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  • 11/22/2017

    1

    Dr. Soliman Mohammed Soliman

    Lecturer of Infectious Diseases,

    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a serious highly contagious

    respiratory disease of cattle.

    CBPP is characterized by chronic pneumonia and pleurisy

    CBPP cause mortality rates of up to 80%.

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 2

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    Etiology

    Natural hosts : Cattle (bovine and zebu), buffaloes

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides

    (bovine biotype)

    - Small colony type

    - Quickly inactivated in environment

    Susceptibility

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 3

    Geographic distribution

    CBPP is endemic in parts of Africa (Zambia, Tanzania, Botswana).

    Sporadic outbreaks are also reported in the Middle East, due to importation of cattle from Africa.

    The situation in Asia is uncertain, but in the past, this disease was reported in many countries.

    Although CBPP reemerged in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, it was eradicated and has not been reported since 1999.

    The Western hemi-sphere remained free of the disease during the recent outbreaks

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 4

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    Transmission

    Inhalation of infected drops of coughing from

    infected animalMode of infection

    Introduction of carrier animal to susceptible

    herd is the main cause of outbreaksMode of Transmission

    The organism is present in saliva, urine, fetal membranes, uterine discharges

    Indirect transmission is not important, The organism survive for a few days in the environment

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    Morbidity / Mortality

    Increases with close confinement

    Can reach 100% in susceptible herds

    Morbidity Mortality

    Ranges from 10-70%

    Affected by secondary factors : Nutrition, parasitism

    25% of recovered animals may become carriers

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 7

    Clinical Signs

    Incubation period: 10 days to 6 months Lethargy, anorexia, fever, cough Thoracic pain, reluctance to move with increased respiratory rate Changes in posture

    Neck forward Neck outstretched Legs apart Elbow abduction (Elbows turned out )

    AIR GASPING AIR HUNGER

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    Clinical Signs

    Congenitally infected calvesPolyarthritis

    May not show signs of pneumonia

    Subclinical cases can be carriers

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    Post Mortem Lesions

    Lung

    Thickening, inflammation of lung tissue

    Extensive fibrin accumulation, fibrosis Marbling

    Thoracic cavity

    Up to 10 L straw-colored fluid present

    Encapsulated sequestra

    Joints enlargedOrganism survives, animal becomes carrier

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 13

    Lung distension Large unilateral lesionSoliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 14

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    Marbling

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 15

    Marbling

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    Fibrinous pleurisy

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    Fluid in thoracic cavity Tendosynovitis and arthritis

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    Diagnosis

    Unilateral pneumonia

    Polyarthritis in calves

    PM lesions helpful

    Clinical signs Differential Diagnosis

    East Coast fever

    Bovine pasteurellosis

    Bronchopneumonia, TB

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 19

    Diagnosis

    Serology

    Complement fixation (CFT)

    Used only for herd diagnosis, not individual

    Useful with subclinical cases

    Competitive ELISA

    Hemagglutination

    Active herd outbreaks

    PCR

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    Treatment

    Antibiotics are ineffective in chronic cases

    Recommended only in endemic areas

    Treatment can not eliminate the organism, so it promote sequestration of organism and the development of carrier animals

    Recommended action in outbreak

    Slaughter and necropsy of a suspect animal

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 21

    Control

    The disease is notifiable (by law) to veterinary authorities

    In clean areas outbreaks are eradicated with

    a) Testing of infected farms and slaughter of infected and contact animals

    b) Quarantines

    c) Movement control

    d) Cleaning and disinfection : many routinely used disinfectants are effective against the organism

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    Control

    In endemic areasa) Quarantine, movement control

    b) Testing of infected farms and slaughter of infected and contact animals

    c) Vaccination with attenuated vaccine (eg, T1/44 strain), efficacy is limited (33-67%)

    d) Cleaning and disinfection : Sodium hypochlorite (3%) , many routinely used disinfectants are effective against the organism

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    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 24

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    Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP)

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Other mycoplasmas cause similar but distinct disease in small ruminants

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    History

    1873: First described in Algeria

    1881: Major outbreak in South Africa Diseased goats led to spread

    Discovery that CCPP is highly infectious

    1976: Mycoplasma F38 isolated In vitro

    1993: Officially classified as M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 27

    Economic Impact

    Direct costs

    High mortality rates

    Reduced milk and meat production

    Treatment and control costs

    Indirect costs

    Trade restrictions

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 28

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    Geographic Distribution

    CCPP endemic in: Africa

    Asia

    Middle East

    Eastern Europe

    Former USSR

    Never been found in North America

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 29

    Morbidity / Mortality

    Often 100%

    Disease severe in nave animals

    Chronic disease in endemic areas

    Morbidity Mortality

    Ranges from 60 to 100%

    Increased with close contact

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    Transmission

    Highly contagious

    Direct contact

    Inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets

    Carrier animals may exist

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases 31

    Clinical Signs

    Incubation period: 6 to 10 days. Respiratory symptoms

    Peracute

    Minimal clinical signs and affected goats can die within 1 to 3 days

    Acute

    High fever, anorexia, productive cough, wide stance, extended neck

    In the final stages of disease, the goat may not be able to move and stands with its front legs wide apart, and its neck stiff and extended.

    Chronic

    Cough, nasal charge, debilitation

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    Post Mortem Lesions

    Granular lung appearance

    Fibrinous pneumonia

    Chronic changes

    Pleuropneumonia

    Pleuritis

    Adhesions

    Soliman Mohammed Soliman, PhD, Infectious Diseases34

    The lesions of CCPP are limited to the respiratory

    system

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    Differential Diagnosis

    Pasteurellosis Peste des petits ruminants Caseous lymphadenitis Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type

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