concepts of electronics ii lab experiments

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  • This product was funded by a grant awarded under the Presidents High Growth Job Training Initiative as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labors Employment & Training Administration. The information contained in this product was created by a grantee organization and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. All references to non-governmental companies or organizations, their services, products, or resources are offered for informational purposes and should not be construed as an endorsement by the Department of Labor. This product is copyrighted by the institution that created it and is intended for individual organizational, non-commercial use only.

  • Contents

    June 2008

    Introduction 2

    Equipment & Component List 3

    Digital Multimeters 4

    Instek GOS-622G Oscilloscope 6

    Elenco XK-700 Electronic Trainer 12

    The Oscilloscope Project 1 Measuring Amplitude & Voltage 19 Project 2 Measuring Period & Frequency 21 Project 3 Instantaneous Voltage & RMS Values 23 Project 4 Additional Input Modes & Operations 26 Project 5 Advanced Measurement Techniques 29 Diodes & Rectifiers Project 6 Forward & Reverse Bias Diode 31 Project 7 Half-Wave Rectifiers 33 Project 8 Full-Wave Bridge Rectifiers 35 Inductance Project 9 Inductive Kick 37 Project 10 Inductors in Series & Parallel 39 Project 11 Relationship of XL to Inductance & Frequency 40 Project 12 Relationships in Series RL Circuits 41 Project 13 Relationships in Parallel RL Circuits 43

    Capacitance

    Project 14 RC Time Constants 45 Project 15 Capacitance in Series & Parallel 50 Project 16 Relationship of XC to Capacitance & Frequency 52 Project 17 Relationships in Series RC Circuits 54 Project 18 Relationships in Parallel RC Circuits 56 Series Resonance Project 19 Relationships of XL & XC to Frequency 58 Project 20 Circuit Characteristics when XL is equal to XC 59

    Project 21 Bandwidth Related to Q 61 Parallel Resonance Project 22 Circuit Characteristics when XL is equal to XC 65

    Project 23 Bandwidth Related to Q 68 Formulas 70

    Instructor Sign Off Sheet 73

  • 2

    Introduction This lab book is designed for students who have completed the first Concepts of Electronics course and have a good foundational understanding of Ohms Law principles as well as the rules of series, parallel and combination circuits in resistive loads. This course introduces alternating current and the relationships of resistive inductive and capacitive loads. Since alternating current waveforms are much more complex than direct current, an oscilloscope will be used to observe these waveforms. The oscilloscope used in this course is the Instek model GOS-622G. This lab book provides hands-on experiences to reinforce the electronic theory learned in this course. Most of the projects in this book promote understanding of the intended points made by performing calculations and making electrical measurements. The results are then compared and conclusions are drawn at optimum times during the projects. The projects in this lab manual are designed to help students develop and improve their abilities to:

    Follow instructions carefully, Make accurate measurements and calculations, Analyze technical data appropriately, Draw logical conclusions from their observations and calculations.

    When performing each lab experiment, make sure the meter and test instruments are set to the correct function and range to ensure accurate readings. There are also many calculations and measurements in these lab projects that will require rounding of decimal points. To ensure a correct answer, make sure each number is rounded to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places). For example, if an answer calculates to 3.457 mA, the correct answer would be 3.46 mA. If an answer calculates to 21.3523 k, the correct answer would be 21.35 k. If the answer is a whole number or if the hundredths place is a zero, the extra zeros do not need to be added. For example, an answer of 10 volts does not need to be written as 10.00 V. The answers must also be written in metric prefix form with the correct unit label. For example, an answer of 11270 should be written as 11.27 k. An answer of .482 A should be written as 482 mA, etc. For your convenience, the Ohms Law formulas along with many other formulas used in this course have been added toward the back of this lab manual. Also included is an instructor sign-off sheet. Have your instructor initial and date this sheet in the appropriate location when the corresponding project is correct and complete. This will help both you and your instructor track your progress throughout the experiments.

