi-mechanized Age Thereafter manual system of every activity of life from travelling to cooking food was converted to semi-mechanic way of doing things. During those days wheel was invented which introduced animal carts. Excessive use of donkey and horse carts promoted their breed and wastes of these animals introduced the concept of solid waste. A little progress in living style of people created the concept of civic waste management and in the ea of ancient monarchy a huge lot of workers was assigned to manage the civic waste which otherwise was mismanaged because of rise in waste generation due to increase in population. Industrial revolution </li><li> 9. 9 After the invention of machine from printing press to vehicles, the menace of pollution started enveloping the environment into its negative effects. Unplanned industrialization even in developed countries stirred up its spread and vehicular emissions added the pollution in the air. However, after some time the menace of pollution was felt by educated lot but nothing was done practically to contain it. Modern times In the second half of twentieth century the ghost of pollution has affected negatively all types of environment including air, land and water. It also negatively impacted the health of human and other living beings. Thereafter saner people of modern times joined their heads to combat this menace. They adopted various pollution control measures which we discussed in later parts of this e-book. Digital Era In twenty-first century all advanced nations developed several forums and protocols to contain the curse of pollution but they are unable to mitigate it and to bring it to a uniform level all around the world. Its reason is those who polluted the world mostly adopted the precautionary measures first and are now relatively free from it while those who awake later, progressed later and polluted later would be mitigating it later and meanwhile their generations would be suffering from this menace. </li><li> 10. 10 1.4 Introduction to air pollution Bad air quality" and "Air quality" redirect here. For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. For the measure of how polluted the air is , see Air quality index. Not to be confused with Qualities of air. Air pollution from a World War II wartime production plant Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the Earth's atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollution (see Airlog) and urban air quality are listed as two of the worlds worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report The term "air pollution" is used to describe substances that are artificially introduced into the air. Air pollution stems from gases and airborne particles which, in excess, are harmful to human health, buildings and ecosystems. Four major impacts determine the classification of pollutants under the traditional policy field Air Pollution </li><li> 11. 11 1.4(a) Disadvantages of air pollution Air pollution affects the health of humans. If polluted air is produced in the environment it gets mixed up with the pure air present in the environment and the quantity of fresh air gets reduced and people do not get sufficient oxygen to breath, this leads to many health diseases. Example: lung disease, Asthma, breathing problem etc Destruction of habitats. - dead animals - dead plants - harms the ecosystems - heat waves Also climate change/global warming droughts - more bugs - more diseases Rise in water from melting glaciers It's harmful for you - asthma - heavy breathing Cancer (it varies) - acid rain The disadvantages of pollution links to problems with other things in our lives People add to the list The pollution cause the: - greenhouse (ozone layer damage) -the multiplication of fatal diseases dangerousness parfois - multiplication of insects and mosquito - the extinction of marine </li><li> 12. 12 1.5 Water Pollution introduction The most common cause of water pollution in the U.S. is excess levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, the main source of which is fertilizer runoff23 that occurs when rain carries fertilizer into waterways. Runoff from both synthetic fertilizers and animal waste can poison drinking water and aquatic ecosystems, wreaking havoc on human health24 and wildlife.25 In the Southern U.S. , where there is an abundance of chicken factory farms, as many as one-third of all underground wells fall below EPA safe drinking water standards for nitrate, a form of nitrogen concentrated in chicken waste.26 Excrement from animal waste cesspools can also seep through the soil into nearby groundwater and overflow during storms.27 In 1995, for example, an eight-acre pig-manure lagoon in North Carolina ruptured, spilling 25 million gallons of untreated waste into the New River, which killed about 10 million fish. In California, the nations top dairy-producing state, officials found animal agriculture (specifically dairy operations) to be the largest source of nitrate pollution in more than 100,000 square miles of contaminated groundwater.28 Throughout the U.S., animal excrement from factory farms has contaminated groundwater in 17 states and polluted 35,000 miles of rivers in 22 states.29 Factory farm runoff also causes algal blooms that kill fish by depleting water of its oxygen, contributing to the formation of hundreds of dead zones worldwide where sea creatures cannot survive. The largest of these can be found in the Gulf of Mexico and is nearly the size of the State of New Jersey.30 Aquaculture (basically, the factory farming of fish in underwater enclosures) also makes a large contribution to water pollution, especially in the coastal mangrove swamps where these operations are typically located. Like land-based animal agriculture, intensive fish farming maximizes production efficiency by concentrating as many animals into the smallest amount of space possibleand also creates tons of untreated fecal waste that pollutes and de-oxygenates aquatic habitats. </li><li> 13. 13 1.5(a) Disadvantages of water pollution Water pollution seriously affects the ecosystem. Pesticide contamination in the ground water causes reproductive damage in the wildlife ecosystem. Discharge of polluted water which contains organic material from sewage, agricultural run-off causes eutrophication. Destroys life in the water based ecosystem which is polluted which in turn disrupts natural food chain. Aquatic life is destroyed due to the non-biodegradable pesticides and chemicals. Water pollution affects the microbial population. There is a steep increase in the BOD levels of water. Water pollution brings and imbalance in the host-parasite relationship in the ecosystem, this affects the food webs and food chain. The organisms that depend on these water bodies are in grave danger. Consumption infected fish by other animals and humans may cause serious illness. Water which has been contaminated by oil spills causes the death of water birds from exposure to cold and air due to feather damage. There is bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of pesticides and hazardous chemicals like organ chlorines like DDT, BHC, etc in animal bodies. Water pollution causes disease like hepatitis in humans on consumption of seafood which is poisoned or contaminated. Drinking contaminated water causes disease like cholera, skin diseases and can also cause cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid and stomach ailments. Heavy metal poisoning in humans due to consumption of contaminated fish interferes with the proper function of the nervous system. Contamination of ground water by pesticides can cause endocrine and reproductive problems to humans and animals. </li><li> 14. 14 1.6 Introduction to Land Pollution Most food produced for animals is grown using a combination of untreated animal waste and synthetic fertilizers, both of which contain excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals (such as zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead).19 Even though most of these substances usually act as nutrients that nourish plants, industrial farmers overuse them to increase crop yields, and the remainder that cannot be a...</li></ol>