Christianity and Church History. Christianity Christianity is based on the life, teachings, death and resurrection of JESUS. “CHRIST” is Greek.
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- Christianity and Church History
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- Christianity Christianity is based on the life, teachings, death and resurrection of JESUS. CHRIST is Greek for anointed one, which in Aramaic means the perfected or enlightened one. Jesus did not want to be called the Messiah because he felt that the term could be misunderstood. Jesus characterized himself as the good shepherd who was willing to lay down his life for his sheep (disciples). LIFE OF JESUS QUIZ!!
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- Christian Beliefs Developed in 325 C.E. by Emperor Constantine, the NICENE CREED is a statement of beliefs universally accepted by all Christians today. CREATION the whole universe is Gods creation GOD one God, who is an all-good Creator THE HOLY TRINITY God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are bound together as ONE God THE HOLY SPIRIT the life-giving presence of God SALVATION AND ETERNAL LIFE the son of God, Jesus, came to give humans the opportunity to be saved; to attain eternal life in heaven after death THE LAST JUDGMENT Jesus will come back to earth to determine which humans will join him, body and soul, in heaven
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- HOLY BOOK The Christian Bible consists of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), plus the New Testament (Gospels, Acts, Letters, Revelation).
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- When Were the Gospels Written and For Whom? The Gospel of Mark Written in Rome around 70 A.D. Mark wrote for a community of Christians of a Gentile background. Gentile generally means non-Jewish The Gospel of Luke Written in Greece between 70 A.D. and 90 A.D. Luke wrote for a community of Christians with a Greek background The Gospel of Matthew Written in Syria between 70 A.D. and 90 A.D. Matthew wrote for a community of Christians with a Jewish background The Gospel of John Written in Asia Minor after 90 A.D. John wrote for Christians of all backgrounds
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- SACRED PRACTICES Seven Sacraments of the Catholic Church Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Matrimony Reconciliation/Penance Anointing of the Sick Holy Orders
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- MAJOR ANNUAL CELEBRATIONS Christmas celebrates the birth of Jesus on Earth Epiphany celebrates the spiritual kinship of Jesus by the three Magi (wise men) Advent precedes Christmas by one month, a time of joyous anticipation of the birth Easter commemoration of the death and resurrection of Jesus Lent precedes Easter 40 days; a period of repentance and fasting Pentecost commemorates the occasions described in Acts when the Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples
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- SYMBOLS LATIN CROSS The most common form of the Cross and believed to be of the style on which Jesus died (Crucifix) Protestants typically use the resurrected Jesus or a simple cross
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- SYMBOLS The fish, or Ichthys, was one of the most important symbols of Christ to the early Christians. In Greek, the phrase, "Jesus Christ, Son of God Savior," is "Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter." The first letters of each of these Greek words, when put together, spell "ichthys," the Greek word for "fish." FISH
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- SYMBOLS DOVE Symbol of the Holy Spirit and used especially in representations of our Lord's Baptism and the Pentecost. It also symbolizes the release of the soul in death, and is used to recall Noah's dove, a harbinger of hope.
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- SYMBOLS Symbol of Christ as the Paschal Lamb and also a symbol for Christians (as Christ is our Shepherd and Peter was told to feed His sheep). LAMB
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- SYMBOLS THE GOOD SHEPERD Some of the earliest depictions of Christ show Him as the Good Shepherd. This type of representation is found in the Catacombs.
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- SYMBOLS "CHI-RHO" or "sigla The letters "X" and "P," representing the first letters of the title "Christos," were eventually put together to form this symbol for Christ ("Chi" is pronounced "Kie"). It is this form of the Cross that Constantine saw in his vision along with the Greek words, TOUTO NIKA, which means "in this sign thou shalt conquer.
