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  • CHEMISTRYHIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR

    VOLUME - II

    Untouchability is a sinUntouchability is a crimeUntouchability is inhuman

    TAMILNADUTEXTBOOK CORPORATIONCollege Road, Chennai - 600 006

    REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THETEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

    A Publication UnderGovernment of Tamilnadu

    Distribution of Free Textbook Programme(NOT FOR SALE)

  • Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2005 Revised Edition - 2007

    CHAIRPERSON & AUTHORDr. V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    Professor of Chemistry (Retd.)Presidency College, (Autonomous), Chennai - 600 005.

    Price : Rs.This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education

    on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu.

    This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M paper

    Printed by Offset at :

    REVIEWERSDr. M.KRISHNAMURTHIProfessor of ChemistryPresidency College (Autonomous)Chennai - 600 005.Dr. M.KANDASWAMYProfessor and HeadDepartment of Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of MadrasChennai - 600 025.

    Dr. M. PALANICHAMYProfessor of ChemistryAnna UniversityChennai - 600 025.

    DR. J. SANTHANALAKSHMIProfessor of Physical ChemistryUniversity of MadrasChennai - 600 025.

    Mr. V. JAISANKAR,Lecturer in ChemistryL.N.Government Arts College,Ponneri - 601 204.

    AUTHORSDr. S.P. MEENAKSHISUNDRAMProfessor of Chemistry,Annamalai University,Annamalai Nagar 608 002.

    Dr. R. RAMESHSenior Lecturer in Chemistry,Bharathidasan UniversityTrichirapalli 620 024.

    Mrs. T. VIJAYARAGINIP.G. Teacher in Chemistry,SBOA Mat. Higher Secondary SchoolChennai - 600 101.

    Dr. S.MERLIN STEPHEN,P.G.Teacher in ChemistryCSI Bain Mat. Hr. Sec. SchoolKilpauk, Chennai - 600 010.

    Dr. K. SATHYANARAYANAN,P.G. Teacher in Chemistry,Stanes Anglo Indian Hr. Sec. School,Coimbatore - 18.

    Dr. M. RAJALAKSHMIP.G. Teacher in Chemistry,Chettinad VidyashramChennai - 600 028.

    (ii)

  • PREFACEWhere has chemistry come from ? Throughout the history of the human

    race, people have struggled to make sense of the world around them. Throughthe branch of science we call chemistry we have gained an understanding of thematter which makes up our world and of the interactions between particles onwhich it depends. The ancient Greek philosophers had their own ideas of thenature of matter, proposing atoms as the smallest indivisible particles. However,although these ideas seems to fit with modern models of matter, so many otherAncient Greek ideas were wrong that chemistry cannot truly be said to havestarted there.

    Alchemy was a mixture of scientific investigation and mystical quest, withstrands of philosophy from Greece, China, Egypt and Arabia mixed in. The mainaims of alchemy that emerged with time were the quest for the elixir of life (thedrinking of which would endue the alchemist with immortality), and the searchfor the philosophers stone, which would turn base metals into gold. Improbableas these ideas might seem today, the alchemists continued their quests for around2000 years and achieved some remarkable successes, even if the elixir of lifeand the philosophers stone never appeared.

    Towards the end of the eighteenth century, pioneering work by Antoineand Marie Lavoisier and by John Dalton on the chemistry of air and the atomicnature of matter paved the way for modern chemistry. During the nineteenthcentury chemists worked steadily towards an understanding of the relationshipsbetween the different chemical elements and the way they react together. A greatbody of work was built up from careful observation and experimentation until therelationship which we now represent as the periodic table emerged. This broughtorder to the chemical world, and from then on chemists have never looked back.

    Modern society looks to chemists to produce, amongst many things, healingdrugs, pesticides and fertilisers to ensure better crops and chemicals for the manysynthetic materials produced in the twenty-first century. It also looks for anacademic understanding of how matter works and how the environment mightbe protected from the source of pollutants. Fortunately, chemistry holds many ofthe answers !

    (iii)

  • Following the progressing trend in chemistry, it enters into other branchesof chemistry and answers for all those miracles that are found in all living organisms.The present book is written after following the revised syllabus, keeping in viewwith the expectations of National Council of Educational Research & Training(NCERT). The questions that are given in each and every chapter can be takenonly as model questions. A lot of self evaluation questions, like, choose the bestanswer, fill up the blanks and very short answer type questions are given in allchapters. While preparing for the examination, students should not restrictthemselves, only to the questions/problems given in the self evaluation.They must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from theentire text.

    Learning objectives may create an awareness to understand each andevery chapter.

