child development - typical and atypical development
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DESCRIPTIONChild Development - typical and atypical development. Dr Karl Wall 2009. Human development. Death. Adulthood. Older adulthood. Dimensions of change : Physical Sensory Motor Social Emotional Cognitive Reproductive Experiential. Middle adulthood. Early adulthood. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Child Development - typical and atypical development Dr Karl Wall2009
Human developmentConceptionPregnancyBirthChildhoodTeen yearsPre-pubertyPubertyEarly yearsAdulthoodOlder adulthoodMiddle adulthoodEarly adulthoodDeathDimensions of change:
Physical Sensory Motor Social Emotional Cognitive Reproductive Experiential
0 5 months: typical developmentFrom upper part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
5 months 1 year: typical developmentFrom lower part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
12 mths 18 mths: typical development.From upper part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
18 mths 60 mths: typical developmentFrom lower part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
Variation and range in milestonesFrom Table 4 Ages when motor skills are achieved p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.
Variation and range in milestones 1Based on Table 4 Ages when motor skills are achieved p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Holds head steady when held upright(1 week - 4 months)Lying on tummy lifts self by arms3 weeks - 5 monthsRolls from side to back 3 wks - 5 mon.Rolls from back to side2-7 monthsAve. 3 weeksAve. 2 monthsAve. 4.5 months
Month. 01 23 45678
Variation and range in milestones 2Based on Table 4 Ages when motor skills are achieved p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Grasps a cube2 mths - 7mthsSits alone with coordination5 mths - 9 mthsAve. 3 monthsAve. 7 months
Month. 23 45 678910
Variation and range in milestones 3Based on Table 4 Ages when motor skills are achieved p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Crawls5 mths - 11mthsPulls to a standing position5 mths - 12mthsUses a pincer grasp7-10 monthsAve. 7 mthsAve. 8 mthsAve. 9 mths
Month. 56 78 9101112
Variation and range in milestones 4Based on Table 4 Ages when motor skills are achieved p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Stands independently9 months - 16 monthsWalks alone8 mths - 18mthsAve. 11 monthsAve. 13 months
Mth. 891011 12131415161718
SleepFigure from Thieke (2001) at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010115/277.html
Childhood: the early part of being an adult - not a special period
Children as little adults no special care or attention required; no differentiation between child development and adult development
Child development theories 1
Arnold Gesell (1880 -1961): universal patterns of physical maturation, genetically driven and determined > milestones of development
Sigmund Freud (1857 -1959): early childhood experience informs subsequent development; focus on impact of psychosexual influences > type of stage theoryChild development theories 2
Erik Erikson (1902-1994): extends Freuds perspectives:
Brings in environmental factors and more stages issue of overcoming stage related crisis events.
B.F. Skinner (1904 -1990): Child behaviour shaped by how experience is reinforced:
Role of reward and punishment > experience conditions behaviourChild development theories 3
Alfred Bandura (1925 -present): Learning informed by imitation and social observation
Role of motivation and inner psychological processes
modelling, role models, social learning: Social Learning Theory
Child development theories 4
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934): Learning interactions as basis of development:
Role of social context, language, communication and the mediating influence of others inform a social constructivist development
Historical, cultural and social factors inform cognition and development - language is the principal societal toolChild development theories 5
Jean Piaget (1896 -1980): development seen as:
Four, genetically driven, universal and sequential stages of symbol based cognitive development.
These reflect children's individual construction of their own thinking systems, supported by interaction with adultsChild development theories 6
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Integrated Attachment Theory): focus on how parent child relationships are establishedthe role of early relational experiences and their impact on how later relationships are formed and maintained
Life Course perspectives: re-integration of child and adult development as aspects of a single developmental continuum Child development theories 7
Meggitt, C. (2006) Child Development. London: Heinemann.
Miller, L., Rustin, M., Rustin, M. and Shuttleworth, J. (2002).Closely observed infants. London: Duckworth.Reference sources 1
Sylva, K. and Lunt, I. (1982) Child development-a first course. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.Lewis. V. (2003) Development and Disability. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Sheridan, M. D. (2005) From Birth to Five years [Updated and revised by Frost, M. and Sharma, A.). London: Routledge.Sheridan, M. D. (2006) Play in Early Childhood From birth to six years. [Updated and revised by Harding, J. and Meldon-Smith, L.). London: Routledge.Reference sources 2
Butterworth, G. & Harris, M. (1994). Principles of Developmental Psychology. Hove: Psychology Press. Chap. 9: Cognitive development in early childhood; Chap. 10: Cognitive development in middle childhood.
Child, D. (1997). Psychology and the Teacher. London: Cassell. Chap. 7: Concept formation and cognitive development.
Donaldson, M. (1978) Childrens Minds. London: Fontana. (a critique of aspects of Piagets stage theory) Reference sources 3
Eysenck. M.W. (2000). Psychology: A Students Handbook. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. Chap. 16: Cognitive development.
Siegler, R.S. & Wagner Alibali, M. (2005). Childrens Thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chap. 2: Piagets theory of development.
Sutherland, P. (1992). Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman.
Tharp, R. & Gallimore, R. (1991). A theory of assisted performance, in P. Light, S. Sheldon, M. Woodhead (eds). Learning to Think. London: Routledge. Reference sources 4
Miller, P. H. (2002) Theories of Developmental Psychology (4th edn). New York: Worth.
Kugelmass, J. W. (2007) Constructivist views of learning: implications for inclusive education, in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE
De Valenzuela. J. S. (2007) Sociocultural views of learning in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGEReference sources 5