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- History of the Early Church 4 BCE The Birth of Jesus 30 CE Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus 50-67 CE St. Paul carries Christianity into Asia Minor and Rome and writes many of the Epistles in the New Testament 70-110 CE The Gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke and John) were written 50-325 CE Christians were persecuted under the Roman Empire 325 CE Council of Nicaea codified Christian beliefs in the Nicene Creed 1054 CE The first of several Crusades 1517 CE Martin Luther leads the Protestant Reformation 1534 CE King Henry VIII and Parliament establish the Church of England (Anglican Church) 1962 1965 CE Second Vatican Council reforms practices of the Roman Catholic Church
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- 0 - 312 A.D. Christianity is an outlawed religion illegal! Roman Empire is in power Followers of the Way (early Christians) were neither Jew nor Roman Both Romans and Jews persecuted Christians Proof? In the Acts of the Apostles as well as in Roman records. St. Stephen was stoned to death in the Acts of the Apostles. Saul (or Paul) was a Jew (Pharisee) and persecuted Christians, later had a vision of Jesus on the Road to Damascus, and becomes the greatest missionary of the Church.
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- 312 BCE Constantine from Gaul (modern day France) took control of the Roman Empire and became its new leader. He legalized Christianity and became a supporter of it. His mother was Catholic and he had a dream before going into battle In this sign, thou shalt conquer. He did conquer, therefore, he became a supporter of Christianity. Christians were given land and tax incentives and Christians began worshipping in public (Built Churches). Began Church councils where members of the Church came together to make decisions majority rules. In 325 the Council of Nicaea developed the Nicene Creed, a statement of the beliefs of ALL Christians Church became very authoritarian. Church started to become associated with power rather than service - the role of women also diminished. But the empire became more humane Social responsibilitye.g. feeding the poor and caring for sick
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- POST 312 A.D. As the Roman Empire lost power due to invading tribes, the Church gained power, not really because they wanted power, but because the people looked towards them for help and leadership. The Pope began to hold both civil and religious authority. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as emperor, and the Pope and Charlemagnes agenda was to build the City of Godhence the Crusades. This never really happened. By the time of the Dark Ages 1100 CE, the Church held an authoritarian model and was wedded to the state. Problems of money, power and authority infiltrated its structure.
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- Church Schisms Beginnings of the Christian Church: The "first churches," all are welcome, opposition by the state Growth of Christianity Is'-4' Centuries (the first Christians, break with Judaism, official acceptance, organization, St. Augustine) 5 1 -11' Centuries (mission to the Barbarians, the Papal states, Lay investiture, the first schism...)
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- Eastern Schism (Eastern Orthodox, 1054) Roman Emperor Constantine shifted capital to Byzantine (Constantinople) - Empire with two focal points influence of "pope" expanded Westward but with conflict Filioque clause in Nicene Creed 325 CE - "And the son" added to "and we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and fiver of life who proceeds from the father." - Eastern Church believes only God the Father sends out the Holy Spirit 1054 CE pope in Rome excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople also reject any modifications made to Christian belief after787CE predominate in Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania cross shaped floor plan, ornately decorated religion icons in church lead by Ecumenical Patriarch in Istanbul (Formally Constantinople) healing East-West divide- patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI met in 1965 and lifted ex-communications Only men can be Orthodox priests- they are allowed to be married but only before ordination- seven sacraments
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- Independent Eastern Churches Several sects in the Middle East and Africa broke from Mediterranean Christianity in the 5' and 6 1 centuries. These churches deny that Jesus was both true God and true man (still worship the trinity) 15 million (most popular Ethiopian Church shares many traditions with Judaism)
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- Roman Catholic Church Crusades 1095- Holy war to recover Jerusalem and Holy Land from Muslim Rule- about 100 years (Inquisition against Judaism) Catholic Reformation: In response to Protestant Reformation. Church spent 18 years (starting in 1543) at Council of Trent Council reaffirmed beliefs: 7 sacraments, 3 destinations for the soul (heaven, hell and purgatory), prayers to Mary and Saints acceptable, upheld importance of both Bible and Traditions 4` h century Bishop of Rome claimed official leadership "Pope" ("Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church") 1870 1' Vatican Council strengthened popes authority with papal infallibility (provided that pope has consulted other Church leaders) Vatican 11 1962-1965 updated the Church: Latin eliminated as language of worship, priest faces congregation, lay people given roles during mass, Eucharist either bread or wine Four Marks of the Church: ONE, HOLY, CATHOLIC, APOSTOLIC
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- Protestant Churches Martin Luther 1483-1546 believed in Salvation through faith alone (not faith and works)- inward belief rather than outward signs love and service not necessary for salvation (rejection of indulgences) knowing God through study of Bible more important- translated Bible into German... made Bible "hands on" Reformation quickly grew - new interpretations challenged the Church. The movement quickly divided. Protestants Christians belonging to a Christian sect or division that separated from the Catholic Church during the Reformation, led by Martin Luther, in 1517 C.E.