    Sufficient reference books are suggested so as to enable the students toacquire more informations about the concepts of chemistry.

    Dr. V. BALASUBRAMANIANChairperson

    Syllabus Revision Committee (Chemistry)& XI Std Chemistry Text Book Writing Committee

    (iv)

  • CONTENTS

    UNIT NO. PAGE NO.

    Physical Chemistry

    10. Chemical Bonding 1

    11. Colligative Properties 3612. Thermodynamics - I 6413. Chemical Equilibrium - I 8814. Chemical Kinetics - I 112

    Organic Chemistry

    15. Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry 12516. Purification of Organic compounds 16217. Detection and Estimation of Elements 17518. Hydrocarbons 19119. Aromatic Hydrocarbons 22120. Organic Halogen Compounds 234

    (v)

  • Syllabus : Higher Secondary - First Year ChemistryINORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    Unit I - Chemical CalculationsSignificant figures - SI units - Dimensions - Writing number in scientific

    notation - Conversion of scientific notation to decimal notation - Factor labelmethod - Calculations using densities and specific gravities - Calculation of formulaweight - Understanding Avogadros number - Mole concept-mole fraction of thesolvent and solute - Conversion of grams into moles and moles into grams -Calculation of empirical formula from quantitative analysis and percentagecomposition - Calculation of molecular formula from empirical formula - Laws ofchemical combination and Daltons atomic theory - Laws of multiple proportionand law of reciprocal proportion - Postulates of Daltons atomic theory andlimitations - Stoichiometric equations - Balancing chemical equation in its molecularform - Oxidation reduction-Oxidation number - Balancing Redox equation usingoxidation number - Calculations based on equations. - Mass/Mass relationship -Methods of expressing concentration of solution - Calculations on principle ofvolumetric analysis - Determination of equivalent mass of an element -Determination of equivalent mass by oxide, chloride and hydrogen displacementmethod - Calculation of equivalent mass of an element and compounds -Determination of molar mass of a volatile solute using Avogadros hypothesis.

    Unit 2 - General Introduction to Metallurgy

    Ores and minerals - Sources from earth, living system and in sea -Purification of ores-Oxide ores sulphide ores magnetic and non magnetic ores -Metallurgical process - Roasting-oxidation - Smelting-reduction - Bessemerisation- Purification of metals-electrolytic and vapour phase refining - Mineral wealth ofIndia.

    Unit 3 - Atomic Structure - IBrief introduction of history of structure of atom - Defects of Rutherfords

    model and Niels Bohrs model of an atom - Sommerfelds extension of atomicstructure - Electronic configuration and quantum numbers - Orbitals-shapes of s,

    (v)

  • p and d orbitals. - Quantum designation of electron - Paulis exclusion principle- Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity - Aufbau principle - Stability of orbitals -Classification of elements based on electronic configuration.

    Unit 4 - Periodic Classification - IBrief history of periodic classification - IUPAC periodic table and IUPAC

    nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100 - Electronicconfiguration and periodic table - Periodicity of properties Anomalous periodicproperties of elements.

    Unit 5 - Group-1s Block elementsIsotopes of hydrogen - Nature and application - Ortho and para hydrogen

    - Heavy water - Hydrogen peroxide - Liquid hydrogen as a fuel - Alkali metals- General characteristics - Chemical properties - Basic nature of oxides andhydroxides - Extraction of lithium and sodium - Properties and uses.

    Unit 6 - Group - 2s - Block elementsGeneral characteristics - Magnesium - Compounds of alkaline earth metals.

    Unit 7 -p- Block elementsGeneral characteristics of p-block elements - Group-13. Boron Group -

    Important ores of Boron - Isolation of Born-Properties - Compounds of Boron-Borax, Boranes, diboranes, Borazole-preparation. properties - Uses of Boronand its compounds - Carbon group - Group -14 - Allotropes of carbon -Structural difference of graphite and diamond - General physical and chemicalproperties of oxides, carbides, halides and sulphides of carbon group - Nitrogen- Group-15 - Fixation of nitrogen - natural and industrial - HNO3-Ostwald process- Uses of nitrogen and its compounds - Oxygen - Group-16 - Importance ofmolecular oxygen-cell fuel - Difference between nascent oxygen and molecularoxygen - Oxides classification, acidic basic, amphoteric, neutral and peroxide -Ozone preparation, property and structure - Factors affecting ozone layer.

    (vi)

  • Physical ChemistryUnit 8 - Solid State - I

    Classification of solids-amorphous, crystalline - Unit cell - Miller indices -Types of lattices belo

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