  • 3

    Equipment

    Elenco XK-700 electrical trainer

    Multi-range digital multi-meter (DMM)

    Instek GOS-622G dual trace oscilloscope

    Stopwatch

    Breadboard jumper wires Components

    Diode, 1N4002, 1 amp (4)

    Resistors

    o 100 , carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance (2)

    o 1 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 3.3 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 4.7 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 10 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 18 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 27 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 680 k, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    o 10 M, carbon film, 1 watt, 5% tolerance

    Capacitors

    o 0.1F, ceramic disc, 50V (2)

    o 1.0F, electrolytic, non-polarized, 50V (2)

    o 47F, electrolytic, non-polarized, 50V

    Inductors

    o 100 mH, D.C.R. 150 (2)

    o 1.5 H, iron core, filter choke

  • 4

    Multimeters are very useful test instruments. By operating a multi-position switch on the meter they can be quickly and easily set to be used as a voltmeter, an ammeter or an ohmmeter. Some meters have additional features used to measure capacitance and frequency as well. They have several settings called ranges for each type of meter and the choice of either alternating or direct current measurements. Voltmeter To test for voltage, first determine whether the application you're testing uses AC or DC voltage. Then set the dial to the appropriate function and plug the red test lead into the correct jack used to measure voltage. Like all test procedures, when testing voltage, set the meter to the range just higher than the expected voltage and decrement it down as needed to increase the accuracy of the reading. If you don't know the expected range, set the range to the highest one available. Take the black test lead and place it on the negative polarity point of the circuit you want to measure. The red test lead will go on the more positive polarity point. When measuring voltage, the test leads of the meter must always be connected in parallel or across the component or circuit to be measured as in Figure P-2 on the next page.

    DC Voltage Function Ranges from 200mV to 1000V DC

    AC Voltage Function Ranges from 200mV to 700V AC

    Transistor Test Function

    Resistance Function Ranges from 200 to 200M

    V, jack Use this jack for the red test lead when measuring voltage or resistance.

    COM jack Use this jack for the black test lead.

    mA jack Use this jack for the red test lead when measuring current from 0 to 200mA.

    A jack Use this jack for the red test lead when measuring current from 200mA to 20A

    Capacitance Function Ranges from 2nF to 200F

    AC Current Function Ranges from 2mA to 20A.

    DC Current Function Ranges from 2mA to 20A.

    Continuity / Diode Test Function

    ON / OFF power switch

    Digital Multimeters

    Figure P-1

  • 5

    6.00

    A mA COM V

    VPower Supply 6V

    Voltmeter leads connected in parallel with resistor being measured.

    Figure P-2

    12.00

    A mA COM V

    mA Power Supply 12V

    Ammeter leads connected in series with the circuit being measured.

    Figure P-3

    1000

    A mA COM V

    Remove power from the circuit prior to taking resistance measurement.

    Figure P-4

    Ammeter To measure current, break the circuit where you want to take the reading. Set the meter to AC or DC current depending on the source being tested. Plug the test lead into the correct jack to measure the expected current. Note: Most meters have a separate jack that needs to be used to measure current from 0 to 200mA and from 200mA to 10A or sometimes 20A. Insert the meter in series or in line with the circuit to be measured by placing the red test lead on the positive polarity point and the black lead on the negative polarity point (see Figure P-3). Similar to the voltage, the correct current range needs to be selected. Start by selecting the next range higher than the expected reading. If the meter ever reads 0 when an actual reading should be present, check the fuse for the 200mA port.

    Ohmmeter To test for resistance, first remove the power from the circuit component to be tested. This prevents the meter from becoming damaged by the source. After ensuring that all power is off, set the dial to the resistance function. Select the appropriate range on the dial. Remove the component to be measured from the circuit (This prevents false readings from any other components in the circuit). Make sure the test leads are plugged into the correct jack to measure resistance. Connect your test leads to the component and take the reading. It's important that you have good contact between the test leads and the component being tested. Dirt, oil and poor test l

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