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  • Chapter 9

    Operational Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operational intelligence is the link between strategic and tactical

    intelligence. Commanders use IEW support to anticipate the battle,understand the battlefield, and influence the outcome of operations.They also use it to support force protection. IEW enablescommanders to focus, leverage, and protect their combat power andresources. CSS commanders use IEW to identify the vulnerability ofCSS sites and operations to enemy action, in both forward and rearareas. They also use intelligence to anticipate friendly logisticsrequirements and to locate routes and sites for CSS operations. Likelogistics, operational IEW functions occur at theater level.


    The Army intelligence mission is to providetimely, concise, accurate, relevant, andsynchronized IEW support to tactical,operational, and strategic commanders acrossthe range of military operations. The theatersupport commander uses the intelligencebattlefield operating system (BOS) to supporthis intelligence requirements. The intelligenceBOS is seamless and includes all levels ofintelligence, from tactical to national. It is aflexible, tailorable, multiechelon, andmultidiscipline architecture of procedures,organizations, and equipment that responds tocommanders priorities and direction. Militaryintelligence personnel accomplish theirmission by performing six primary tasks:

    Providing indications of hostilitiesintelligence and warning.

    Performing IPB.Performing situation development.Supporting target development andtargeting.

    Performing BDA.Developing force protection intelligence.

    FORCE PROTECTIONThe commander also uses the intelligence

    BOS to support force protection. It is active andproactive, identifying, locating, and targetingan enemys ability to target and affect friendlyforces. With this intelligence, the commanderdecides which countermeasures he must use to

    MISSION shield his intentions, present false images tothe enemy commander, and protect his force.Force protection intelligence-

    Identifies and counters enemy intelligence-collection capabilities.

    Assesses friendly vulnerabilities from theenemys perspective.

    Identifies the enemys perception of friendlycenters of gravity and how he will attack orinfluence them.

    Identifies potential countermeasures todeny enemy access to friendly critical areas.

    Contributes to threat avoidance once therisk is identified.

    Enables the commander to plan for bothpassive and active OPSEC, deception, andother security measures.

    COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT IEW organizations provide the intelligence

    that is used to determine resourcerequirements in preparation for war andMOOTW. BDA is useful in identifying the needfor additional resources. The intelligence BOSsupports force protection from the factory tothe end user on the battlefield.

    COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CI counteracts foreign intelligence and

    terrorist threats to the friendly force. Itsspecialty is support to force protection. CIsupports force protection by conducting


  • Chapter 9

    REAR AREA OPERATIONSactivities categorized under the four functional IEW contributes to the rear battle byareas of investigations, operations, collection, assisting in identifying, analyzing, wargaming,and analysis and production. These activities and early warning of potential threats to theare conducted during peacetime and war. For friendly rear area and identifying terrain thatadditional information, see FM 34-60. supports friendly rear area operations.


    effort. He focuses the intelligence system by

    The tenets of Army military intelligenceand electronic warfare are:

    The commander drives the intelligence

    clearly designating his priority intelligencerequirements, targeting requirements, andpriorities. He ensures that the intelligenceBOS is fully employed and synchronized withhis maneuver and fire support BOSs. Hedemands that the intelligence BOS provide theintelligence that he needs, when he needs it,and in the form he needs. Intelligence must be synchronized withoperations. The CINC's intelligence staffsynchronizes intelligence collection, analysis,and dissemination with operations to ensurethe commander receives the intelligence heneeds, in the form he can use it, in time toinfluence the decision-making process.Intelligence synchronization is a continuousprocess that keeps IEW operations tied to thecommanders critical decisions and concept ofoperations.

    Intelligence must receive broadcast dissemination. Broadcast dissemination of

    near-real-time intelligence from collectors andprocessors at all echelons. It permits allcommanders at all echelons to simultaneouslyreceive the same intelligence, therebyproviding a common picture of the battlefield.It allows commanders to skip echelons and pullintelligence directly from the echelonbroadcasting it. The analysis and control

    elements (ACES) at brigade, division, corps,and theater form a seamless bridge linking thecommander with higher and lower echelons.They are the commanders primaryorganization for pulling information from thebroadcast system. The theater commandermust ask specific questions to focus hisintelligence team. Specific intelligencerequirements act as filters between thecommander pulling intelligence and the vastamount of information available. To efficientlyanswer the commanders questions, theoperational-level ACE element staff must knowspecifically where to pull the desiredinformation from in the broadcast system. Intelligence operations are split-based.Split-based intelligence opertions providedeploying tactical commanders with high-resolution intelligence until their organicintelligence-collection assets are employed andaugment their organic intelligence production.Split-based intelligence operations employcollection and analysis elements from allechelons, national to tactical, in sanctuariesfrom which they can operate against the target

    intelligence is the simultaneous broadcast of area. Intelligence must be tactically tailored. In

    force projection operations, the commander tactically tailors IEW support for eachcontingency based on the mission andavailability of resources. He must decide whichkey intelligence personnel and equipment todeploy early and when to phase in hisremaining MI assets.


    The operational-level IEW force structure that theater. All theater intelligence staffsis part of the total IEW architecture within perform the same basic IEW staff functionseach theater. The intelligence staff of each and tasks. Army IEW operators at thetheater is specifically tailored to the needs of operational level receive their directional


  • FM 100-16

    guidance from the theater commander. Eachmature theater has an operational IEWorganization under the command ofHeadquarters, USAINSCOM, and under theOPCON of the respective theater commanderduring peacetime. During conflict, they revertto the command of the theater commander.

    The deployable IEW organization at theoperational level is scalable. It can conductsplit-based operations in force projectionmissions by early deployment of the small,highly technical deployable intelligencesupport element (DISE). The DISE is a conduitfor theater- and national-level intelligence. Thesize and capabilities of the DISE can be

    changed with the scope of the supportedoperation. The operational-level IEWorganization serves as a C2 headquarters forsubordinate and attached MI elements. Theoperational-level ACE is the principalorganization for producing all-sourceintelligence. It controls, manages, tasks,processes, analyzes, synthesizes, anddisseminates intelligence. It supports OPSECand deception, sensor cueing, targetdevelopment, and situation development. TheACE coordinates with and providesconnectivity to US national, joint, andmultinational intelligence sources. FM 34-37addresses operational-level IEW operations.