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- Lutheran First Protestant Church Only two sacraments, baptism and Lords Supper Con-substantiation- acknowledges the presence of Christ's body and blood in the offering (all around it without changing the substance) Calvanist/Reformed John Calvin (and John Knox) Stresses sanctification- purification from sin, through obedience of the Ten Commandments Value integrity, sincerity and hard work Liturgies are relatively free from ritual with focus on preaching and hymn singing
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- Anglican Churches King Henry VIII wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled- He had the Archbishop of Canterbury annul the marriage and had Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy (monarch head of church) Bible translated in to English and services said in English- however the liturgy still very similar Bridge between Protestants and Catholics
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- Baptist Churches They believe that becoming a Christian should be a mature and informed decision, and not a birthright (total immersion of adults in water in the same way Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist Methodist Churches (United Churches) John Wesley founded the movement as he "methodically" sought a deeper assurance of personal salvation through prayer discussion and reflection three basic principles "Do no harm, Do good, Attend to all the ordinances of God" Evangelical Movement very active form of Christian Belief based on literal authority of the Bible active in Charitable causes
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- Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) 1820s American Joseph Smith had visions of God the Father, Jesus Christ and and angel he called Moroni he claimed to receive golden panels in an ancient language that he was able to translate (the Book of Mormon) Under leadership Brigham Young the established Salt Lake City as headquarters they do not recognize original sin, baptism only serves to introduce new members, they believe that a person's soul remains on earth after death (genealogy important) Jehovah's Witnesses Founded in 1868- obey the call to "witness the faith"- must spread the good news of the kingdom of God Reject the idea of the Holy Trinity and interpret the Bible literally Oppose blood transfusions
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- THE MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROTESTANTS & CATHOLIC BELIEFS
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- Catholics maintain that moral authority comes from both Scripture and tradition. Remember, the Catholic Church bases its authority to declare both truth in Scripture and in its interpretation of the Scripture, which it calls tradition. Protestants believe in sola Scriptura or that Scripture alone holds moral authority. Catholics hold that Christ is truly present in the consecrated bread and wine of the Eucharist. Protestants, for the most part, see the Eucharist as a symbolic memorial of Christs Last Supper. For Catholics, the sacraments are celebrations of the salvation achieved by Jesus Christ, which God offers us as a gift. Sacraments are Catholics participation in this reality. Protestants believe that salvation comes through faith in biblical Scripture alone, and was accomplished once and for all time in the Calvary sacrifice of Jesus.
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- Catholics believe in mediation, the establishment of relationships between one person and God through the efforts of another person. The mediator can be a priest or a saint. It can be other persons who pray for them. They, themselves can be mediators, as they pray for others, the souls in purgatory, for example. Protestants believe in an immediate and direct relationship with God, and shun intermediaries for the most part. Catholics keep the traditional seven sacraments: baptism, reconciliation, Eucharist, confirmation, Holy Orders, marriage, and anointing of the sick. Protestants, de-emphasizing the role of a priest mediator, for the most part practice just two sacraments: baptism and the Eucharist.
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- Second Vatican Council The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an ecumenical council of the church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. Changed in how church sacraments were practiced, and the use of vernacular languages for the Mass. The council also brought less visible, but fundamental changes in how the Catholic church saw itself and its relationship with other faiths and the world. It has often been cited as the most significant event in Catholicism in the 20th century. The Church- The hierarchical teaching structure of Church was reconfirmed, while stressing the unique roles that religious orders and lay persons had, and that there wa...
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