department applied analytical and physical chemistry, laboratory 2017-10-14¢  robert...

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  • Promoter: Prof. dr. ir. Marc Verloo

    Department Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry

    Dean: Prof. dr. ir. Herman Van Langenhove Rector: Prof. dr. Paul Van Cauwenberge

  • Sukristiyonubowo

    NUTRIENT BALANCES IN TERRACED PADDY FIELDS

    UNDER TRADITIONAL IRRIGATION

    IN INDONESIA

    Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor (PhD) in Applied Biological Sciences

  • Dutch translation of the title: NUTRIENTENBALANSEN IN TRADITIONEEL GEIRRIGEERDE RIJSTVELDTERRASSEN IN INDONESIE Cover illustration: Front: General view of terraced paddy fields in Keji Village, Indonesia (DS 2004) Back: Monthly meeting with the participating farmers, key persons, researchers and the village head Planting elephant grass and king grass to increase productivity of dry land agriculture and to provide fresh fodder in Keji Village To refer to this thesis: Sukristiyonubowo (2007). Nutrient balances in terraced paddy fields under traditional irrigation in Indonesia. PhD thesis. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 184p. ISBN-number: 978-90-5989-167-8 The author and the promoter give the authorisation to consult and to copy parts of this work for personal use only. Every other use is subject to the copyright laws. Permission to reproduce any material contained in this work should be obtained from the author

  • i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Would I have not been supported by many people, my dissertation would have never reached

    the final step. I am very thankful to all of you who have paid attention in helping me to

    accomplish this work, from the developing of research proposal and carrying out field

    experiments to the final writing of this thesis.

    First of all, I want to acknowledge with gratitude my promoter Prof. Dr. ir. Marc Verloo. His

    constructive suggestions, remarks, and criticisms through fruitful discussions were really

    interesting and highly appreciated.

    My special thanks also go to the members of examination committee: Prof. Dr. ir. Walter

    Steurbaut, Prof. Dr. ir. Donald Gabriels, Dr. Fahmuddin Agus, Prof. Dr. ir. Stefaan De Neve,

    Prof. Dr. ir. Luc D’Haese, and Dr. ir. Jaak Lenvain, for their detailed review and positive

    comments to this dissertation.

    Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Gijs Du Laing for his valuable

    comments and suggestions.

    A special gratitude address to the Participatory Development of Agricultural Technology

    Project (PAATP) of the Agency for Agriculture Research and Development (AARD), the

    Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia for the financial support during the study

    period and field works.

    The financial fund of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) through the

    Managing Soil Erosion Consortium (MSEC) Project for analysing soil, water (irrigation,

    runoff, and rain water), and plant samples are highly appreciated.

    Furthermore, I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Fahmuddin Agus, the former

    Director of Soil Research Institute, Bogor and the Country Coordinator of MSEC Project, for

    supervising me during field works and for providing some data.

    Special thanks also go to ir. Robert Laurent Watung MSc., ir. Tagus Vadari, ir. Didik

    Sukristiyo Hastono (site coordinator of MSEC Project), Ferry and Kandar (field assistances),

  • ii

    facilitating me in monthly meetings with the farmers and the Village Head , daily monitoring,

    sampling, and collecting secondary data.

    Thanks to all staff members and friends at the Department of analytical chemistry and applied

    ecochemistry who helped me in one way or another.

    I should not forget Father Charles de Hemptinne, Marleen Van Stappen, Isabelle Mrozowski.,

    Annemie Derbaix, and Françoise Claeys Bouuaert for their hospitality during my study

    period. Their kindness and nice facilities during my stay at OBSG made me feel like home

    although away from home.

    Finally, the heartfelt thanks go to my beloved wife, Rina Pujiyanti, and my sons, Ryan

    Christie Wahyu Anggono (17 years old), Ricky Kristo Ajiputro (15 years old), and Rafael

    Agung Christriano Putro (18 months), for their constant supports. Their better understanding

    truly enlightened likes a candle in the dark and a lamp to my feet. We will be together soon.

    Thanks so much. Last but not least, I would like to thank my brothers and sister for their

    moral supports.

    Kris, April 2007

  • Table of contents

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement i

    List of abbreviations iii

    List of figures v

    List of tables ix

    List of photos xiii

    Chapter 1 General introduction 1

    1.1. Background …………………..…………...……………………………….. 2

    1.2. Site Description ……………………………………………………............. 4

    1.2.1. Socio-economic setting ……………………………………...……... 4

    1.2.2. Biophysical setting ……………………………………...………….. 5

    1.3. Objectives ………………………………………………………………….. 7

    Chapter 2 Sediment and nutrient movement behaviour in terraced paddy fields system

    9

    Abstract ……………………………………………..……………………………. 10

    2.1. Introduction …………………………………………………...…………… 11

    2.2. Literature Review …………………………………….…..………………... 12

    2.3. Materials and Methods ………………………………….……..…………... 15

    2.3.1. Land preparation ………………………………...………………… 15

    2.3.2. Sampling ……………………...………………..…………............. 18

    2.3.2.1. At harrowing ………………………………………..…………… 18

    2.3.2.2. At fertilising ………………………….………………………….. 18

    2.3.3. Measurement of discharge …………………………...……............. 19

    2.3.4. Determining sediment and nutrient yields …………………............ 20

    2.4. Results and Discussion ………………………….……...…………………. 23

    2.4.1. Incoming and outgoing sediments during land preparation …..…… 23

  • Table of contents

    2.4.2. Incoming and outgoing sediments during fertilising …...………..... 25

    2.4.3. Incoming and outgoing nutrients at harrowing ………...….…….... 32

    2.4.4. Incoming and outgoing nutrients at fertilising ……...…………...… 34

    2.5. Conclusions …………………………………………….………………….. 38

    Chapter 3 Nutrient uptake during rice growth and development 41

    Abstract ………………………………………………..…………………………. 42

    3.1. Introduction …………………………………………………………...…… 43

    3.2. Literature Review …………………………………...……………………... 45

    3.3. Materials and Methods ……………………………………..……………... 47

    3.4. Results and Discussion ………………………………………………..….. 50

    3.4.1. Soil properties …………………………………...………………… 50

    3.4.2. N, P, and K uptake by rice during growth and development in the WS 2003-04 …...................................................................................

    52

    3.4.3. N, P, and K uptake by rice during growth and development in the DS 2004 ……………………………………………………………

    56

    3.4.4. Seasonal variations of nutrient concentrations and uptake …...…… 61

    3.5. Conclusions …………………………………….…...……………………... 62

    Chapter 4 Rice production in terraced paddy field systems: Effect of rice straw addition

    63

    Abstract ………………………….…………………..…………………………… 64

    4.1. Introduction …………………….……………………………...…………... 65

    4.2. Literature Review ………………………………………………….............. 66

    4.3. Materials and Methods ……………………...……………………………... 69

    4.4. Results and Discussion ……………………………….…………………… 72

    4.4.1. Biomass production in the WS 2003-04 ………………...………… 72

    4.4.2. Biomass production in the DS 2004 ………………………...…….. 75

    4.4.3. Seasonal variations of rice productions and effect of rice straw ....... 77

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