classic greek philosophy
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3 great Greek Philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle470-399BC- 429-347B.C- 384-322B.C
The unexamined life is not worth living.Knowledge is virtue for the sake of virtue only.Wiser is one who knows that he knows nothing.Keep examine the truth by using dialectic method.His project is to expose the contradictions within conversation.His interest is in search for definition of the universal truth.Man centered philosophy begins.There is one good knowledge and evil ignorance.People should focus only on self improvement.
Socrates 399-470 B.C.
Charged for corrupting the youth Refusing the gods in Athens and introduce new one.
He was a student of Socrates .Everything is shadow of its ideal form in the world of ideas.Knowledge of the world is limited to mere shadow of realityPerfect from of everything exists in the world of ideas.His world is eternal and immutable where ideas are innate.We reach to the highest from with our ability of reason.He build the academy that was closed over 900 years.No one enter in academy ,who does not know mathematics.In allegory of the cave ,we all are prisoner from the birth.What we call learning is only a process of collection
Plato 429-347 B.C.
The Allegory of the Cave Plato explains the theory of knowledge, prisoners in cave know through the shadow on wall and fire is a source of knowledge. They know nothing about the world outside cave . Therefore, they suppose the reality inside.
He was a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander.He was scholarly and methodical in writing approach.His writing is about 170 title of lecture notes.Truth resides in the world around us.Minds are blank slate, man by nature desire to know.Everything has potentiality of achieving a actual form.He classified the knowledge into distinct disciplines.
The Golden mean rule Virtue is mean of excess and deficiency of feelings and actions.Follow moderation - a balance between two extremes.Being courage is the mean between being coward and rash.Man act appropriately rational and emotional with principle of mean.Self-control is the mean between self-indulgence and being insensibleThe ability to reason distinguishes human beings from other things.Rational part control irrational part being human.Ultimate goods are better than instrumental goods.We need to discover the ultimate goal of life.Instrumental goods are aimed for the sake of something else.Ultimate goods are aimed at for their own sakes.
Diogenes(404-323)was the founder of cynic approach .Cynics means shameless rejection of all conventions.It means disbelieve in goodness & sincerity of motives .They express sneer and sarcasm over social values.He has the most who has content with the least. Happiness could be achieved to live according to natureAbandon social relation to minimize emotional bound.Mastery of the self was not taken away influence stoic.
Zeno(334-262 B.C) was the founder of stoicism Stoa means porch advocated by cicero and Epictetus.Happiness comes from accepting whatever life bring upInspired by Socrates for happiness is virtue by wisdom. human wisdom is to understand the roles in the world.We cannot control event but control our attitudeAll people were alike and should be tread well.All are citizens od the same country i-e cosmopolitan.
The aim of life is attainment of pleasure.Pain is always bad and pleasure is always good.The pleasure of mind is prior than any form of pleasureThe wise person is one who consume little.Feeling is immediate test of goodness or badness.Pleasure of mind come from lessen the useless fear.
Epicurus (341-270 B.C)
Pyrrho was the founder of skeptic approach .The skeptic keep on searching the truth .The suspension of judgment involved in inquiry.Respect for appearance and accept nature.Morality is possible without knowledge Force of feeling hungry derive to food is probable.Nothing is good or bad by nature .Attitude of doubt is the safe for absolute truth.
Pyrro (361-270 B.C)